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From the authors of Driven to Distraction--their bestselling study of Attention Deficit Disorder--here is a new book that answers the most frequently asked questions about ADD. The result is a "user's guide to the disorder presented in a question-and-answer format. Accessible, concise, and leavened with humor, Answers to Distraction is an indispensable volume for the estimated 15 million Americans with ADD, and for their families, friends, teachers, psychologists, and counselors.
Q: Can you tell me in brief what I need to know about ADD?
A: I can try. ADD is a neurological syndrome that is usually genetically transmitted. It is characterized by distractibility, impulsivity, and restlessness. In ADD these symptoms are present from childhood on, and with a much greater intensity than in the average person, so that they interfere with everyday functioning. Diagnosis is made primarily by reviewing one's history; there is no foolproof "test" for ADD. Great care must be taken to make an accurate diagnosis and to look for other problems that may occur along with ADD, such as low self-esteem, depression, substance abuse, or family turmoil.
Treatment includes education, structure, coaching, and medication. With treatment, the prognosis is usually good.
Both diagnosis and treatment should always be done under medical supervision. ADD is a tricky diagnosis and the treatment is not always simple. You should never diagnose or treat yourself.
Q: Are there any advantages to having ADD?
A: Yes. There are many.
To the extent that there is such a thing as the ADD personality--and I believe that there is--it has its pluses and its minuses. The pluses are not usually discussed much because books and articles about ADD naturally tend to focus on problems and solutions rather than advantages. But the advantages deserve prominent mention. They include:
• High energy
• Hardworking, never-say-die approach
• Trusting attitude (sometimes too much so)
• Forgiving attitude (sometimes too much so)
• Sensitivity (often can hurt as well as serve the person)
• Ability to take risks (again, a double-edged sword)
• Good sense of humor
Lest the skeptic think this sounds more like the Boy Scouts' oath than a legitimate list of traits, let me hasten to add that not all people with ADD have all these qualities, nor can I prove the scientific validity of the list itself. However, based upon my experience with thousands of individuals with ADD, and based upon my conversations with many other authorities in the field, this list of positive qualities does fairly describe the advantageous side of the ADD personality.
People with ADD do tend to be warm, creative, flexible, loyal, innovative, hardworking, and the rest of the qualities on that list. However, the problems their ADD causes can be so severe that these positive qualities never gain full expression or recognition. The negative qualities can be so toxic and self-defeating that the strengths are wasted.
Once the person gets proper treatment, the negative aspects of ADD recede, and the positive can flourish.
People with ADD remind me of the bumblebee. The bumblebee should not be able to fly. Its body is too big and its wings are too short. Scientists say it should not be able to fly. Aerodynamically, it should be impossible. The physicists agree--the design of the bumblebee is incompatible with flight. Its balance should be all off. So how does the bumblebee fly? We don't know. But it does fly. That much we do know.
Q: Is there a hallmark of ADD, a single core trait that defines it best?
A: In our opinion, yes there is. It is a relative lack of inhibition. People with ADD tend to be more spontaneous than the average person. They speak freely, at times too much so. They think freely, at times creatively, at other times chaotically. They act unpredictably: often even they do not know what they're going to do next. They do not inhibit their responses as stringently as most people do. They often lack the intermediate reflective step between impulse and action. This can be charming and innovative, or it can be annoying and disruptive, depending upon the impulse and the action.
People with ADD neither inhibit nor shape their responses as automatically as those who do not have ADD. This leads, directly or indirectly, to almost all of the other symptoms associated with ADD, including disruptive behavior, impulsivity, restlessness, uneven attention span, disorganization, tactlessness, irritability, impatience, and risk-taking behavior. It also leads to many of the positive qualities of ADD, such as creativity (because creativity depends upon some degree of disinhibition), spontaneity, high energy, and openness (people with ADD do not inhibit responses long enough to close down and become guarded). Most treatment aims to increase inhibition where needed, without imposing unwanted limits.
Q: What is the best definition of "attention deficit disorder"?
A: We do not know exactly what attention deficit disorder is. The most official definition is found in a volume entitled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association. The first edition of this manual was published in 1952. It has been updated several times since then. Its most recent incarnation, the fourth, was published in 1994. For short, it is called DSM-IV. Here is how DSM-IV defines ADD:
A. Either (1) or (2):
1. Six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
a. often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
b. often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
c. often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
d. often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)
e. often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
f. often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)
g. often loses things necessary for tasks or activities
h. is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
i. is often forgetful in daily activities
2. Six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity (a to f)-impulsivity (g to i) have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
a. often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
b. often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
c. often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)
d. often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
e. is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"
f. often talks excessively
g. often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
h. often has difficulty awaiting turn
i. often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
B. Some hyperactive-impulsive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age seven years.
C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school [or work] and at home).
D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
1 You Mean There's Actually a Name for It?: Toward a Definition of ADD 3
2 To Be Here, and There, and Everywhere: ADD in Children 18: Parents' Questions: Young Children's Questions: Adolescents' Questions
3 Making or Breaking the Spirit of the Child: Teachers and ADD 72
4 The Pleasures (and Pains) of Sudden Wonder: ADD in Adults 92
5 Work Smarter, Not Just Harder: ADD and Work 113
6 Perchance to Dream: ADD in Women 131
7 Making Up Tour Mind: New Tips on the Nonmedication Treatment of Adult ADD 141
8 You Are My Sunshine: ADD in Couples 148
9 Taming the Big Struggle: ADD and the Family 167
10 The Unfinished Symphony: ADD and Creativity 176
11 Fact or Fad?: The Diagnosis of ADD 186
12 The Brain's Behind It: The Biology of ADD 206
13 Whence It Came: The Genetic Basis of ADD 227
14 What's in a Pill?: Treating ADD with Medication 231
15 A Wretched Excess: ADD and Addiction 260
16 The Gemlike Flame: Aggression and Anger in ADD 268
17 The Doctors' Dilemmas: Questions from Health Professionals on the Treatment of ADD 285
18 New Questions and Answers Edward M. Hallowell John J. Ratey 293
I Fifty Tips on the Management of Adult ADD 317
II Twenty-Five Tips on the Management of ADD in Families 326
III Twenty-Five Tips on the Management of ADD in Couples 332
IV Where To Go for Help 337
Posted July 29, 2004
This book is an easy to read educational tool for those wanting to learn more about ADD. The Q&A format is very helpful. I have bought my third copy, as I keep giving mine to friends.
3 out of 4 people found this review helpful.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted March 27, 2010
Very informative. Written to be informative, but your don't need to be a PhD to understand what the author is saying. He offers some common sense solutions which is refreshing. Author is well known authority in this area. I read it to understand AD+D and ADHD
2 out of 2 people found this review helpful.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted June 28, 2012
Though, I am about halfway through the book I still find it necessary to write a review. As my relationship with my boyfriend with ADHD ended, I wondered how much of my frustration was linked to the ADHD. Previously I had researched a little on the internet, but it was not adequate. This book has made me realize, it wasn't my ex-boyfriend that I had issues with it was the ADHD. In turn while reading the book, I have felt at times sadness but also exhileration while learning that this book was decoding the lanquage of ADHD. We are both currently reading it now (seperately) and then we will meet up to discuss. This is our first step in a potential reconciliation.
In our case, Ignorance was not bliss. Please read it. M
1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted January 11, 2013
I really needed this book. While not quite as helpful as Crazy Busy, Delivered from Distraction, and Driven to Distraction, I still found this book extremely helpful in understanding my chaotic, distractible states that I find myself in. I am not sure it's really ADHD, although I do have the diagnosis. I do know that this book (and all of Dr. Hallowell's books) are very, very helpful. This book is more in the form of questions and answers and is narrated by Dr. Ratey.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted November 27, 2008
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Posted February 15, 2009
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Posted February 2, 2010
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Posted January 14, 2010
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