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AP LATIN: VERGIL AND LITERATURE with TESTware
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* The book's full subject review features both the Vergil and Literature AP Latin exams
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Excelling on the AP Latin Exam
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REA gives you all the tools you’ll need to master the Advanced Placement Examinations in Latin for both Literature and Vergil, to wit:
¦ Unrivaled exam-centered review in a context that will sharpen classroom discussion and help you get more out of your textbook.
¦ Tips and strategies to bolster your test-readiness.
¦ A systematic, AP curriculum-based approach to mastering grammar and syntax.
¦ Four full-length, true-to-format practice exams—two that emulate the AP Latin Literature Exam, two modeled after the AP Latin: Vergil Exam—that will prepare you for the actual AP exam like no other book.
¦ Full explanations of every practice-exam answer.
¦ Comprehensive index that speeds specific referencing.
In preparing this book, REA has thoroughly aligned our thinking with that of the AP Latin Development Committee. In fact, we expect that many AP instructors will want to use this book to supplement their classroom text and lectures precisely because it so comprehensively supports specific curriculum objectives for the AP course and exam.
ABOUT REA’s TESTware®
One practice test for both the AP Latin: Vergil and the AP Latin Literature is included in two formats: in printed format in this book, and in TESTware® format on the enclosed CD. We strongly recommend that you begin your preparation with the TESTware® practice exams. The software provides the added benefits of automatic, accurate scoring and enforced time conditions. The content and format of the actual AP Latin exams are faithfully mirrored.
INSTALLING REA’s TESTware®
Pentium 75 MHz (300 MHz recommended) or a higher or compatible processor; Microsoft Windows 98 or later; 64 MB available RAM; Internet Explorer 5.5 or higher
1. Insert the AP Latin TESTware® CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive.
2. If the installation doesn’t begin automatically, from the Start Menu choose the RUN command. When the RUN dialog box appears, type d:\setup (where d is the letter of your CD-ROM drive) at the prompt and click OK.
3. The installation process will begin. A dialog box proposing the directory
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4. Start the AP Latin TESTware® application by double-clicking on the icon. REA’s AP Latin TESTware® is EASY to LEARN AND USE. To achieve maximum benefits, we recommend that you take a few minutes to go through the on-screen tutorial on your computer.
SSD ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
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General Content and Format of the AP Latin Exam
Content of the AP Latin Exam
For at least the past four years (20022005), the number of students taking the AP Latin Exam has increased and now averages well over 7,000 per year.1 Whether or not this statistic indicates that more students are studying Latin, it does indicate that more students are studying Latin at the college level while in high school. AP Latin Exams test the proficiency of high school Latin students when compared to college students who have taken a fourth- to sixth-semester Latin course. (Traditionally, one semester of college study has been approximately equivalent to one year of high school study.) If you are reading this book, it is likely that you are among the high-achieving students who either want to demonstrate their facility with the Latin language at the end of their study or who intend to continue studying Latin in college. The focus of this book is to help you to prepare for the AP Latin Exam: to assess and expand not only your general skills of comprehending, translating, and analyzing Latin, but also to help you to understand and appreciate the importance of the ability to write coherently and persuasively in English.
Since 1994, there have been two different AP Latin exams available, one that evaluates your knowledge of Vergil’s Aeneid and the other, Latin Literature, that assesses your preparation of one of three combinations of authors. Each of the latter exams includes the poems of Catullus, i.e., Catullus-Cicero, Catullus-Horace, and Catullus-Ovid. Both the AP Vergil and the AP Latin Literature exams may be taken in the same year; however, special arrangements need to be made
with your school to schedule the second exam.2 The specific content and format of both the Vergil and Latin Literature Exams are described in greater detail in succeeding chapters of this book. The scoring of the exam is explained at the end.
Format of the AP Latin Exam
The AP Latin Exam, the format of which was changed in 1999, now consists of two parts: a multiple-choice section (40 percent) and a free-response section (60percent). The multiple-choice section, which is administered fi rst, consists of 50 multiple-choice questions over three sight passages of prose and poetry and one syllabus-based passage, that is, one passage from the lines or poems that you have prepared in Latin. The sight readings of the multiple-choice section are common to the two exams, and the syllabus-based passage comes from either Vergil or Catullus, as appropriate. You have 60 minutes for this part. The free-response section consists of five questions for Vergil and six for Latin Literature, the latter consisting of three on Catullus and three on the choice author Cicero, Horace, or Ovid. These questions, which consist of translations, long and short essays, and discussions of background or short identifications, evaluate your preparation of the assigned syllabus. Those portions of the Aeneid and of Cicero’s De Amicitia not prepared in Latin must be read in English. You are given one hour and 45 minutes for the free-response section, plus a 15-minute “reading period,” during which you may organize your thinking and plan your answers. The total time for the AP Latin Exam is three hours, plus about one-half hour of administrative and break time. Be aware that, periodically, changes are made to the content or format of the AP Latin Exam. For instance, in the Cicero syllabus the Pro Caelio has been replaced for the 2007 exam with the Pro Archia Poeta and selections from the De Amicitia (for specific information, see Chapter 3). Every five years
or so, the entire AP Latin Exam, both Vergil and Latin Literature, is released and published for reference by students and teachers.
Terms Used in AP Latin
Acorn Book: see syllabus.
background question: the fi nal question on the free-response section of the Vergil Exam. This question tests knowledge of those portions of the Aeneid read in English. It requires 20 minutes and counts 15 percent of your free-response score.
choice author: Cicero, Horace, or Ovid. These authors supplement Catullus, which is required for all three Latin Literature Exams.
chunk: see segment.
The Classical Outlook: the official journal of the American Classical League, published quarterly. Contact The Classical Outlook, Department of Classics, Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043 (ISSN: 00098361), e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, or go to http://www.aclclassics.org. Annual reports on the AP Latin Exam, prepared by the Chief Reader, appear in this journal, usually in the fall and winter. There are usually separate reports for each Exam.
free response: the larger part of the AP Latin Exam in time (1 hour, 45 minutes) and weight (60 percent), the free-response consists of five or six questions that call for you to translate, compose essays in English, and demonstrate your knowledge of the Aeneid in its entirety or answer short
questions on a passage of Latin (choice authors only).
gloss: annotations at the foot of a Latin text, in either the multiple choice or free-response sections. Glosses occur rarely, but when they do, they provide assistance with a particularly difficult or uncommon word or form, especially the names of unfamiliar people and places. Glosses no longer include variations in the spelling of the Latin.
item: College Board terminology for an AP Exam question. The word “question” will be used in this book.
“literal”: the rendering of Latin in English with attention to the precise and accurate expression of all vocabulary and forms.
long essay: a (30 or 45-minute) written discussion and analysis of a given passage or passages of Latin on the free-response section. Long essays are required for Vergil and Catullus only. The suggested time for the long essay for Vergil, which is worth 35 percent of your score on the free-response section, is 45 minutes. The suggested time for the long essay on Catullus is 30 minutes, and this long essay counts 20 percent, the same as the other short essays on the Latin Literature Exam. See also short essay.
multiple choice: the smaller part of the AP Latin Exam in time (one hour) and weight (40 percent). There are 50 questions on three sight passages, each 1015 lines long, from Latin poets and at least one prose author. One additional passage comes from the prepared syllabus of either
Vergil or Catullus, depending upon the exam selected. Each multiple choice question consists of four answers, one of which is correct.
prompt: a term used mostly by those who produce or grade the exam. It refers to the essential question being asked within the wording of an essay question on the free-response section.
Reader: a volunteer high school or college teacher who grades the AP Latin Exam in mid-June. Readers are organized into groups, each of which is guided by a Table Leader, or more experienced grader. Readers spend their grading time evaluating one specific question on the exam. Questions are frequently re-graded at random to ensure consistency.
reading period: the 15-minute preface to actually writing answers in
the pink answer booklet. This time is provided to encourage you to think through and organize your answers before actually writing. You may make notes anywhere on your green test sheets.
released exams: every five years or so, the entire AP Latin Vergil and AP Latin Literature Exams are published by the College Board for use by students and teachers.
scoring guidelines: these are the rubrics, or criteria, used by the Readers in scoring your exam. They are published by the Chief Reader sometime after the exams have been graded and include sample student responses, along with their scores. You might find these guidelines useful in determining how the exams are graded and therefore how you might improve your preparation. In addition to finding information about the scoring of the AP Latin Exam in this book, you may consult the College Board Web pages for AP Latin or the annual reports published by the Chief Reader in The Classical Outlook (for which, see above).
segment: a small combination of syntactically related words, used in determining units of sense within a Latin sentence. Segments are used as the criteria in evaluating a literal translation. For examples other than those provided in this book, see the Scoring Guidelines online or the appropriate articles in The Classical Outlook.
short essay: all short essays consist of a suggested time of 20 minutes, although the point-value of these questions varies from 15 percent to 20 percent (see Chapter 7 for details). The length of your writing, i.e., the number of pages it takes you to answer the question, is of little consequence. The difference between short and long essays, in addition to the suggested time and point value, concerns the length of the passage under consideration and the corresponding expectation of increased breadth and depth in your analysis on the long essay. See also long essay.
sight reading: a passage that has not been previously seen, i.e., unfamiliar, unprepared.
spot question: another name for the short-answer or identification question for choice authors on the free-response section.
“suggested time”: the College Board provides a “suggested time” for each free-response question, in order to help you to plan your time. It is assumed that you have practiced taking timed tests during your preparation for the AP Latin Exam and that you have some idea about how you perform under the pressure of time. The simplest advice for you to remember is that you should not use substantially more or less time than that suggested. You are not penalized if you do not stay within the suggested time.
syllabus-based: this phrase refers to the passages from the Latin syllabi of Vergil or Catullus (as appropriate) given in the multiple-choice section of the exam.
syllabus: refers to an outline or summary of the Latin reading required for the AP Latin Exam. This is published semi-annually by the College Board in the AP Latin Course Description or so-called Acorn Book (the acorn is the logo of the College Board).
“. . . throughout the passage/s or poem/s”: this phrase appears in the instructions for the essay questions on the free-response section of the exam. It is designed to remind you to consider the poem as a whole in your answer and to draw support for your discussion from the entirety of the
Latin text. Failure to do this is a common shortcoming and often leads to a reduced score on the question.
“well-developed”: this phrase is found in the directions for the long essay. A well-developed essay is not necessarily a long essay. A well-developed essay includes organization, coherence, completeness, and sound analysis, which makes liberal use of specific and relevant references to the entire Latin text. When references are made to figures of speech, attention should be paid to how the figure affects the meaning of the Latin.
Latest edition of the AP Latin Course Description (published annually or biennially, last published for the 2006 and 2007 exams) (Item # 727247)
2005 AP Latin Literature and Latin: Vergil Released Exams, complete multiple-choice and free-response sections of both the Vergil and Literature exams (Item #05008172)
1999 AP Latin Literature and Latin: Vergil Released Exams (Item #255180)
1994 AP Latin Free-Response Guide with Multiple-Choice Section (Item #255154)
Teacher’s Guide (for AP Latin), by Jeff S. Greenberger, n.d. (Item #989390)
Relevant issues of The Classical Outlook (The Journal of the American Classical League).
Each year in The Classical Outlook (CO), an analytical report on each of the two AP Latin Exams is given by the Chief Reader. This report provides valuable feedback on how the expectations of the teachers who designed the exams were met by the students who took the exams. This report, which also includes scoring guidelines, and sample student and Reader
responses, is especially useful because it provides insight into the grading of literal translations required on the free-response sections. See, for example, John Sarkissian, “The Grading of the 2005 Advanced Placement Examinations in Latin: Vergil,” CO, Fall 2005, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 112.
The materials listed above are available from the CBO (College Board Online) website http://apcentral.collegeboard.com (click on “The Exams,” then “Exam Questions Index” then “Latin Literature” or “Latin: Vergil”). Additional resources are available from College Board Publications
PO Box 869010
Plano, TX 75074
Webliography of Online Sites Useful for Exam Preparation
The Official College Board AP Latin website: http://apcentral.collegeboard.
For the AP Latin: Vergil Course Home Page, go to http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/latinvergil
For the AP Latin Literature Course Home Page, go to http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/latinlit
Within these Web pages, you may download the AP Latin Course Description “Acorn Book” and gain access to specific course and exam information, e.g., sample teacher-made multiple-choice questions. These pages provide much information about the exams, including the complete free-response sections for 20012006 and the scoring rubrics for each, plus sample student and Reader responses.
An Unofficial Website for AP Latin (Ginny Lindzey and the Texas Classical Association) http://txclassics.org/aplatin.htm
“Useful Internet Links for AP Latin” (Barbara McManus and Marianthe Colakis, VRoma = Virtual Rome, Miami University, Oxford, OH) http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/aplinks.html
Online Latin Texts of all AP Latin Authors
For additional electronic resources, see Chapters 2 and 3.
Bibliotheca Augustana (Ulrich Harsch, Augsburg University, Germany) http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lsante01/Vergilius/ver_intr.html
Unannotated texts, plus additional resources in Latin.
The Latin Library at Ad Fontes Academy http://thelatinlibrary.com
The Perseus Digital Library (click on Classics, then scroll down to “P.Vergilius Maro”)
Latin hypertexts and online parsers.
About Our Author
About Research & Education Association
A Note from the Author
Installing REA’s TESTware®
Part I: The AP Latin Course and Exam
Chapter 1: General Content and Format of the AP Latin Exam
Chapter 2: Content and Format: Vergil
Chapter 3: Content and Format: Latin Literature
Chapter 4: The Multiple-Choice Section
Chapter 5: The Free-Response Section
Chapter 6: Translation
Chapter 7: The Long and Short Essays
Chapter 8: The Background and Spot Questions
Chapter 9: Outlines and Summaries
Chapter 10: Figures of Speech
Chapter 11: Meter and Scansion
Part II: Taking and Scoring the AP Latin Exam
Chapter 12: Taking and Scoring the AP Latin Exam
Part III: Review of Grammar and Syntax
Chapter 13: Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs
Chapter 13A: Nouns
Chapter 13B: Pronouns
Chapter 13C: Adjectives and Adverbs
Chapter 14: The Indicative Mood of Verbs
Chapter 14A: Indicative Verbs, Active and Passive
Chapter 14B: Deponent Verbs
Chapter 14C: Review of Irregular Verbs
Chapter 14D: Review of Impersonal Verbs
Chapter 15: The Imperative Mood of Verbs
Chapter 16: Advanced Grammar
Chapter 16A: Participles and the Ablative Absolute
Chapter 16B: The Gerund, Gerundive, and Supine
Chapter 16C: Infinitives and Indirect Statement
Chapter 16D: The Subjunctive Mood of Verbs
Section 1: Forms of the Subjunctive
Section 2: The Subjunctive Used Independently
Section 3: Conditional Sentences
Section 4: Subordinate Clauses with Ut
Section 5: Subordinate Clauses with Q-Words
Section 6: Subordinate Clauses with Cum
Chapter 16E: Latin Sentence Structure
Practice Exams: Vergil
Practice Exam 1
Detailed Explanations of Answers
Practice Exam 2
Detailed Explanations of Answers
Practice Exams: Latin Literature
Practice Exam 1
Detailed Explanations of Answers
Practice Exam 2
Detailed Explanations of Answers
Appendix I: Guide to Electronic Resources
Appendix II: Latin Passages Used in This Book
Appendix III: Latin Passages Appearing on AP Latin Exams, 2001-2006