Apache Administrator's Handbook


The Apache Web server runs more than 55 percent of the sites on the Internet, making it the number one Web server, and more widely used than all other Web server combined. Apache 2.0 is the first majore release of Apache since its inception, and represents a complete change in Apache architecture--one requiring that administrators and developers learn new procedures and techniques for configuring and maintaining the Apache server.

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The Apache Web server runs more than 55 percent of the sites on the Internet, making it the number one Web server, and more widely used than all other Web server combined. Apache 2.0 is the first majore release of Apache since its inception, and represents a complete change in Apache architecture--one requiring that administrators and developers learn new procedures and techniques for configuring and maintaining the Apache server.

Apache Administrator's Handbook is a practical hands-on guide to the installation, configuration, and administration of the Apache Web server. It will show you how to build and configure Apache with the features and modules you need, how to seucre the server, how to interpret log files, and how to tune the server's performance. While aimed primarily at Apache server administrators, the book also contains information for developers interested in building dynamic Web sites on top of the Apache server using either CGI or mod_perl.

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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
Most web sites run on Apache servers, so the recent release of Apache 2.0 means that administrators need to brush up on their skills. While this book aims to serve both upgraders and newbies, it will best help those with some previous background. Administrators will appreciate explanations and comparisons that show not only how to configure and manage the server but also the reasons to take certain paths for security, compatibility, or ease of use. Recommended for larger public and academic libraries. Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780672322747
  • Publisher: Sams
  • Publication date: 3/12/2002
  • Series: Developer's Library
  • Pages: 422
  • Sales rank: 1,151,368
  • Product dimensions: 7.16 (w) x 8.89 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Rich Bowen has been running Apache since the initial public release, and was running NCSA HTTPd before that. Rich has been contributing to the Apache documentation project for about two years, and has written a number of tutorials for the Apache docs. You can see the Apache documentation, which is the result of the efforts of a large group of documentation writers.

Rich is the CTO of Cooper McGregor, Inc, in Wilmore, Kentucky. Cooper McGregor specializes in Apache training and services, offering training courses on the Apache Server, Web application development in mod_perl and CGI, and a variety of consulting and support services for Apache and related technologies, including technical support for the Apache Server itself. Cooper McGregor can be found on the Web.

Rich is a founding member, and Education Director, of the Lexington Professional Linux Users Group, a professional organization dedicated to the promotion of Open Source technology, and Linux in particular, in the Lexington area.

Rich has spoken about Apache at a variety of conferences, including ApacheCon, Comdex, and the O'Reilly Open Source Software Convention.

Allan Liska is a senior network engineer with WorldCom's hosting division. He has more than five years experience in the hosting industry, and is actively involved in the Apache Documentation Project. He likes spending his spare time with his wife, Roseanne, and collecting autographs from technology luminaries.

Daniel Lotilde pez Ridruejo is a senior developer with Covalent Technologies, Inc., which provides Apache software, support, and services for the enterprise. He is the author of several popularApache and Linux guides and of Comanche, a GUI configuration tool for Apache. Daniel is a regular speaker at open source conferences such as LinuxWorld, ApacheCon, and O'Reilly OSCON. He holds an Ms. Sc. in communications engineering from the University of Seville and Denmark Technical University. Daniel is a member of the Apache Group.

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Summary.)


What Is Apache? Why Use Apache? Who Else Is Using Apache? Who Is This Book For? What's with the Quotes? Conventions Used in This Book. Errata, Updates, and More Information.


1. Getting Started.

Choosing a Web Server. Hardware and Software Requirements. Connectivity. Should I Host Somewhere Else, or Do It Myself? Questions To Ask Your ISP. FTP, Telnet, SCP, SSH: Getting Content To Your Site.

2. Acquiring and Installing Your Apache Server.

Overview for the Impatient. Where Do I Get It? Unpacking the Source. The Source Tree. Installing Binary Distributions. configure. make && make install.

3. Starting, Stopping, and Restarting.

apachectl. httpd. Starting on System Startup. Microsoft Windows.

4. Configuration Directives.

Configuration Files. Configuration File Syntax. Specifying a Different Configuration File. Testing Your Configuration. Options: Turning on Features.

5. Configuration Utilities.

GUIs and Configuration Files. Webmin. Comanche.

6. .htaccess files-Per-Directory Configuration.

AccessFileName. AllowOverride. Caveats and Limitations.

7. Virtual Hosts.

IP-Based Virtual Hosts. Name-Based Virtual Hosts. Port-Based Virtual Hosts. Bulk Virtual Hosting. Running Multiple Daemons.


8. MIME and File Types.

MIME and HTTP. MIME Types Configuration Directives. Encoding. Character Sets and Languages. Files with Multiple Extensions. Handlers.

9. URL Mapping.

Location. Alias. ScriptAlias. AliasMatch and ScriptAliasMatch. Redirect. DocumentRoot. Error Documents. URL Rewriting.

10. Content Negotiation.

Client Preference. Negotiation Methods. Noncompliant Browsers. Caching.

11. Directory Indexing.

DirectoryIndex. Options +Indexes. IndexOptions-“Fancy” Indexing. AddDescription. Headers and Footers. Ignoring Files. Searching and Sorting. Examples. Indexing Security Concerns.

12. Apache on Microsoft Windows.

Requirements. Downloading. Installation. Modules. Differences Between Apache on Windows and Unix.

13. Performance Tuning.

Optimize the Right Thing. Hardware Requirements. Apache Configuration. Caching and Proxying.


14. Handlers and Filters.

Handlers. Custom Handlers. Filters.

15. CGI Programs.

Apache Configuration. The Anatomy of a CGI Program. Input. Output. Example Programs. Troubleshooting Common Problems. Limitations of CGI.

16. Server-Side Includes.

Configuration for SSI. Using SSI Directives. Variables and Flow Control with SSI. Security Considerations.

17. mod_perl.

What Is mod_perl? Installation. Configuration. CGI Under mod_perl. Apache Handlers with mod_perl. Common Problems. mod_perl on Windows. Where To Get More Information.

18. PHP.

What Is PHP? PHP Advantages and Disadvantages. Downloading and Installing PHP. PHP Extensions. PHP Configuration. Resources.


19. Apache Security.

Developing a Security Strategy. Understanding *nix File Permissions. Limit Modules. Cautious Server-Side Includes Usage. Cautious .htaccess Usage. Using a Staging Server. Special Issues for Virtual Hosts. Special Issues for Windows and Apache.

20. Security in Dynamic Content.

Understanding Security Risks in Dynamic Content. Compiled Versus Parsed Dynamic Content. Writing Safer Dynamic Content. Wrappers. Checking Code in Existing Scripts. Special Issues with Windows CGI.

21. Authentication, Authorization, and Access Control.

Basic Authentication. Digest Authentication. Database Authentication Modules. Access Control.

22. SSL.

Cryptography. Introduction to SSL. Installing SSL. Certificates. SSL Configuration. Further Reading.

23. Web Spiders.

What Are Spiders? Spiders: The Good and the Bad. Recognizing Spiders in Your Log Files. Excluding Spiders from Your Server. Robot Exclusion with robots.txt. Writing Your Own Spider.

24. Logging.

access_log. Error Logs. Log File Analysis. Logging to a Process. Rotating Your Log Files. Logging for Multiple Virtual Hosts.


25. Introduction to Apache Modules.

The Apache API. Installing Modules.

26. Modules Included with Apache.

The Modules. Installing or Omitting a Standard Module. Apache 2.0.

27. Special-Purpose Apache Modules.

Finding Apache Modules. Examples of Modules.


Appendix A. The Apache Software License.

Appendix B. Configure Command-Line Options.

Appendix C. Regular Expressions.

Appendix D. mod_perl Example Code.

mod_perl Form Handler Code.

Appendix E. Apache History.

Before the Beginning. In the Beginning. Who's Responsible? What's Happened Recently. Why It Works So Well.

Appendix F. Where to Get More Information.

Web Resources. Usenet. Mailing Lists. Print.


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