Application Of Differential Thermal Analysis In Cement Chemistry

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Overview

Preface ix -
Acknowledgments xiii -
Abbreviations xv -
I. Differential Thermal Analysis Technique -
II. Theory and Typical Applications 28 -
II.l Theoretical Considerations 28 -
II.2 Typical Applications 34 -
III. Formation of Portland Cement Clinker and Polymorphism of C3S and C2S 54 -
III.1 Formation of Portland Cement Clinker 54 -
111.2 Polymorphism of C3S 71 -
III.3 Polymorphism of C2S 75 -
IV. Hydration of Portland Cement 81 -
IV.l Systems Containing CaO, AI20 a, Si02, and H20 at Ordinary Temperatures 81 -
IV.2 Hydration of Portland Cement 88
V. Hydration of Individual Phases in Portland Cement 111 -
V.l Hydration of C3A 111 -
V.2 Hydration of C3S and B-C2S 127 -
V.3 Hydration of the Ferrite Phase 135 -
VI. Hydration of C3A in Presence of Salts 139 -
VI.1 Hydration of C3A in Presence of Gypsum 139 -
VI.2 Hydration of C3A in Presence of Lignosulfonate 155 -
VI. 3 Hydration of C3A in Presence of Calcium Chloride 159 -
VI.4 Hydration of C3A in Presence of Calcium Carbonate 160 -
VII. Autoclaved Cementitious Products 165 -
VIII. Non-Portland Cements Based on Silicates and Aluminates 196 -
VIII.1 Slags and Slag Cements 196 -
VIII.2 High Alumina Cement 206 -
VIII.3 Pozzolanas and Pozzolanic Cements 213 -
VIII.4 Oil Well Cement 222 -
VIII.5 Hydraulic Lime 223 -
VIlI.6 Expanding Cement 227 -
VIII.7 Acid-Proof Cement 230 -
IX. Other Non-Portland Cements 231 -
IX.l Magnesium Oxychloride and Oxysulfate Cement 231 -
IX.2 Gypsum Plaster 251 -
IX.3 Sand-Lime Mortar 271 -
IX.4 Phosphate Cement 275 -
X. Aggregates 276 -
Subject Index 297 -
Author Index 303 -
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780820600246
  • Publisher: Chemical Publishing
  • Publication date: 2/8/1969
  • Pages: 328
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.88 (d)

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Many of the physicochemical phenomena associated with the formation and behaviour of cementitious compounds are so complex that they have defied unequivocal interpretation. Application of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy, and infrared analysis has helped unravel many complicated problems, but it has also created new ones. By and large each technique has enabled afresh approach to many intricate problems and has helped in narrowing down the gap in the existing knowledge. Compared with many other techniques Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) is simpler, more easily adaptable, and yields quicker and sometimes very important results and hence has attracted great attention

in recent years. The DTA technique has been widely applied in clay mineralogy and only since a decade and a half has it been adopted as an important tool in cement chemistry. Within this period it has attained so much recognition, as evidenced by' the phenomenal growth of publications, that it is difficult to conceive of a cement laboratory without the facilities of a DTA apparatus.

The results pertaining to the application of DTA to cementitious materials are widely scattered and hence the Director, Division of Building Research, National Research Council of Canada, assigned me the task of preparing a comprehensive and critical paper on the subject-which I presented at the 42nd meeting of the Highway Research Board held in 1964 in Washington. The reaction of cement chemists during and subsequent to the meeting was so encouraging that the Chemical Publishing Co., New York, felt the need of a book incorporating the existing knowledge on the application of DTA to cementitious materials. It is needless to say that a sound knowledge of the DTA technique and of cement chemistry is essential for a correct interpretation of differential thermograms. Hence necessity was felt for the inclusion of (i) the treatment of the DTA technique and its applicability, (ii) chemistry of cementitious materials, and (iii) the application of DTA to inorganic cements. The book treats the essentials of the first two and lays emphasis on the third. The book, as the title suggests, is intended primarily for those engaged in research on cement chemistry and other allied fields. However, ideas

developed in the use of DTA to cement chemistry problems could be profitably applied to any other branch of study.

No attempt has been made to provide an exhaustive bibliography, but the list of references given at the end of each chapter or sub-chapter should serve as a reasonably good guide for further reading on the topics covered. I would like to express my gratitude to Prof. Dinesh Mohan, Director, Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, for his constant encouragement and permission to write the book. I acknowledge my thankfulness to Dr. T.L. Webb, Director, South African National Building Research Institute, for his valuable comments on the book. Mr. P.L.De was kind enough to translate some of the important German publications of relevance to this book, which I gratefully acknowledge. Thanks are also due to Mr. P.S. Shankar, Scientist, Publication Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, for checking the manuscript, and to Mr. Krishan Lal for his accurate typing of the manuscript in the final form. To my wife Vasundhara, who devotedly undertook the task of typing the draft, assisting me in reading the proof, and preparation of indexes, l owe my especial thanks. I am grateful to authors, publishers of journals, and organizations who permitted me to reproduce figures and tables from their publications.

August 1967 v. S. Ramachandran

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