Application of Muscle/Nerve Stimulation in Health and Disease / Edition 1

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More About This Textbook


The book provides essential information for Colleges and Training Centres who offer physiotherapy, beauty therapy and sports science courses as it explains both the scientific principles and the practical applications of electrotherapy.

It also offers valuable information for all those interested in keeping fit with electrical stimulation, in an increasingly sedentary society where active exercise is difficult to maintain at adequate levels or when an injury or illness prevents active exercise. Electrical stimulation is an invaluable method of achieving better recovery of function after disabilities due to malfunction of the neuromuscular system, such as neurological disorders, stroke, spinal cord injury, and muscle diseases.

Electrical stimulation is now well established as an effective and user-friendly tool for toning, strengthening and firming muscles. Health and beauty centres use electrical stimulation for body and face shaping and contouring, sports professionals use it for muscle training and recovery.

However, there is still some unease both in the scientific community and the general public regarding electrical stimulation. This book explains exactly how electrical stimulation activates and transforms muscle, how it works on the cardiovascular system compared to active exercise and how it can be used both for healthy individuals and those needing stimulation for rehabilitation and recovery. It includes a comprehensive user’s guide for the practical application of electrotherapy.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781402082320
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 6/27/2008
  • Series: Advances in Muscle Research Series, #4
  • Edition description: 2008
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 118
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 0.38 (d)

Table of Contents

Plasticity of the Mammalian Motor Unit     1
The Mammalian Motor Unit     2
Introduction     2
The Motoneurone     2
The Axon     4
The Neuromuscular Junction     4
Skeletal Muscle Fibres and Muscle Contraction     6
Muscle Function     9
The Use of Muscles During Movement     10
Regulation of Force Production     10
Differences Between Mammalian Muscles     11
Muscle Fibre Types     11
Activity Determines Muscle Proprties     13
Matching Properties of Muscles to Their Activity     13
Changing Muscle Properties by Altering Their Innervation     15
Changing Muscle Properties by Altering Their Activity     15
Studies on Denervated Muscles     19
Results on Human Muscles     20
Comparison of Electrical Stimulation to Exercise     21
References     22
Cardiovascular System: Changes with Exercise Training and Muscle Stimulation     23
Function of the Cardiovascular System in the Normal Adult     23
Heart and Peripheral Circulation     23
Vascular Supply and Microcirculation in Skeletal Muscles     27
Exercise and ElectricalStimulation Can Change Muscle Metabolism, Performance, Capillary Supply and Blood Flow     28
Changes in the Cardiovascular System During Acute Exercise     28
The Effect of Endurance Training     32
Changes in the Circulation in Skeletal Muscles Induced by Electrical Stimulation     34
Changes in the Cardiovascular System in Disease     37
Aging     37
Hypertension     39
Heart Failure     40
Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD)     42
Effects of Exercise and Electrical Stimulation on Peripheral Vascular Diseases     43
Stroke     44
Oedema     46
Muscle Inactivity and its Consequences     46
Decreased Muscle Activity     46
Denervation (Disruption of the Nerves)     47
Diseases of Muscle     47
Spinal Cord Injuries     48
Wound Healing     49
Conclusions: Comparison Between the Effects of Training and Electrical Stimulation in Disease     50
References     51
Electrical Stimulation as a Therapoeutic Tool to Restore Motor Function     55
Introduction     55
Muscle Stimulation to Aid Recovery After Injuries to Joints and Muscles     56
Muscle Stimulation During Disease or Injury to the CNS and/or Muscle     57
Neurological Disorders     57
Spinal Cord Injury     58
Denervated Muscles     60
Stroke and Head Injuries     60
Electrical Stimulation to Achieve Artificial Respiration and Control of the Urinary Bladder     61
Neuromuscular Diseases     61
Bed Rest     62
Facial Rehabilitation     64
References     65
Electrical Stimulation for Health, Beauty, Fitness, Sports Training and Rehabilitation: A Users Guide     69
The Use of Electrical Stimulation     69
Electrical Stimulation Devices     69
Exercise and Dieting     70
Concentrating the Benefits     70
Stimulation Parameters     71
Basic Terminology     72
Applying Electrical Stimulation to the Body     73
Mapping the Motor Points of Human Skeletal Muscles     73
Protocols and Electrode Pad Placements     75
Stimulation Parameters     75
Usage     78
Electrode Pads     79
Index of Pad Placements     79
Body Shaping and Toning     80
Abdominal Stimulation     80
Buttocks and Hips Stimulation      81
Thigh Stimulation     82
Bust/Pectorals Stimulation     84
Arms Stimulation     85
Calves/Ankles Stimulation     86
Posture     88
Facial Stimulation     89
Sports Training     91
Abdominal Stimulation     91
Quadriceps Stimulation     92
Gluteus and Hamstrings Stimulation     93
Pectorals, Biceps and Triceps Stimulation     95
Gastrocnemius Stimulation     96
Whole Body Stimulation     97
Increasing Range of Motion     98
TENS - Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation     102
High TENS - Gate TENS     103
Low TENS - Endorphin TENS     103
Repair, Recovery and Rehabilitation     104
RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury     111
References     114
Index     117
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