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Part 2 Oceanography
Exercise 9: Introduction to Oceanography
Exercise 10: The Dynamic Ocean Floor
Exercise 11: Waves, Currents, and Tides
Part 3 Meteorology
Exercise 12: Earth–Sun Relationships
Exercise 13: Heating the Atmosphere
Exercise 14: Atmospheric Moisture, Pressure, and Wind
Exercise 15: Air Masses, the Middle-Latitude Cyclone, and Weather Maps
Exercise 16: Global Climates
Part 4 Astronomy
Exercise 17: Astronomical Observations
Exercise 18: Patterns in the Solar System
Exercise 19: Locating the Planets
Exercise 20: Examining the Terrestrial Planets
Exercise 21: The Moon and the Sun
Part 5 Earth Science Skills
Exercise 22: Location and Distance on Earth
Exercise 23: The Metric System, Measurements, and Scientific Inquiry
Earth is a very small part of a vast universe, but it is our home. It provides the resources to carry on a modern society and the ingredients necessary to support life. Therefore, a knowledge and understanding of our planet is critical to our economic and social welfare and, indeed, vital to our survival.
In recent years, media reports have made us increasingly aware of our place in the universe and the forces at work in our physical environment, as well as how human interaction with natural systems can often upset a delicate equilibrium. News stories inform us of new discoveries in the solar system and beyond. Daily reports remind us of the destruction created by hurricanes, flooding, mudflows, and earthquakes. We have been made aware of the depletion of ozone, an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by human activities, and growing environmental concerns over the fate of the oceans. To comprehend, prepare for, and solve these and other concerns requires a full awareness of how science is done and the scientific principles that govern the operation of Earth.
To achieve scientific understanding requires not only a knowledge and appreciation of broad scientific theories but also the ability to gather scientific data and to solve problems creatively with critical reasoning skills. As part of the educational process, laboratory experience is essential to developing these competencies. In the laboratory, nature can be explored, principles examined, and hypotheses developed, tested, and compared with experimental data. It is often in the laboratory that understanding begins.
Applications and Investigations in Earth Science is anintroductory-level laboratory manual consisting of twenty-two exercises designed to examine many of the basic principles of geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy. The format of each of the exercises is the same. Each investigation includes
A Note to the Student. The purpose of Applications and Investigations in Earth Science is to assist you in understanding the basic concepts of Earth science that are presented in most introductory courses by providing the experience of participation. Often, simply being told that something is true is not enough. However, the opportunity to collect facts, examine information, and draw conclusions in a scientific manner frequently results in comprehension. Learning is much more than the accumulation of knowledge; it is also the understanding that comes from "doing." In the laboratory we hope you will refine the critical and creative thinking skills that are vital to your effective participation in a modern society.
Each of the manual's exercises is self-contained and will require approximately two hours to complete. However, your instructor may not follow the exercises in the order presented in the manual. Also, exercises may be assigned for completion outside of the regularly scheduled laboratory session.
Prior to beginning each exercise you should
After you have completed each exercise,
A Note to the Instructor. Applications and Investigations in Earth Science is designed to supplement an introductory general education Earth science course. We have attempted to include a general survey of most of the major topics in Earth science, building upon questions that require various levels of understanding to answer. The first type of question is concerned with the basic concepts and fundamental principles of Earth science. These can be answered by reflective thought and careful reading of class notes and textbook materials. Other sections involve conducting experiments, gathering data, and drawing conclusions. The third type of investigation entails the application of principles to achieve solutions.
In addition to adding several new and revised figures and exercise enhancements, this fourth edition of Applications and Investigations in Earth Science includes an Investigating the Internet section with each of the exercises. By accessing the manual's online companion web site students will be presented with several challenging web-based activities that use World Wide Web resources to reinforce and extent the topics presented in each exercise. We recommend that these web-based activities be examined after the main body of the exercise has been completed. For those with limited time and/or resources, the entire section may be assigned as an out-of-class activity or omitted entirely. To facilitate grading, students may either download and submit the activity response form provided with each exercise or, at the discretion of the instructor, submit their answers electronically directly to any email address provided. Additional information and Internet links to Earth Science topics can be explored on the Internet at the Earth Science, 10th edition textbook site.
To assist you in organizing your course, we have included in the Instructor's Manual for Applications and Investigations in Earth Science a table that cross-references each of the manual's twenty-two exercises with the appropriate chapters) in several of the current Earth science textbooks. The texts that have been cross-referenced include Earth Science (9th and 10th editions) by Tarbuck and Lutgens, and Foundations of Earth Science (third edition) by Lutgens and Tarbuck.
Recognizing that different aspects of Earth science are emphasized by each of us, we have included exercises that cover a wide variety of subjects. Since each exercise is basically self-contained and covers a specific topic, individual exercises or whole units may be omitted or introduced in a different sequence without difficulty. Furthermore, with only minor modification, several exercises, or portions of exercises, may be assigned for completion outside the regularly scheduled laboratory sessions.
The last two exercises in the manual investigate the basic skills of determining location and distance on Earth, working with the metric system, and conducting a scientific inquiry. Should you decide that completing all, or any part, of these exercises would be of benefit to your students, we suggest that you introduce them near the beginning of the course. In addition, Exercise Seventeen, "Astronomical Observations," will take the student several weeks to complete.
Many of the exercises require that equipment and materials be supplied and present in the laboratory. When needed, a general list has been included at the beginning of each exercise. Realizing that some laboratory settings have limited access to materials such as minerals, rocks, and fossils, we have left the specific choices of these specimens to the instructor.
In summary, we have attempted to put together a versatile and adaptable collection of laboratory experiences that investigate many of the topics in introductory Earth science. We sincerely feel that each exercise has merit and, through active student participation, the learning process is carried one step closer to complete understanding.