Applications of Microdialysis in Pharmaceutical Science / Edition 1

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Overview

Discover new and emerging applications for microdialysis in drug evaluation

Microdialysis is a highly valuable sampling tool that can be used in vivo to measure free, unbound analyte concentrations located in interstitial and extracellular spaces. This book explores the full range of clinical applications for microdialysis, focusing on its use in different organ and tissue systems for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Readers gain a full understanding of the underlying science of microdialysis, current techniques and practices, as well as its many applications in pharmaceutical research.

Applications of Microdialysis in Pharmaceutical Science starts with an introduction to basic principles and then covers analytical considerations, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies, clinical aspects, and special applications. Topics include:

  • Role of microdialysis in drug development, including crucial sampling considerations and applications for nervous system diseases
  • Continuous measurement of glucose concentrations in diabetics
  • Applications for clinical evaluation and basic research on organ systems, including monitoring exogenous and endogenous compounds in the lungs
  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of anticancer drugs
  • Comparison of microdialysis with imaging approaches to evaluate in vivo drug distribution
  • Special applications of microdialysis in studies of cell culture assays, drug-drug interactions, and environmental monitoring

Throughout the book, readers will find simple models that clarify complex concepts and easy-to-follow examples that guide them through key applications in pharmaceutical research. In short, this book enables pharmaceutical researchers to take full advantage of microdialysis techniques for the preclinical and clinical evaluation of drugs and much more.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Reviewer: John A. Stanford, PhD (University of Kansas Medical Center)
Description: This book provides a theoretical and practical overview of microdialysis in preclinical and clinical pharmaceutical research. The chapters address the utility of microdialysis as a way to sample biological molecules of interest across body systems as well as in water, soil, and plants.
Purpose: It is intended as an overview of microdialysis in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in various organ systems. The author also includes special applications for microdialysis, including in vitro studies, drug-drug interactions, and environmental monitoring.
Audience: The book is targeted at pharmaceutical researchers, and it would be beneficial for researchers ranging from graduate students to professionals.
Features: Particularly well covered are the analytical considerations for microdialysis sampling (chapter 3 by Nandi, Kuhnline and Lunte) and dopamine and amino acid neurotransmitter sampling (chapters 4-6). Given that these topics represent the majority of microdialysis research, their presence is critical in a book like this. Other strengths of the book include the wide range of body systems (brain, muscle, fat, liver, blood, skin) and special topics (tumor response, in vitro studies, drug-drug interactions, environmental monitoring) that are covered. Though very interesting, the chapter on water, soil, and plant microdialysis is a curious inclusion. If I had to cite a shortcoming, it would be a lack of treatment of anesthetized vs. freely-moving microdialysis and related issues such as postimplantation recovery time. Also, a few of the chapters covering microdialysis sampling in humans (chapters 11 and 12 on adipose and diabetes, respectively) could have benefitted from some treatment of preclinical animal research as a basis for translational work in their topics. These are just minor shortcomings, however.
Assessment: This book will serve as a valuable reference for pharmaceutical researchers and it will be a logical companion to the Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience series volume, Handbook of Microdialysis: Methods, Applications and Perspectives, Westerink and Cremers (Academic Press, 2007). While that book focuses almost exclusively on brain microdialysis, this book extends these considerations to other organ systems.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470409282
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 8/23/2011
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 584
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Tung-Hu Tsai, PhD, is a Professor at the Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan. He has published more than 200 papers in the field of pharmaceutical analysis, herbal medicine, and pharmacokinetics. Dr. Tsai's current research focuses on the mechanisms of pharmacokinetic pathways, emphasizing hepatobiliary excretion and barrier transportation.
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Applications of Microdialysis in Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Chapter 2: Microdialysis in Drug Discovery.
1. Introduction.
2. Phases of Drug Development.
3. Role of Biomarkers in Drug Development.
4. Role of Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling in Drug Development.
5. Role of Microdialysis in Drug Development.
6. Current Applications and Perspective of Microdialysis Sampling for Drug Development of Specific Therapeutic Groups.
7. Regulary Aspects of Microdialysis Sampling in Drug Development.
8. Conclusions.

Chapter 3: Analytical Considerations for Microdialysis Sampling.
1. Introduction.
2 Analytical Methodologies.

Chapter 4: Monitoring Dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal systems by microdialysis: relevance for mood disorders and Parkinson's disease.
1. Introduction.
2. Pathophysiology of Serotonin-Dopamine Interaction: Implication for Mood Disorders.
3. Dopamine Depletion in the Nigrostriatal System: Parkinson’S Disease.
4. Conclusions.

Chapter 5: Monitoring Neurotransmitter Amino Acids by Microdialysis: Pharmacodynamic Applications.
1. Introduction.
2. Monitoring neurotransmitter amino acids by microdialysis.
3. Basic Research on receptors.
4. Psychostimulants and addictive drugs.
5. Analgesia.
6. Ischemia/ anoxia.
7. Conclusion and perspectives.

Chapter 6: Microdialysis as a tool to unravel neurobiological mechanisms of seizures and antiepileptic drug action.
1. Introduction.
2. Microdialysis to characterise the seizure-related neurobiological and metabolic changes in animal models and in humans.
3. Microdialysis as chemoconvulsant delivery tool in animal seizure models.
4. Microdialysis as an elegant tool to elucidate mechanisms of electrical brain stimulation and neuronal circuits involved in the generation and control of seizures.
5. Microdialysis to unravel the mechanisms of action of established antiepileptic drugs and new therapeutic strategies.
6. Microdialysis studies in search for mechanisms of adverse effects of clinically used drugs, drugs of abuse and toxins.
7. Combination of microdialysis with other complementary neurotechniques to unravel mechanisms of seizures and epilepsy.
8. The advantage of microdialysis to sample biophase levels of antiepileptic drugs and to monitor central neurotransmitters as pharmacodynamic markers for their anticonvulsant activity.
9. Microdialysis as a tool to study relationships between epilepsy and its comorbidities.

Chapter 7: Microdialysis in lung: Monitoring of exogenous and endogenous compounds.
1. Introduction.
2. Special aspects associated with lung microdialysis compared to microdialysis in other tissues.
3. Insertion of microdialysis probes into lung tissue.
4. Insertion of microdialysis probes in the bronchial system.
5. Types of probes.
6. Endogenous compounds.
7. Exogenous drugs.
8. Animal data.
9. Clinical data.
10. Comparison of pharmacokinetic data in lung obtained by microdialysis and other techniques.
11. Predictability of lung concentrations by measurements in other tissues.

Chapter 8: Microdialysis in the hepatobiliary system: Monitoring drug metabolism, hepatobiliary excretion and enterohepatic circulation.
1. Introduction.
2. Experimental considerations of pharmacokinetic studies.
3. Pharmacokinetic and hepatobiliary excretion studies employing microdialysis.
4. Conclusions.

Chapter 9: Microdialysis on the metabolism of glucose, lactate and glycerol.
1. Introduction.
2. Glucose.
3. Lactate.
4. Lactate/pyruvate ratio.
5. Glycerol.

Chapter 10: Clinical microdialysis in skin and soft tissues.
1. Introduction.
2. Tissue Bioavailability.
3. PK/PD Indices.
4. Topical Bioequivalence.
5. Endogenous Compounds.
6. Conclusion.

Chapter 11: Microdialysis on Adipose Tissue: Monitoring Tissue Metabolism and Blood Flow in Humans.
1. Introduction.
2. Principle and Practical Considerations for Application of Microdialysis on Adipose Tissue.
3. Application of Microdialysis on Adipose Tissue in Humans.
4. Summary and Conclusions.

Chapter 12: Microdialysis as a monitoring system for human diabetes.
1. Introduction.
2. Monitoring of the acute complications of diabetes.

Chapter 13: Microdialysis in Tumors: Drug Disposition and Tumor Response.
1. Introduction.
2. Considerations of microdialysis as a sampling technique in oncology.
3. Experimental considerations.
4. Examples of using microdialysis techniques to characterize drug disposition in tumor.
5. Application of microdialysis in evaluation of tumor response to therapy.
6. Conclusions and future perspective.

Chapter 14: Microdialysis versus imaging techniques for in vivo drug distribution measurements.
1. Introduction.
2. Microdialysis.
3. Imaging techniques.
4. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET).
6. Combination of Microdialysis and Imaging Techniques.
7. Summary and Conclusion.

Chapter 15: In vitro applications of microdialysis.
1. Introduction.
2. Microdialysis applied in culture systems.
3. Microdialysis applied in enzyme kinetics.
4. Microdialysis applied in protein binding.
5. Conclusions.

Chapter 16: Microdialysis in Drug-Drug Interaction.
1. Introduction.
2. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction.
3. Pharmacodynamic drug interaction.
4. Conclusions.

Chapter 17. Microdialysis in environmental monitoring.
1. Introduction.
2. In-vivo sampling vis-à-vis in-situ sampling: Similarities and differences.
3. Critical parameters influencing relative recoveries.
4. Detection techniques.
5. Calibration methods.
6. Environmental applications of microdialysis.
7. Conclusions and future trends.

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