Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-optics to Nanophotonics / Edition 1

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Overview

Miniaturization and mass replications have begun to lead the optical industry in the transition from traditional analog to novel digital optics. As digital optics enter the realm of mainstream technology through the worldwide sale of consumer electronic devices, this timely book aims to present the topic of digital optics in a unified way. Ranging from micro-optics to nanophotonics, and design to fabrication through to integration in final products, it reviews the various physical implementation of digital optics in either micro-refractives, waveguide (planar lightwave chips), diffractive and hybrid optics or sub-wavelength structures (resonant gratings, surface plasmons, photonic crystals and metamaterials). Finally, it presents a comprehensive list of industrial and commercial applications that are taking advantage of the unique properties of digital optics.

Helps optical engineers review and choose the appropriate software tools to design, model and generate fabrication files.

Gives product managers access to an exhaustive list of applications available in today's market for integrating such digital optics, as well as where the next potential application of digital optics might be.

Provides a broad view for technical marketing managers in all aspects of digital optics, and how such optics can be classified.

Explains the numerical implementation of optical design and modelling techniques.

Enables micro-optics foundries to integrate the latest fabrication and replication technique, and accordingly fine their own fabrication processes.

Supplementary book material is available at applieddigitaloptics.com

Applied Digital Optics is aimed primarily at optical engineersand product development and technical marketing managers; it is also of interest to graduate-level photonics students and micro-optic foundries.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"A volume that many engineers and students have been waiting for! Written by two eminent researchers in the field Bernard Kress and Patrick Meyrueis, Applied Digital Optics fulfils a real need for many." (Current Engineering Practice, 2010)

"Summing up, a gem of a book those involved in digital optics cannot do without. The wide-ranging discussion of applications of digital optics will be recognized and highly regarded as a part of the armamentarium essential for anyone who wants to be brought up to date on what has been happening and what is happening in the field. It will inspire even more innovation and progress in an important field". (Current Engineering Practice, 1 November 2010)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470022634
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 12/30/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 638
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Bernard Kress has been involved in the field of digital optics since the late 1980s. He is an associate professor at the University of Strasbourg, France, teaching digital optics. For the last 15 years Dr Kress has been developing technologies and products related to digital optics. He has been working with established industries around the world and with start-ups in the Silicon Valley, California, with applications ranging from optical data storage, optical telecom, military and homeland security applications, LED and laser displays, industrial and medical sensors, biotechnology systems, optical security devices, high power laser material processing, to consumer electronics. He is on the advisory boards of various photonics companies in the US and has also been advising venture capital firms in the Silicon Valley for due diligence reviews in photonics, especially in micro- and nano-optics.
He holds more than 25 patents based on digital optics technology and applications, and is the author of more than 100 papers on this subject. He has taught several short courses given at SPIE conferences. His first book on digital optics, Digital Diffractive Optics (2000), was published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and has been translated into Japanese in 2005 (published by Wiley-Maruzen). He is also the author of a chapter in the best seller Optical System Design (2007), edited by R. Fisher and published by McGraw-Hill. Bernard Kress can be contacted at bernard@applieddigitaloptics.com.

Patrick Meyrueis is full professor at the University of Strasbourg since 1986 (formerly Louis Pasteur University). He is the founder of the Photonics Systems Laboratory which is now one of the most advanced labs in the field of planar digital optics. He is the author of more than 200 publications and was the chairman of more than 20 international conferences in photonics. He was the representative of the Rhenaphotonics cluster and one of the founders of the CNOP in 2001 (national French committee of optics and photonics). He is now acting as the scientific director of the Photonics Systems Lab and the head of the PhD and undergraduate program in the ENSPS National School of Physics in Strasbourg.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors xi

Foreword Joseph Goodman xiii

Foreword Trevor Hall xv

Acknowledgments xvii

Acronyms xix

Introduction 1

Why a Book on Digital Optics? 1

Digital versus Analog 2

What are Digital Optics? 2

The Realm of Digital Optics 3

Supplementary Material 4

1 From Refraction to Diffraction 5

1.1 Refraction and Diffraction Phenomena 5

1.2 Understanding the Diffraction Phenomenon 5

1.3 No More Parasitic Effects 8

1.4 From Refractive Optics to Diffractive Optics 9

1.5 From Diffractive Optics to Digital Optics 11

1.6 Are Diffractives and Refractives Interchangeable Elements? 13

2 Classification of Digital Optics 15

2.1 Early Digital Optics 15

2.2 Guided-wave Digital Optics 16

2.3 Free-space Digital Optics 17

2.4 Hybrid Digital Optics 19

3 Guided-wave Digital Optics 21

3.1 From Optical Fibers to Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLCs) 21

3.2 Light Propagation in Waveguides 22

3.3 The Optical Fiber 25

3.4 The Dielectric Slab Waveguide 27

3.5 Channel Waveguides 28

3.6 PLC In- and Out-coupling 30

3.7 Functionality Integration 36

4 Refractive Micro-optics 47

4.1 Micro-optics in Nature 47

4.2 GRIN Lenses 49

4.3 Surface-relief Micro-optics 55

4.4 Micro-optics Arrays 58

5 Digital Diffractive Optics: Analytic Type 71

5.1 Analytic and Numeric Digital Diffractives 73

5.2 The Notion of Diffraction Orders 73

5.3 Diffraction Gratings 76

5.4 Diffractive Optical Elements 90

5.5 Diffractive Interferogram Lenses 106

6 Digital Diffractive Optics: Numeric Type 111

6.1 Computer-generated Holograms 111

6.2 Designing CGHs 115

6.3 Multiplexing CGHs 149

6.4 Various CGH Functionality Implementations 151

7 Hybrid DigitalOptics 157

7.1 Why Combine Different Optical Elements? 157

7.2 Analysis of Lens Aberrations 157

7.3 Improvement of Optical Functionality 163

7.4 The Generation of Novel Optical Functionality 166

7.5 Waveguide-based Hybrid Optics 169

7.6 Reducing Weight, Size and Cost 171

7.7 Specifying Hybrid Optics in Optical CAD/CAM 173

7.8 A Parametric Design Example of Hybrid Optics via Ray-tracing Techniques 175

8 Digital Holographic Optics 181

8.1 Conventional Holography 181

8.2 Different Types of Holograms I85

8.3 Unique Features of Holograms 188

8.4 Modeling the Behavior of Volume Holograms 192

8.5 HOE Lenses 199

8.6 HOE Design Tools 203

8.7 Holographic Origination Techniques 203

8.8 Holographic Materials for HOEs 207

8.9 Other Holographic Techniques 212

9 Dynamic Digital Optics 217

9.1 An Introduction to Dynamic Digital Optics 217

9.2 Switchable Digital Optics 223

9.3 Tunable Digital Optics 235

9.4 Reconfigurable Digital Optics 244

9.5 Digital Software Lenses: Wavefront Coding 250

10 Digital Nano-optics 253

10.1 The Concept of 'Nano' in Optics 253

10.2 Sub-wavelength Gratings 253

10.3 Modeling Sub-wavelength Gratings 255

10.4 Engineering Effective Medium Optical Elements 267

10.5 Form Birefringence Materials 272

10.6 Guided Mode Resonance Gratings 275

10.7 Surface Plasmonics 277

10.8 Photonic Crystals 279

10.9 Optical Metamaterials 288

11 Digital Optics Modeling Techniques 295

11.1 Tools Based on Ray Tracing 295

11.2 Scalar Diffraction Based Propagators 298

11.3 Beam Propagation Modeling (BPM) Methods 321

11.4 Nonparaxial Diffraction Regime Issues 323

11.5 Rigorous Electromagnetic Modeling Techniques 326

11.6 Digital Optics Design and Modeling Tools Available Today 327

11.7 Practical Paraxial Numeric Modeling Examples 330

12 Digital Optics Fabrication Techniques 339

12.1 Holographic Origination 340

12.2 Diamond Tool Machining 342

12.3 Photo-reduction 346

12.4 Microlithographic Fabrication of Digital Optics 347

12.5 Micro-refractive Element Fabrication Techniques 385

12.6 Direct Writing Techniques 388

12.7 Gray-scale Optical Lithography 394

12.8 Front/Back Side Wafer Alignments and Wafer Stacks 406

12.9 A Summary of Fabrication Techniques 408

13 Design for Manufacturing 413

13.1 The Lithographic Challenge 413

13.2 Software Solutions: Reticle Enhancement Techniques 418

13.3 Hardware Solutions 445

13.4 Process Solutions 449

14 Replication Techniques for Digital Optics 453

14.1 The LIGA Process 453

14.2 Mold Generation Techniques 455

14.3 Embossing Techniques 459

14.4 The UV Casting Process 464

14.5 Injection Molding Techniques 464

14.6 The Sol-Gel Process 471

14.7 The Nano-replication Process 472

14.8 A Summary of Replication Technologies 475

15 Specifying and Testing Digital Optics 479

15.1 Fabless Lithographic Fabrication Management 479

15.2 Specifying the Fabrication Process 480

15.3 Fabrication Evaluation 494

15.4 Optical Functionality Evaluation 510

16 Digital Optics Application Pools 521

16.1 Heavy Industry 522

16.2 Defense, Security and Space 532

16.3 Clean Energy 539

16.4 Factory Automation 541

16.5 Optical Telecoms 544

16.6 Biomedical Applications 548

16.7 Entertainment and Marketing 553

16.8 Consumer Electronics 554

16.9 Summary 574

16.10 The Future of Digital Optics 574

Conclusion 581

Appendix A Rigorous Theory of Diffraction 583

A.l Maxwell's Equations 583

A.2 Wave Propagation and the Wave Equation 583

A.3 Towards a Scalar Field Representation 584

Appendix B The Scalar Theory of Diffraction 587

B.l Full Scalar Theory 587

B.2 Scalar Diffraction Models for Digital Optics 594

B.3 Extended Scalar Models 595

Appendix C FFTs and DFTs in Optics 597

C.l The Fourier Transform in Optics Today 597

C.2 Conditions for the Existence of the Fourier Transform 600

C.3 The Complex Fourier Transform 600

C.4 The Discrete Fourier Transform 601

C.5 The Properties of the Fourier Transform and Examples in Optics 604

C.6 Other Transforms 606

Index 611

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