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Overview
This book combines graphical and mathematical approaches to analysis and synthesis of both classical and modern mechanism problems. Each topic provides extensive problem solving exercises using trigonometry, algebra, physics, and drafting principles. The workbook part presents many intriguing contemporary mechanism problems designed to stimulate interest in the application of principles learned in the textbook sections. Chapter topics cover definitions of mechanisms, vectors, displacement and position of mechanisms, velocity of mechanisms, acceleration of mechanisms, velocity and acceleration graphs and graphical differentiation, synthesis of mechanisms, cam design, gear trains, and use of computeraided engineering software. For individuals in the field of kinematics.
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This book combines graphical and mathematical approaches to the analysis and synthesis of both classical and modern mechanism problems. The book consists of two major parts—a textbook and a workbook.
The textbook gives students background information, that, when applied, increases problemsolving skills in dealing with kinematics. Each topic provides extensive problemsolving exercises, using basic drafting principles, trigonometry, algebra, and physics. The textbook places more emphasis on application than theory.
The workbook presents many intriguing contemporary mechanism problems designed to stimulate interest in the application of principles learned in the textbook. This book will be of maximum benefit when accompanied by instructor's lectures and information sheets. It can also be used as a comprehensive learning module when used with a kinematics/mechanism design textbook.
The book starts with definitions of mechanisms in Chapter 1. Gruebler's equation is utilized to calculate degrees of freedom, which is used to determine the number of input motion required for a mechanism. Chapter 2 provides a review for vectors. Vector addition and subtraction, as well as the definition of vectors, is discussed here. The purpose of this chapter is to prepare students for the analysis of velocity and acceleration in the subsequent chapters.
In Chapter 3, displacement of mechanisms is extensively discussed. The focus is placed on the mechanisms with different physical forms that function as four, six, or eightbars. The design of these mechanisms, which employs both graphical and mathematical approaches, is also discussed. The problems presented in this chapter represent a wide range of applications such as automobile suspension, dump truck, robot gripper, crankshaper, eccentric mechanism, Whitworth mechanism, transport mechanism, excavator, pantograph, and Thompson and Tabor indicators.
Chapter 4 begins with the topic of locating instant centers. In this chapter, graphical approaches utilizing instant center, linktolink (parallelline or connecting link), resolution (component), and polygon (relative velocity) methods for determining velocities are discussed. The velocity of mechanisms other than linkages, such as pumps and followers on cams, is also included. The problems in this chapter allow students to determine both linear and angular velocities for different mechanisms from very simple fourbars to a complex welding robot.
Chapter 5 deals with the acceleration of mechanisms. Acceleration polygon and acceleration image are the two methods which are extensively discussed. Coriolis acceleration for contact members is also included. The problems associated with this chapter deal with the more complex and challenging mechanisms such as engines, quickreturn mechanisms, and the Geneva wheel, as well as those of simpler fourbars.
In Chapter 6, students consolidate what they learn from Chapters 3, 4, and 5 to construct velocity and acceleration graphs. The graphs show how velocity and acceleration vary during a complete cycle. The approach of graphical differentiation is discussed in this chapter. In Chapter 7, synthesis of mechanisms, primarily four and sixbars, is discussed in detail. Students can set up their own versions of synthesis based on the desired motion of a driven member. Problems involving automobile suspension and a dumpster mechanism are among the problems designed for this chapter.
In Chapter 8, disk (plate) cams are discussed in detail. The construction of displacement, velocity, and acceleration profiles is presented first. The profiles of different types of follower motion are discussed and demonstrated in the example problems. The method required for constructing a cam contour is also discussed. Students can practice how to construct cam contours in the problems related to this chapter. In addition, students can calculate the velocity and acceleration of a cam follower at a given time for each of these problems.
Chapter 9 begins with a brief discussion of gear fundamentals. Gear trains, which include simple, compound, reverted, planetary, and differential, are extensively discussed here. For simple and compound gear trains, the focus is on how to calculate angular velocity, or rpm, of all gears in the train. Force and power are also discussed for these two types of gear trains. For planetary gear trains, mathematical formulas are substituted by the tabular method, which utilizes the principle of superposition, for a more effective approach. The tables required for solving the planetary gear problems are already set up in the workbook. Students just fill out the spaces in a table to complete the solution.
Motion simulation using computeraided engineering software (CAE) is introduced in Chapter 10. A general strategy is developed for using different CAE software. Although a more specific procedure is discussed for IDEAS, the intent of this chapter is not to teach students how to use any particular software, but to give an overview of motion simulation.
The space diagram used for each problem in the workbook is arranged to allow the graphical solution to be properly centered without interference. If there is a mathematical calculation required, it can be written on a separate sheet of paper. The corresponding problems have been selected to familiarize students with the material in the section. Although students can complete the problems in the workbook at an independent pace, depending on whether the course is a onequarter or a onesemester sequence, the problems should be completed in the sequence given by the book.
This book is designed to have enough flexibility to provide a variety of instructional options. The choice and number of problems selected by the instructor can be based on the background and occupational interests of the students. In a onequarter course, the instructor can direct students through the textbook and assign a limited number of problems from the workbook. A onesemester course would permit assignment, with the provided scaled spaced diagrams, of the workbook. The number of problems, with provided problem sheets, should give students enough problemsolving experience in a onesemester course. A twosemester course would permit assignment of all the problems in the workbook, supplemented with more complicated mechanism design projects of the instructor's choice. Chapters 4 through 9 in the workbook provide additional problems requiring blank sheets of paper to give students more experience.
Table of Contents
1. Definitions of Mechanisms.
2. Vectors.
3. Displacement and Position of Mechanisms.
4. Velocity of Mechanisms.
5. Acceleration of Mechanisms.
6. Velocity and Acceleration Graphs and Graphical Differentiation.
7. Synthesis of Mechanisms.
8. Cam Design.
9. Gear Trains.
10. Use of ComputerAided Engineering Software.
Index.
Preface
This book combines graphical and mathematical approaches to the analysis and synthesis of both classical and modern mechanism problems. The book consists of two major parts—a textbook and a workbook.
The textbook gives students background information, that, when applied, increases problemsolving skills in dealing with kinematics. Each topic provides extensive problemsolving exercises, using basic drafting principles, trigonometry, algebra, and physics. The textbook places more emphasis on application than theory.
The workbook presents many intriguing contemporary mechanism problems designed to stimulate interest in the application of principles learned in the textbook. This book will be of maximum benefit when accompanied by instructor's lectures and information sheets. It can also be used as a comprehensive learning module when used with a kinematics/mechanism design textbook.
The book starts with definitions of mechanisms in Chapter 1. Gruebler's equation is utilized to calculate degrees of freedom, which is used to determine the number of input motion required for a mechanism. Chapter 2 provides a review for vectors. Vector addition and subtraction, as well as the definition of vectors, is discussed here. The purpose of this chapter is to prepare students for the analysis of velocity and acceleration in the subsequent chapters.
In Chapter 3, displacement of mechanisms is extensively discussed. The focus is placed on the mechanisms with different physical forms that function as four, six, or eightbars. The design of these mechanisms, which employs both graphical and mathematical approaches, is also discussed. The problems presented in this chapter represent a wide range of applications such as automobile suspension, dump truck, robot gripper, crankshaper, eccentric mechanism, Whitworth mechanism, transport mechanism, excavator, pantograph, and Thompson and Tabor indicators.
Chapter 4 begins with the topic of locating instant centers. In this chapter, graphical approaches utilizing instant center, linktolink (parallelline or connecting link), resolution (component), and polygon (relative velocity) methods for determining velocities are discussed. The velocity of mechanisms other than linkages, such as pumps and followers on cams, is also included. The problems in this chapter allow students to determine both linear and angular velocities for different mechanisms from very simple fourbars to a complex welding robot.
Chapter 5 deals with the acceleration of mechanisms. Acceleration polygon and acceleration image are the two methods which are extensively discussed. Coriolis acceleration for contact members is also included. The problems associated with this chapter deal with the more complex and challenging mechanisms such as engines, quickreturn mechanisms, and the Geneva wheel, as well as those of simpler fourbars.
In Chapter 6, students consolidate what they learn from Chapters 3, 4, and 5 to construct velocity and acceleration graphs. The graphs show how velocity and acceleration vary during a complete cycle. The approach of graphical differentiation is discussed in this chapter. In Chapter 7, synthesis of mechanisms, primarily four and sixbars, is discussed in detail. Students can set up their own versions of synthesis based on the desired motion of a driven member. Problems involving automobile suspension and a dumpster mechanism are among the problems designed for this chapter.
In Chapter 8, disk (plate) cams are discussed in detail. The construction of displacement, velocity, and acceleration profiles is presented first. The profiles of different types of follower motion are discussed and demonstrated in the example problems. The method required for constructing a cam contour is also discussed. Students can practice how to construct cam contours in the problems related to this chapter. In addition, students can calculate the velocity and acceleration of a cam follower at a given time for each of these problems.
Chapter 9 begins with a brief discussion of gear fundamentals. Gear trains, which include simple, compound, reverted, planetary, and differential, are extensively discussed here. For simple and compound gear trains, the focus is on how to calculate angular velocity, or rpm, of all gears in the train. Force and power are also discussed for these two types of gear trains. For planetary gear trains, mathematical formulas are substituted by the tabular method, which utilizes the principle of superposition, for a more effective approach. The tables required for solving the planetary gear problems are already set up in the workbook. Students just fill out the spaces in a table to complete the solution.
Motion simulation using computeraided engineering software (CAE) is introduced in Chapter 10. A general strategy is developed for using different CAE software. Although a more specific procedure is discussed for IDEAS, the intent of this chapter is not to teach students how to use any particular software, but to give an overview of motion simulation.
The space diagram used for each problem in the workbook is arranged to allow the graphical solution to be properly centered without interference. If there is a mathematical calculation required, it can be written on a separate sheet of paper. The corresponding problems have been selected to familiarize students with the material in the section. Although students can complete the problems in the workbook at an independent pace, depending on whether the course is a onequarter or a onesemester sequence, the problems should be completed in the sequence given by the book.
This book is designed to have enough flexibility to provide a variety of instructional options. The choice and number of problems selected by the instructor can be based on the background and occupational interests of the students. In a onequarter course, the instructor can direct students through the textbook and assign a limited number of problems from the workbook. A onesemester course would permit assignment, with the provided scaled spaced diagrams, of the workbook. The number of problems, with provided problem sheets, should give students enough problemsolving experience in a onesemester course. A twosemester course would permit assignment of all the problems in the workbook, supplemented with more complicated mechanism design projects of the instructor's choice. Chapters 4 through 9 in the workbook provide additional problems requiring blank sheets of paper to give students more experience.