Approaching Literature: Writing, Reading, Thinking / Edition 2

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Overview

Developed by authors with more than 50 years of teaching experience between them, Approaching Literature has been designed as a true alternative to more traditional literature anthologies. The authors conceived this anthology with three principles in mind: (1) that exposing students to the widest array of literature can help every one find common ground with that literature; (2) that contemporary literary works can serve as entry points to reading and appreciating the canonical literature that students often find unfamiliar, intimidating, and sometimes irrelevant; and (3) that the instruction in reading and writing about literature should be accessible and jargon-free to all students, not just potential English majors. With its streamlined and student-friendly instructional text, and its ongoing commitment to showcasing the most engaging and diverse literary works publishing right now, Approaching Literature is built from the ground up with today's students in mind.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312452834
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 12/24/2007
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1696
  • Product dimensions: 6.53 (w) x 9.26 (h) x 1.69 (d)

Meet the Author

PETER SCHAKEL is Peter C. and Emajean Cook Professor of English at Hope College. He is author of The Poetry of Jonathan Swift (1978) and four books on C.S. Lewis, including Imagination and the Arts in C.S. Lewis (2002) and The Way into Narnia: A Reader's Guide (2005). He is also editor of Critical Approaches to Teaching Swift (1992) and The Longing for a Form: Essays and Fiction on C.S. Lewis (1977); coeditor with Charles A. Huttar of Word and Story in C.S. Lewis (1991) and The Rhetoric of Vision: Essays on Charles Williams (1996). For Bedford/St. Martin's, with Jack Ridl he co-edited Approaching Poetry (1997) and 250 Poems (2003), and he is coeditor with Janet Gardner, Beverley Lawn, and Jack Ridl of Literature: a Portable Anthology (2004).

JACK RIDL is Professor Emeritus of English at Hope College where he taught courses in literature, essay writing, poetry writing, and the nature of poetry for thirty-five years. He has published six volumes of poetry and more than 200 poems in some fifty literary magazines; his most recent collection, Broken Symmetry, was selected by the Society of Midland Authors as one of the two best volumes of poetry published in 2006. His chapbook Against Elegies received the 2001 Letterpress Award from the Center for Book Arts. His recognitions for teaching excellence include the Hope Outstanding Professor-Educator award at Hope College for 1976, the Michigan Teacher of the Year award from the Carnegie Foundation in 1996, and the Favorite Faculty/Staff Member award at Hope College in 2003. For Bedford/St. Martin's, with Peter Schakel he co-edited Approaching Poetry (1997) and 250 Poems (2003); and he is coeditor with Janet Gardner, Beverley Lawn, and Peter Schakel of Literature: a Portable Anthology (2004).

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Table of Contents

PART I. APPROACHING LITERATURE

1. Reading Literature: Taking Part in a Process

Sherman Alexie, Superman and Me

The Nature of Reading

Active Reading

CHECKLIST on Active Reading

Julia Alvarez, Daughter of Invention

2. Writing in Response to Literature: Entering the Conversation

Alice Walker, The Flowers

Writing in the Margins

Journal Writing

Discussing Literature

TIPS for Effective Journal Writing

TIPS for Participating in Class Discussions

Writing Essay Examination Answers

Writing Short Papers

TIPS for Writing a Short Paper

Writing Research Papers

Writing Papers in Other Formats

Composing in Other Art Forms

PART II. APPROACHING FICTION

3. Reading Fiction: Responding to the Real World of Stories

What Is Fiction?

Why Read Fiction?

Active Reading: Fiction

Rereading Fiction

4. Plot and Characters: Watching What Happens, to Whom

Reading for Plot

Dagoberto Gilb, Love in L.A.

Reading for Characters

CHECKLIST for Reading About Plot and Character

Further Reading

Louise Erdrich,
The Red Convertible

Joyce Carol Oates,
Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

Responding Through Writing

Writing About Plot and Character

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing About Plot and Character

Writing About Connnections

"Love and the City": Realizing Relationships in Dagoberto Gilb’s Love in L.A. and Raymond Carver’s What We Talk about When We Talk about Love

"My Brother’s Keeper": Supportive Siblings in Louise Erdrich’s The Red Convertible and James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues

"Good Men Are Hard to Find": Encounters with Evil in Joyce Carol Oates’s Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? and Flannery O’Connor’s A Good Man Is Hard to Find

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

5. Point of View and Theme: Being Alert to Angles, Open to Insights

Sandra Cisneros,
The House on Mango Street

Reading for Narrator

Reading for Point of View

Theme

CHECKLIST for Reading about Point of View and Theme

Further Reading

Alice Walker, Everyday Use

*George Saunders, The End of FIRPO in the World

Approaching Graphic Fiction

*Lynda Barry, Today’s Demon: Magic

Responding Through Writing

Writing About Point of View and Theme

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Point of View and Theme

Writing About Connections

"Staring Out Front Windows": Seeking Escape in Sandra Cisneros’s The House on Mango Street and James Joyce’s Araby

"Can You Come Home Again?": The Difficulty of Returning in Alice Walker’s Everyday Use and Monica Ali’s Dinner with Dr. Azad

"States of Mind That Matter": Approaching Death in George Saunders’s The End of FIRPO in the World and Katherine Anne Porter’s The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

6. Setting and Symbol: Meeting Meaning in Places and Objects

Setting

Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants

Reading for Symbols

Reading for Allegory

CHECKLIST for Reading about Setting and Symbol

Further Reading

Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried

*Edward P. Jones, Bad Neighbors

*Joe Sacco, Complacency Kills

Writing About Symbol and Setting

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Setting and Symbol

Writing About Connections

"Secrets of the Heart": Keeping Hope Alive in Ernest Hemingway’s Hills Like White Elephants and David Means’s The Secret Goldfish

"Dying a Good Death": Struggles Over What Matters in Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried and Yiyun Li’s Persimmons

"‘A Good Man Is Hard to Find’": Nature vs. Nurture in Edward P. Jones’s Bad Neighbors and Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Young Goodman Brown

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

7. Style, Tone, and Irony: Attending to Expression and Attitude

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

Reading for Style

Reading for Tone

Reading for Irony

CHECKLIST on Reading about Style, Tone, and Irony

Further Reading

Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson

*Katherine Min, Courting a Monk

Responding Through Writing

Writing About Style, Tone and Irony

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Style, Tone, and Irony

Writing About Connections

"Time for a Change": Kate Chopin’s The Story of an Hour and Jhumpa Lahiri’s A Temporary Matter

"Learning Out of School": Personal Maturity in Toni Cade Bambara’s The Lesson and John Updike’s A & P

"‘Gather Ye Rosebuds’": Looking for Love in Katherine Min’s Courting a Monk and William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

8. Writing about Fiction: Applying What You’ve Learned

Topics

TIPS for Writing Compare and Contrast Papers

Development

TIPS for Writing Social and Cultural Criticism

A Student Writer at Work: Alicia Abood on the Writing Process

Student Paper: Alicia Abood, "Clips of Language: The Effect of Diction in Dagoberto Gilb’s ‘Love in L.A.’"

9. An Author in Depth: Sherman Alexie: Exploring One Writer’s World

Sherman Alexie, This is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona

Sherman Alexie, The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven

*Sherman Alexie, Somebody Kept Saying Powwow

Tomson Highway, Interview with Sherman Alexie

*Ase Nygren, A World of Story-Smoke: A Conversation with Sherman Alexie

Joseph L. Coulombe,
The Approximate Size of His Favorite Humor: Sherman Alexie’s Comic Connections and Disconnections in The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven

*Jerome Denuccio, Slow Dancing with Skeletons: Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven

*James Cox, Muting White Noise: The Subversion of Popular Culture Narratives of Conquest in Sherman Alexie’s Fiction

10. A Collection of Stories: Visiting a Variety of Vistas

*Monica Ali, Dinner with Dr. Azad

Isabel Allende
(Chile), And of Clay Are We Created

James Baldwin,
Sonny’s Blues

*Melissa Bank, The Wonder Spot

*Raymond Carver, What We Talk about When We Talk about Love

*Judith Ortiz Cofer, American History

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily

Nathaniel Hawthorne,
Young Goodman Brown

Zora Neale Hurston,
Sweat

*James Joyce, Araby

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

*Jhumpa Lahiri, A Temporary Matter

*Yiyun Li, Persimmons

Gabriel Garc’a Marquez (Columbia), A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings

*David Means, The Secret Goldfish

*Ana Menendez, Her Mother’s House

Toni Morrison, Recitatif

*Haruki Murakami, Birthday Girl

Flannery O’Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find

Tillie Olsen, I Stand Here Ironing

Edgar Allen Poe, The Cask of Amontillado

Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

Nahid Rachlin, Departures

Salman Rushdie (India), The Prophet’s Hair

Leslie Marmon Silko,
The Man to Send Rain Clouds

*Zadie Smith, The Girl with Bangs

*John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums

Amy Tan, Two Kinds

John Updike,
A & P

Helena Mar’a Viramontes, The Moths

PART III. APPROACHING POETRY

11. Reading Poetry: Realizing the Richness in Poems

What Is Poetry?

Why Read Poetry?

Active Reading: Poetry

Rereading Poetry

12. Words and Images: Seizing on Sense and Sight

Denotation

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Connotation

Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters

Images

Maxine Kumin, The Sound of Night

William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

CHECKLIST on Reading for Words and Images

Further Reading

Allison Joseph,
On Being Told I Don’t Speak like a Black Person

*Robert Bly, Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter

Jonathan Swift,
A Description of the Morning

Garrett Kaoru Hongo, Yellow Light

Robert Frost, After Apple-Picking

Anita Endrezze, The Girl Who Loved the Sky

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Words and Images

Writing About Connections

"Autumn Leaves": The Changing Seasons of Life in Robert Frost’s After Apple-Picking and Joseph Awad’s Autumnal

"Seeing the City": The Contrasting Perspectives of Jonathan Swift’s A Description of the Morning and Cheryl Savageau’s Bones — A City Poem

"Impermanence’s Permanence": Anita Endrezze’s The Girl Who Loved the Sky and Edmund Spenser’s One day I wrote her name upon the strand

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

13. Voice, Tone, and Sound: Hearing for How Sense Is Said

Voice

Li-young Lee, Eating Alone

Charles Bukowski, my old man

Dramatic Monologue

Tone

Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz

Irony

Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll

Sound

Sekou Sundiata, Blink Your Eyes

CHECKLIST on Reading for Voice, Tone, and Sound

Further Reading

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

Yosef Komunyakaa, Facing It

Richard Garcia, Why I Left the Church

*Billy Collins, Consolation

Robert Browning, My Last Duchess

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Voice, Tone, and Sound

Writing About Connections

"All the Comforts of Home": Contrasting Spirits of Adventure in Billy Collins’s Consolation and Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s Ulysses

"Arms and the Man": War without Glory in Wilfred Owen’s Dulce et Decorum Est and Vievee Francis’s Private Smith’s Primer

"Dancing with the Dark": Movement and Memory in Theodore Roethke’s My Papa’s Waltz and Cornelius Eady’s My Mother, If She Had Won Free Dance Lessons

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

14. Form and Type: Delighting in Design

Lines

Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

Stanzas

Countee Cullen, Incident

Sonnets

William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold

Claude McKay,
If we must die

Gerard Manley Hopkins,
God’s Grandeur

Helene Johnson, Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem

Blank Verse and Couplets

Free Verse

Leslie Marmon Silko,
Prayer to the Pacific

Internal Form

CHECKLIST on Reading for Form and Type

Further Reading

James Wright,
A Blessing

Joy Harjo,
She Had Some Horses

William Butler Yeats, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

*Robert Herrick, To Daffodils

David Mura, Grandfather-in-law

*Elizabeth Bishop, Sestina

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Form and Type

Writing About Connections

"Amazing Grace": Being Blessed from within and from without in James Wright’s A Blessing and Galway Kinnell’s Saint Francis and the Sow

"‘Which thou must leave ere long’": Approaching Separation in Elizabeth Bishop’s Sestina and William Shakespeare’s That time of year thou mayst in me behold

"The Solace of Solitude": Place and Peace in W. B.Yeats’s The Lake Isle of Innisfree and Lorine Niedecker’s My Life by Water

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

15. Figurative Language: Wondering What This Has to Do with That

Simile

Julie Moulds,
From Wedding Iva

Langston Hughes,
Harlem

Metaphor

Dennis Brutus,
Nightsong: City

Personification

Angelina Weld Grimke, A Winter Twilight

Metonymy And Synecdoche

Edwin Arlington Robinson
, Richard Cory

Two Other Observations about Figures

William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark

CHECKLIST on Reading for Figurative Language

Further Reading

John Keats,
To Autumn

*Mary Oliver, First Snow

Judith Ortiz Cofer,
Cold as Heaven

Geoffrey Hill,
In Memory Of Jane Fraser

Julia Alvarez,
How I Learned to Sweep

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Figurative Language

Writing About Connections

"Innocence and Experience": Confrontations with Evil in Julia Alvarez’s How I Learned to Sweep and William Blake’s The Chimney Sweeper

"A Joyful Melancholy": Nature and Beauty in Mary Oliver’s First Snow and William Wordsworth’s I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

"Knowing Deep the Seasons": Antitheses of Life in John Keats’s To Autumn and William Carlos Williams’s Spring and All

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

16. Rhythm and Meter: Feeling the Beat, the Flux, and the Flow

Rhythm

e. e. cummings, Buffalo Bill’s

Meter

Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask

CHECKLIST on Reading for Rhythm and Meter

Further Reading

Lucille Clifton,
at the cemetery, walnut grove plantation, south carolina, 1989

Lorna Dee Cervantes, Freeway 280

Robert Frost,
The Road Not Taken

Naomi Shihab Nye, The Small Vases From Hebron

A. K. Ramanujan,
Self-portrait

Emily Dickinson,
I’m Nobody! Who are you?

Sylvia Plath,
Metaphors

Georgia Douglas Johnson,
Wishes

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Rhythm and Meter

Writing About Connections

"Grief beyond Grief": Dealing with Death in Ben Jonson’s On My First Son and Michael S. Harper’s Nightmare Begins Responsibility

"Remembering the Unremembered": The Language of Preservation in Lucille Clifton’s at the cemetery, walnut grove plantation, south carolina, 1989 and Thomas Gray’s Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

"On the Road Again": The Search for Self in Lorna Dee Cervante’s Freeway 280 and Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s Ulysses

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

17. Writing about Poetry: Applying What You’ve Learned

Topics

Development

A Student Writer at Work: Dan Carter on the Writing Process

Student Paper: Dan Carter, "A Slant on the Standard Love Sonnet"

18. A Theme in Depth: Explicating the Everyday

*Julia Alvarez, Ironing Their Clothes

*Laure-Anne Bosselaar, Bench in Aix-en-Provence

*Lucille Clifton, Cutting Greens

*Billy Collins, Days

*Emily Dickinson, I heard a Fly buzz

Rita Dove, The Satisfaction Coal Company

Robert Frost, Mending Wall

*Christopher Gilbert, Touching

*Ben Jonson, Inviting a Friend to Supper

*Ted Kooser, Applesauce

*Li-Young Lee, Braiding

*Denise Levertov, The Acolyte

*Pablo Neruda (Chile), Ode to French Fires

Naomi Shihab Nye, The Small Vases from Hebron

Simon Ortiz, Speaking

*Jack Ridl, Love Poem

*Len Roberts, At the Train Tracks

*William Stafford, Notice What This Poem Is Not Doing

*Mary Tallmountain, Peeling Pippins

*Nancy Willard, The Potato Picker

*William Carlos Williams, The Is Just to Say

*William Wordsworth, I wandered lonely as a cloud

*Jeff Gundy, A Review of Delights and Shadows by Ted Kooser

*Sarah Jensen, A Review of Broken Symmetry by Jack Ridl

*William Stafford, The Importance of the Trivial

*Louis Simpson, from Important and Unimportant Poems

*Bill Moyers, An Interview with Naomi Shihab Nye

*Ted Kooser, Out of the Ordinary

*Paul Lake, The Malady of the Quotidian

*Donna A. Rohrer, William Carlos Williams’s Poetics: Turning the Ordinary into the Beautiful

19. A Collection of Poems: Valuing a Variety of Voices

Ai, Why Can’t I Leave You?

Agha Shahid Ali, I Dream It Is Afternoon When I Return To Delhi

Anonymous, Sir Patrick Spens

*Margaret Atwood, True Stories

W. H. Auden,
Musée Des Beaux Arts

Joseph Awad, Autumnal

Jimmy Santiago Baca,
Family Ties

Jim Barnes, Return To La Plata, Missouri

Gerald Barrax, Dara

Elizabeth Bishop, In the Waiting Room

William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper

Peter Blue Cloud,
Rattle

Eavan Boland, The Pomegranate

Anne Bradstreet,
To My Dear and Loving Husband

Sterling Brown, Riverbank Blues

Elizabeth Barrett Browning,
How do I love thee? Let me count the ways

*Anthony Butts, Ferris Wheel

*Ana Castillo, I Heard the Cries of Two Hundred Children

Sandra Castillo, Exile

Rosemary Catacalos, David Talamántez on the Last Day of Second Grade

*Tina Chang, Origin & Ash

Marilyn Chin, Turtle Soup

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan

Jayne Cortez,
Into This Time

Victor Hernandez Cruz, Problems with Hurricanes

e. e. cummings, in Just —

Keki N. Daruwalla, Pestilence

Toi Derricotte, A Note on My Son’s Face

Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for death

Emily Dickinson, Much Madness is divinest Sense

Ana Doina, The Extinct Homeland — A Conversation with Czeslaw Milosz

*John Donne, Death, be not proud

Mark Doty, Tiara

Cornelius Eady,
My Mother, If She Had Won Free Dance Lessons

T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Louise Erdrich, A Love Medicine

Mart’n Espada, The Saint Vincent de Paul Food Pantry Stomp

Sandra Mar’a Esteves,
A la Mujer Borrinque–a

Carolyn Forche, The Colonel

*Vievee Francis, Private Smith’s Primer

Allen Ginsburg, A Supermarket in California

Nikki Giovanni, Nikka-Rosa

Ray Gonzalez, Praise the Tortilla, Praise the Menudo, Praise the Chorizo

Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

Kimiko Hahn, Mother’s Mother

*Donald Hall, The Names of Horses

Michael S. Harper,
Nightmare Begins Responsibility

Samuel Hazo,
For Fawzi in Jerusalem

Seamus Heaney, Digging

George Herbert, The Pulley

David Hernandez, The Butterfly Effect

Robert Herrick, To the Virgins to Make Much of Time

Linda Hogan,
The History Of Red

A. E. Housman,
To an Athlete Dying Young

*Langston Hughes, Theme for English B

Lawson Fusao Inada,
Plucking Out a Rhythm

*Honoree Fanonne Jeffers, Outlandish Blues (The Movie)

Ben Jonson, On My First Son

*A. Van Jordan, From

John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn

*Jane Kenyon, From Room to Room

Galway Kinnell,
Saint Francis and the Sow

Etheridge Knight, Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane

*Stanley Kunitz, Father and Son

*Gerry La Femina, The Sound a Body Makes

Li-young Lee, Visions and Interpretations

Philip Levine, What Work Is

*Timothy Liu, The Garden

Audre Lorde, Hanging Fire

Richard Lovelace, To Lucasta, Going to the Wars

Robert Lowell, Skunk Hour

*Medbh McGuckian, On Ballycastle Beach

Heather McHugh,
What He Thought

Claude McKay,
America

Christopher Marlowe,
The Passionate Shepherd to His Love

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

Orlando Ricardo Menes, Letter to Mirta Y‡–ez

John Milton,
When I consider how my light is spent

Janice Mirikitani, For a Daughter Who Leaves

Marianne Moore,
Poetry

Robert Morgan, Mountain Bride

*Thylias Moss, The Lynching

Duane Niatum, First Spring

*Lorine Niedecker, My Life by Water

Dwight Okita,
In Response to Executive Order 9066

*William Olsen, The Fold-Out Atlas of the Human Body: A Three-Dimensional Book for Readers of All Ages

Michael Ondaatje, Biography

Ricadro Pau-llosa, Years of Exile

Gustavo Perez Firmat, Jose Conseco Breaks Our Hearts Again

*Lucy Perillo, Air Guitar

*Carl Phillips, To the Tune of a Small, Repeatable, and Passing Kindness

Wang Ping, Opening the Face

Robert Pinsky, Shirt

Sylvia Plath, Daddy

Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd

Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham

*Mary Ruefle, Naked Ladies

Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck

Alberto R’os,
Nani

Wendy Rose, Loo-wit

Sonia Sanchez,
An Anthem

Cheryl Savageau, Bones — A City Poem

Vijay Seshadri, The Refugee

*William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias

*Charles Simic, Classic Ballroom Dances

Cathy Song, Girl Powdering Her Neck

Gary Soto, The Elements of San Joaquin

Edmund Spenser, One day I wrote her name upon the strand

Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice Cream

*Mark Strand, Eating Poetry

*Virgil Suárez, Tea Leaves, Caracoles, Coffee Beans

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses

Dylan Thomas,
Do not go gentle into that good night

Jean Toomer,
Face

Quincy Troupe, Poem for the Root Doctor of Rock ’n’ Roll

Gerald Vizenor, Shaman Breaks

Derek Walcott, Sea Grapes

James Welch,
Christmas Comes to Moccasin Flat

*Patricia Jabbeh Wesley, Becoming Ebony

Roberta Hill Whiteman, The White Land

Walt Whitman, From Song of Myself

Richard Wilbur,
Love Calls Us to the Things of This World

William Carlos Williams, Spring and All

Nellie Wong, Grandmother’s Song

*William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

Sir Thomas Wyatt,
They flee from me

John Yau, Chinese Villanelle

William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming

Al Young, A Dance for Ma Rainy

Ray A. Young Bear, Green Threatening Clouds

Reading Poems in Translation

Poems in Translation

Anna Akhmatova (Russia), Song of the Last Meeting

Yehuda Amichai (Israel), Wildpeace

Reza Baraheni (Iran), Autumn in Tehran

Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), The Other Tiger

Julia De Burgos
(Puerto Rico), Returning

Bei Dao (China), Night: Theme and Variations

Faiz Ahmed Faiz (Pakistan), A Prison Daybreak

Nazim Hikmet (Turkey), Letters from a Man in Solitary

Miroslav Holub (Czech Republic), Elementary School Field Trip to the Dinosaur Exhibit

Taslima Nasrin (Bangladesh), Things Cheaply Had

Pablo Neruda (Chile), The Dead Woman

Octavio Paz (Mexico), The Street

Dahlia Ravikovitch (Israel), Clockwork Doll

Masaoka Siki
(Japan), Haiku

Wislawa Szymborska (Poland), On Death, without Exaggeration

Xu Gang (China), Red Azalea on the Cliff

PART IV. APPROACHING DRAMA

20. Reading Drama: Participating in a Playful Pretence

What Is Drama?

Why Read Drama?

Active Reading: Drama

Rereading Drama

21. Character, Conflict, and Dramatic Action: Thinking about Who Does What to Whom and Why

*Kelly Stuart, The New New

Character

Dialogue

Conflict

Dramatic Action

CHECKLIST for Reading about Character, Conflict, and Dramatic Action

Further Reading

*Cusi Cram, West of Stupid

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Character, Conflict, and Dramatic Action

Writing About Connections

"Souls for Sale": The Cost of Devaluing Values in Kelly Stuart’s The New New and Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman

"Death Draws Near": The Imminence of Mortality in Cusi Cram’s West of Stupid and David Henry Hwang’s As the Crow Flies

"Spinning Out of Control": The Search for Meaning in John Guare’s Woman at a Threshold, Beckoning and William Shakespeare’s Hamlet

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

22. Setting and Structure: Examining Where, When, and How It Happens

Setting

Susan Glaspell,
Trifles

Structure

CHECKLIST for Reading about Setting and Structure

Further Reading

David Ives, Sure Thing

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Setting and Structure

Writing About Connections

"By a Higher Standard": The Conflict of Law and Justice in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles and Sophocles’s Antigone

"Living on a smile and a handshake": Seling Yourself in David Ive’s Sure Thing and Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman

"Serving Time in Invisible Prisons": Social Entrapments in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll House and August Wilson’s Fences

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

23. Theaters and Their Influence: Imagining the Impact of Stage and Space

The Greek Theater

The Elizabethan Theater

The Modern Theater

The Contemporary Theater

CHECKLIST for Reading about Theaters and Their Influence

Further Reading

David Henry Hwang,
As the Crow Flies

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Theaters and Their Influence

Writing About Connections

"I Gotta Be Me": Identity and Inter-relationships in John Leguizamo’s Mambo Mouth: A Savage Comedy and David Ive’s Sure Thing

"Dogs Eating Dogs": The Dramatic Depiction of Racial Oppression in John Leguizamo’s Mambo Mouth: A Savage Comedy and Suzan-Lori Park’s Topdog/Underdog

"Fathers and Sons": Familial Conflict in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet and August Wilson’s Fences

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

24. Dramatic Types and Their Effects: Getting into Genres

Tragedy

Comedy

Three Other Dramatic Types

CHECKLIST on Reading about Dramatic Types and Their Effects

Further Reading

John Leguizamo,
From Mambo Mouth: A Savage Comedy

Responding Through Writing

Journal Entries

Literary Analysis Papers

Comparison-Contrast Papers

TIPS on Writing about Dramatic Types and Their Effects

Writing About Connections

"The Haunted Heart": The Presence and Significance of Ghosts in David Henry Hwang’s As the Crow Flies and William Shakespeare’s Hamlet

"A House Divided": Tyranny vs. Freedom in a Tragedy — Sophocle’s Antigone — and a Problem Play — Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll House

"Everyone Loses": The Games People Play in Suzan-Lori Parks’s Topdog/Underdog and Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman

Writing Research Papers

Composing in Other Art Forms

25. Writing about Drama: Applying What You’ve Learned

Topics

Development

A Student Writer at Work: Julian Hinson on the Writing Process

Student Paper: Julian Hinson, "When the New is Old in The New NewÓ

26. A Form in Depth: August Wilson’s Fences: Wrestling with One Writer’s Work

August Wilson, Fences

*Reviews and Photos of Fences

*Lloyd Richards, Fences: Introduction

*Clive Barnes, Fiery Fences [a Review*

*Frank Rich, Family Ties in Wilson’s Fences

*Bonnie Lyons, An Interview with August Wilson

*Miles Marshall Lewis, Miles Marshall Lewis Talks with August Wilson

*Missy Dehn Kubitschek, August Wilson’s Gender Lesson

*Harry J. Elam, Jr., August Wilson

*Suson Koprince, Baseball as History and Myth in August Wilson’s Fences

27. A Collection of Plays: Viewing from a Variety of Vantage Points

*Sophocles, Antigone

*William Shakespeare, Hamlet

Henrik Ibsen, A Doll House

Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman

*Suzan-Lori Parks, Topdog/Underdog

*John Guare, Woman at a Threshold, Beckoning

Responding Through Writing

Papers Using No Outside Sources

Papers Using Limited Outside Sources

Papers Involving Further Research

PART V. APPROACHING LITERARY RESEARCH

28. Reading Critical Essays: Listening to the Larger Conversation

What Are Critical Essays?

Why Read Critical Essays?

Active Reading: Critical Essays

Sample Essay

Susan Farrell, "Fight vs. Flight: A Re-evaluation of Dee in Alice Walker’s ‘Everyday Use’"

Rereading Critical Essays

29. Writing a Literary Research Paper: Incorporating the Larger Conversation

Topics

Types of Research and Sources

Conducting Research on Contemporary Literature

Finding Sources and Creating a Working Bibliography

Research on Contemporary Literature

Evaluating Sources

Taking Notes

Developing Your Paper and Thesis

Incorporating Sources

Avoiding Plagiarism

Documention Sources: MLA Style

Preparing a Works Cited Page

A Student Writer at Work: Kristina Martinez on the Research Process

Student Paper: Kristina Martinez, "The Structure of Story in Toni Morrison’s ‘Recitatif’"

Biographical Sketches

Appendix on Scansion

Approaching Critical Theory

Glossary of Literary Terms

Index of Authors and Titles

* new to this edition

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