Archaelogy: Theories, Methods, and Practice / Edition 4

Archaelogy: Theories, Methods, and Practice / Edition 4

by Colin Renfrew, Paul Bahn, Paul Bahn

The best-selling textbook on what archaeologists do and how they do it—completely revised and redesigned.For the Fourth Edition, new theoretical approaches, such as agency, materiality, and engagement theory, are added and earlier approaches analyzed afresh. Field methods and scientific techniques have been updated throughout, and new emphasis is placed onSee more details below


The best-selling textbook on what archaeologists do and how they do it—completely revised and redesigned.For the Fourth Edition, new theoretical approaches, such as agency, materiality, and engagement theory, are added and earlier approaches analyzed afresh. Field methods and scientific techniques have been updated throughout, and new emphasis is placed on climate change and its impact on human affairs. The latest information on topics as varied as the Iceman, Pleistocene extinctions, and llama domestication is included, along with the most up-to-date material on GIS and surveying technology. New topics will be introduced to emphasize the ever-changing face of modern archaeology, and additional special box features will be included, as well as discussion of the archaeological techniques needed to study the material culture of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. A key component of the new edition will be the introduction of a dedicated Web site and study guide to accompany the textbook itself. Over 600 illustrations.

Author Biography: Colin Renfrew is Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge. Paul Bahn is a prehistorian and the author of numerous books on archaeology.

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Product Details

Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.40(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Nature and Aims of Archaeology12
Part IThe Framework of Archaeology19
1The Searchers: The History of Archaeology21
The Speculative Phase22
The Beginnings of Modern Archaeology26
Classification and Consolidation36
A Turning Point in Archaeology40
World Archaeology42
Further Reading52
Box Features
Pompeii: Archaeology Past and Present24
The Impact of Evolutionary Thought28
19th-century Pioneers of North American Archaeology30
The Development of Field Techniques33
Women Pioneers of Archaeology38
Processual Archaeology: Key Concepts41
Interpretive or Postprocessual Archaeologies44
Interpretive Archaeologies at Catalhoyuk46
Broadening the Frame48
2What is Left? The Variety of the Evidence53
Basic Categories of Archaeological Evidence53
Formation Processes56
Cultural Formation Processes - How People Have Affected What Survives in the Archaeological Record58
Natural Formation Processes - How Nature Affects What Survives in the Archaeological Record59
Further Reading74
Box Features
Experimental Archaeology57
Wet Preservation: The Ozette Site64
Dry Preservation: The Tomb of Tutankhamun66
Cold Preservation 1: The Barrow Site69
Cold Preservation 2: The Iceman70
3Where? Survey and Excavation of Sites and Features75
Discovering Archaeological Sites and Features76
Assessing the Layout of Sites and Features93
Further Reading120
Box Features
The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project78
Sampling Strategies80
Archaeological Aerial Reconnaissance84
Teotihuacan Mapping Project94
Multiperiod Surface Investigations at Tell Halula96
Underwater Archaeology99
The Red Bay Wreck: Discovery and Excavation100
Geophysical Survey at Roman Wroxeter104
Measuring Magnetism106
Controlled Archaeological Test Site108
4When? Dating Methods and Chronology121
Relative Dating122
Typological Sequences124
Linguistic Dating128
Climate and Chronology129
Absolute Dating132
Calendars and Historical Chronologies133
Annual Cycles: Varves and Tree-Rings136
Radioactive Clocks141
Trapped Electron Dating Methods154
Calibrated Relative Methods159
Chronological Correlations165
World Chronology167
Further Reading174
Box Features
The Maya Calendar134
The Principles of Radioactive Decay141
The Publication of Radiocarbon Results143
How to Calibrate Radiocarbon Dates144
Dating Our African Ancestors152
Dating the Thera Eruption164
Part IIDiscovering the Variety of Human Experience175
5How Were Societies Organized? Social Archaeology177
Establishing the Nature and Scale of the Society178
Further Sources of Information for Social Organization186
Techniques of Study for Mobile Hunter-Gatherer Societies194
Techniques of Study for Segmentary Societies198
Techniques of Study for Chiefdoms and States207
The Archaeology of the Individual and of Identity220
The Emergence of Identity and Society223
Investigating Gender and Childhood224
The Molecular Genetics of Social Groups and Lineages228
Further Reading230
Box Features
Settlement Patterns in Mesopotamia184
Ancient Ethnicity and Language193
Space and Density in Hunter-Gatherer Camps197
Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis201
Early Wessex202
Maya Territories209
Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDSCAL)210
Social Analysis at Moundville216
Conflict and Warfare218
Gender Relations in Early Intermediate Period Peru226
6What Was the Environment? Environmental Archaeology231
Investigating Environments on a Global Scale231
Studying the Landscape238
Reconstructing the Plant Environment245
Reconstructing the Animal Environment253
Reconstructing the Human Environment262
Further Reading274
Box Features
Reconstructing Climates from Sea and Ice Cores233
Climatic Cycles: El Nino234
Cave Sediments240
Pollen Analysis246
Elands Bay Cave260
Site Catchment Analysis264
Mapping the Ancient Environment: Cahokia and GIS266
Ancient Gardens at Kuk Swamp268
7What Did They Eat? Subsistence and Diet275
What Can Plant Foods Tell Us About Diet?276
Information from Animal Resources288
Investigating Diet, Seasonality, and Domestication from Animal Remains292
How Were Animal Resources Exploited?307
Assessing Diet from Human Remains311
Further Reading316
Box Features
Paleoethnobotany: A Case Study278
Butser Experimental Iron Age Farm280
Investigating the Rise of Farming in Western Asia286
Quantifying Animal Bones294
The Study of Animal Teeth297
Bison Drive Sites298
Farming Origins: A Case Study302
Shell Midden Analysis306
8How Did They Make and Use Tools? Technology317
Unaltered Materials: Stone321
Other Unaltered Materials334
Synthetic Materials341
Further Reading356
Box Features
Artifacts or "Geofacts" at Pedra Furada320
Raising Large Stones324
Refitting and Microwear Studies at Rekem330
Woodworking in the Somerset Levels336
Metallographic Examination347
Copper Production in Peru350
Early Steelmaking: An Ethnoarchaeological Experiment354
9What Contact Did They Have? Trade and Exchange357
The Study of Interaction357
Discovering the Sources of Traded Goods: Characterization365
The Study of Distribution374
The Study of Production382
The Study of Consumption384
Exchange and Interaction: The Complete System385
Further Reading392
Box Features
Modes of Exchange360
Materials of Prestige Value362
Analysis of Artifact Composition368
Lead Isotope Analysis372
Trend Surface Analysis375
Fall-off Analysis378
Distribution: The Uluburun Wreck380
Production: Greenstone Artifacts in Australia383
Interaction Spheres: Hopewell390
10What Did They Think? Cognitive Archaeology, Art, and Religion393
Investigating How Human Symbolizing Faculties Evolved395
Working with Symbols399
From Written Source to Cognitive Map403
Establishing Place: The Location of Memory406
Measuring the World408
Planning: Maps for the Future409
Symbols of Organization and Power412
Symbols for the Other World: The Archaeology of Religion414
Depiction: Art and Representation420
Further Reading428
Box Features
Indications of Early Thought398
Paleolithic Cave Art400
Paleolithic Portable Art402
Maya Symbols of Power414
Recognizing Cult Activity at Chavin418
Identifying Individual Artists in Ancient Greece422
Conventions of Representation in Egyptian Art424
The Interpretation of Swedish Rock Art: Archaeology as Text426
A Question of Style427
11Who Were They? What Were They Like? The Archaeology of People429
Identifying Physical Attributes430
Assessing Human Abilities440
Disease, Deformity, and Death446
Assessing Nutrition459
Population Studies460
Diversity and Evolution463
Questions of Identity467
Further Reading468
Box Features
Spitalfields: Determining Biological Age at Death434
How to Reconstruct the Face438
Looking Inside Bodies448
Life and Death Among the Inuit452
Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog456
Genetics and Language Histories462
Studying the Origins of New World Populations464
12Why Did Things Change? Explanation in Archaeology469
Migrationist and Diffusionist Explanations471
The Processual Approach473
The Form of Explanation: General or Particular481
Attempts at Explanation: One Cause or Several?484
Postprocessual or Interpretive Explanation494
Cognitive-Processual Archaeology496
Agency, Materiality, and Engagement501
Further Reading504
Box Features
Diffusionist Explanation Rejected: Great Zimbabwe472
Molecular Genetics and Population Dynamics: Europe476
The Origins of Farming: A Processual Explanation478
Marxist Archaeology: Key Features480
Language Families and Language Change482
Origins of the State 1: Peru488
Origins of the State 2: The Aegean, A Multivariate Approach490
The Classic Maya Collapse492
Explaining the European Megaliths498
The Individual as an Agent of Change502
Part IIIThe World of Archaeology505
13Archaeology in Action Five Case Studies507
The Oaxaca Projects: The Origins and Rise of the Zapotec State508
The Calusa of Florida: A Complex Hunter-Gatherer Society517
Research Among Hunter-Gatherers: Kakadu National Park, Australia523
Khok Phanom Di: The Origins of Rice Farming in Southeast Asia530
York and the Public Presentation of Archaeology536
Further Reading546
14Whose Past? Archaeology and the Public547
The Meaning of the Past: The Archaeology of Identity547
Who Owns the Past?550
The Uses of the Past556
Conservation and Destruction560
Who Interprets and Presents the Past?572
Archaeology and Public Understanding573
Further Reading578
Box Features
The Politics of Destruction: The Bamiyan Buddhas549
The Fortunes of War551
Applied Archaeology: Farming in Peru558
The Practice of CRM in the United States561
Conservation: The Great Temple of the Aztecs in Mexico City566
Destruction and Response: Mimbres568
"Collectors Are the Real Looters"570
Archaeology and the Internet574
Archaeology at the Fringe576
Notes and Bibliography588

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