Archaelogy: Theories, Methods, and Practice / Edition 4

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The best-selling textbook on what archaeologists do and how they do it—completely revised and redesigned.For the Fourth Edition, new theoretical approaches, such as agency, materiality, and engagement theory, are added and earlier approaches analyzed afresh. Field methods and scientific techniques have been updated throughout, and new emphasis is placed on climate change and its impact on human affairs. The latest information on topics as varied as the Iceman, Pleistocene extinctions, and llama domestication is included, along with the most up-to-date material on GIS and surveying technology. New topics will be introduced to emphasize the ever-changing face of modern archaeology, and additional special box features will be included, as well as discussion of the archaeological techniques needed to study the material culture of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. A key component of the new edition will be the introduction of a dedicated Web site and study guide to accompany the textbook itself. Over 600 illustrations.

Author Biography: Colin Renfrew is Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge. Paul Bahn is a prehistorian and the author of numerous books on archaeology.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780500284414
  • Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 6/19/2004
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 656
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface 9
Introduction: The Nature and Aims of Archaeology 12
Part I The Framework of Archaeology 19
1 The Searchers: The History of Archaeology 21
The Speculative Phase 22
The Beginnings of Modern Archaeology 26
Classification and Consolidation 36
A Turning Point in Archaeology 40
World Archaeology 42
Summary 52
Further Reading 52
Box Features
Pompeii: Archaeology Past and Present 24
The Impact of Evolutionary Thought 28
19th-century Pioneers of North American Archaeology 30
The Development of Field Techniques 33
Women Pioneers of Archaeology 38
Processual Archaeology: Key Concepts 41
Interpretive or Postprocessual Archaeologies 44
Interpretive Archaeologies at Catalhoyuk 46
Broadening the Frame 48
2 What is Left? The Variety of the Evidence 53
Basic Categories of Archaeological Evidence 53
Formation Processes 56
Cultural Formation Processes - How People Have Affected What Survives in the Archaeological Record 58
Natural Formation Processes - How Nature Affects What Survives in the Archaeological Record 59
Summary 74
Further Reading 74
Box Features
Experimental Archaeology 57
Wet Preservation: The Ozette Site 64
Dry Preservation: The Tomb of Tutankhamun 66
Cold Preservation 1: The Barrow Site 69
Cold Preservation 2: The Iceman 70
3 Where? Survey and Excavation of Sites and Features 75
Discovering Archaeological Sites and Features 76
Assessing the Layout of Sites and Features 93
Excavation 110
Summary 120
Further Reading 120
Box Features
The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project 78
Sampling Strategies 80
Archaeological Aerial Reconnaissance 84
Teotihuacan Mapping Project 94
Multiperiod Surface Investigations at Tell Halula 96
Underwater Archaeology 99
The Red Bay Wreck: Discovery and Excavation 100
Geophysical Survey at Roman Wroxeter 104
Measuring Magnetism 106
Controlled Archaeological Test Site 108
4 When? Dating Methods and Chronology 121
Relative Dating 122
Stratigraphy 122
Typological Sequences 124
Linguistic Dating 128
Climate and Chronology 129
Absolute Dating 132
Calendars and Historical Chronologies 133
Annual Cycles: Varves and Tree-Rings 136
Radioactive Clocks 141
Trapped Electron Dating Methods 154
Calibrated Relative Methods 159
Chronological Correlations 165
World Chronology 167
Summary 174
Further Reading 174
Box Features
The Maya Calendar 134
The Principles of Radioactive Decay 141
The Publication of Radiocarbon Results 143
How to Calibrate Radiocarbon Dates 144
Dating Our African Ancestors 152
Dating the Thera Eruption 164
Part II Discovering the Variety of Human Experience 175
5 How Were Societies Organized? Social Archaeology 177
Establishing the Nature and Scale of the Society 178
Further Sources of Information for Social Organization 186
Techniques of Study for Mobile Hunter-Gatherer Societies 194
Techniques of Study for Segmentary Societies 198
Techniques of Study for Chiefdoms and States 207
The Archaeology of the Individual and of Identity 220
The Emergence of Identity and Society 223
Investigating Gender and Childhood 224
The Molecular Genetics of Social Groups and Lineages 228
Summary 230
Further Reading 230
Box Features
Settlement Patterns in Mesopotamia 184
Ancient Ethnicity and Language 193
Space and Density in Hunter-Gatherer Camps 197
Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis 201
Early Wessex 202
Maya Territories 209
Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDSCAL) 210
Social Analysis at Moundville 216
Conflict and Warfare 218
Gender Relations in Early Intermediate Period Peru 226
6 What Was the Environment? Environmental Archaeology 231
Investigating Environments on a Global Scale 231
Studying the Landscape 238
Reconstructing the Plant Environment 245
Reconstructing the Animal Environment 253
Reconstructing the Human Environment 262
Summary 274
Further Reading 274
Box Features
Reconstructing Climates from Sea and Ice Cores 233
Climatic Cycles: El Nino 234
Cave Sediments 240
Pollen Analysis 246
Elands Bay Cave 260
Site Catchment Analysis 264
Mapping the Ancient Environment: Cahokia and GIS 266
Ancient Gardens at Kuk Swamp 268
7 What Did They Eat? Subsistence and Diet 275
What Can Plant Foods Tell Us About Diet? 276
Information from Animal Resources 288
Investigating Diet, Seasonality, and Domestication from Animal Remains 292
How Were Animal Resources Exploited? 307
Assessing Diet from Human Remains 311
Summary 316
Further Reading 316
Box Features
Paleoethnobotany: A Case Study 278
Butser Experimental Iron Age Farm 280
Investigating the Rise of Farming in Western Asia 286
Taphonomy 290
Quantifying Animal Bones 294
The Study of Animal Teeth 297
Bison Drive Sites 298
Farming Origins: A Case Study 302
Shell Midden Analysis 306
8 How Did They Make and Use Tools? Technology 317
Unaltered Materials: Stone 321
Other Unaltered Materials 334
Synthetic Materials 341
Archaeometallurgy 346
Summary 356
Further Reading 356
Box Features
Artifacts or "Geofacts" at Pedra Furada 320
Raising Large Stones 324
Refitting and Microwear Studies at Rekem 330
Woodworking in the Somerset Levels 336
Metallographic Examination 347
Copper Production in Peru 350
Early Steelmaking: An Ethnoarchaeological Experiment 354
9 What Contact Did They Have? Trade and Exchange 357
The Study of Interaction 357
Discovering the Sources of Traded Goods: Characterization 365
The Study of Distribution 374
The Study of Production 382
The Study of Consumption 384
Exchange and Interaction: The Complete System 385
Summary 391
Further Reading 392
Box Features
Modes of Exchange 360
Materials of Prestige Value 362
Analysis of Artifact Composition 368
Lead Isotope Analysis 372
Trend Surface Analysis 375
Fall-off Analysis 378
Distribution: The Uluburun Wreck 380
Production: Greenstone Artifacts in Australia 383
Interaction Spheres: Hopewell 390
10 What Did They Think? Cognitive Archaeology, Art, and Religion 393
Investigating How Human Symbolizing Faculties Evolved 395
Working with Symbols 399
From Written Source to Cognitive Map 403
Establishing Place: The Location of Memory 406
Measuring the World 408
Planning: Maps for the Future 409
Symbols of Organization and Power 412
Symbols for the Other World: The Archaeology of Religion 414
Depiction: Art and Representation 420
Summary 428
Further Reading 428
Box Features
Indications of Early Thought 398
Paleolithic Cave Art 400
Paleolithic Portable Art 402
Maya Symbols of Power 414
Recognizing Cult Activity at Chavin 418
Identifying Individual Artists in Ancient Greece 422
Conventions of Representation in Egyptian Art 424
The Interpretation of Swedish Rock Art: Archaeology as Text 426
A Question of Style 427
11 Who Were They? What Were They Like? The Archaeology of People 429
Identifying Physical Attributes 430
Assessing Human Abilities 440
Disease, Deformity, and Death 446
Assessing Nutrition 459
Population Studies 460
Diversity and Evolution 463
Questions of Identity 467
Summary 468
Further Reading 468
Box Features
Spitalfields: Determining Biological Age at Death 434
How to Reconstruct the Face 438
Looking Inside Bodies 448
Life and Death Among the Inuit 452
Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog 456
Genetics and Language Histories 462
Studying the Origins of New World Populations 464
12 Why Did Things Change? Explanation in Archaeology 469
Migrationist and Diffusionist Explanations 471
The Processual Approach 473
Applications 475
The Form of Explanation: General or Particular 481
Attempts at Explanation: One Cause or Several? 484
Postprocessual or Interpretive Explanation 494
Cognitive-Processual Archaeology 496
Agency, Materiality, and Engagement 501
Summary 503
Further Reading 504
Box Features
Diffusionist Explanation Rejected: Great Zimbabwe 472
Molecular Genetics and Population Dynamics: Europe 476
The Origins of Farming: A Processual Explanation 478
Marxist Archaeology: Key Features 480
Language Families and Language Change 482
Origins of the State 1: Peru 488
Origins of the State 2: The Aegean, A Multivariate Approach 490
The Classic Maya Collapse 492
Explaining the European Megaliths 498
The Individual as an Agent of Change 502
Part III The World of Archaeology 505
13 Archaeology in Action Five Case Studies 507
The Oaxaca Projects: The Origins and Rise of the Zapotec State 508
The Calusa of Florida: A Complex Hunter-Gatherer Society 517
Research Among Hunter-Gatherers: Kakadu National Park, Australia 523
Khok Phanom Di: The Origins of Rice Farming in Southeast Asia 530
York and the Public Presentation of Archaeology 536
Further Reading 546
14 Whose Past? Archaeology and the Public 547
The Meaning of the Past: The Archaeology of Identity 547
Who Owns the Past? 550
The Uses of the Past 556
Conservation and Destruction 560
Who Interprets and Presents the Past? 572
Archaeology and Public Understanding 573
Summary 578
Further Reading 578
Box Features
The Politics of Destruction: The Bamiyan Buddhas 549
The Fortunes of War 551
Applied Archaeology: Farming in Peru 558
The Practice of CRM in the United States 561
Conservation: The Great Temple of the Aztecs in Mexico City 566
Destruction and Response: Mimbres 568
"Collectors Are the Real Looters" 570
Archaeology and the Internet 574
Archaeology at the Fringe 576
Glossary 579
Notes and Bibliography 588
Acknowledgments 635
Index 638
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