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The Holy Bible, New International Version
Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society
NIV Archaeological Study Bible
Copyright 2005 by The Zondervan Corporation
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Published by Zondervan
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2200 B.C. 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400
The Tower of Babel
Abraham's life (c. 2166--1991 B.C.)
Isaac's life (c. 2066--1886 B.C.)
Jacob's life (c. 2006--1859 B.C.)
Joseph's life (c. 1915--1805 B.C.)
Book of Genesis written (c. 1446--1406 B.C.)
A U T H O R , P L A C E A N D DAT E O F W R I T I N G
Genesis is, strictly speaking, an anonymous work. Historical tradition, however, as well as Biblical attestation, assigns authorship to Moses
(see, e.g., Mk 12:26; Lk 24:27; Jn 1:45; Ro 10:5; 2Co 3:15). MosesÕ author ship would not have required him to write the entire book. In
fact, all of the Genesis events took place long before Moses was born, indicating that he must have used sources.We might view Moses
as an editor/historian who, in addition to receiving God's direct and supernatural communication, drew together details of the family histories
of Abraham and his descendants, as they existed in the Israelite community in Egypt, into a single text.
Scholars who question Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch (Ge--Dt) generally support one or another variant of the Documentary
Hypothesis (see 'The Documentary Hypothesis' on p. 15).
If Moses did indeed write/compile Genesis, he must have done so during the Israelites' exodus wandering period, probably between
1440 and 1400 B.C. (see 'The Store Cities of Pithom and Rameses' on p. 86, 'The Pharaoh of the Exodus' on p. 98, 'The Date of the Exodus'
on p. 106, 'The Hyksos and the Old Testament' on p. 121 and 'The Conquest of Canaan' on p. 310). Those scholars who suggest
that the Pentateuch was written as a single work during the exile typically place the date of authorship at about 550 B.C.
A U D I E N C E
Genesis records the stories of the creation, the fall into sin, the flood, the call of Abraham and the early history of the ancestors of Israel.
The Genesis stories were probably circulated among the Israelites living in Egypt, reminding them of their familial and spiritual heritage
and explaining their current situation. Genesis preserved individual stories (like those about Joseph) that could afford hope to God's
enslaved people. Promises to Abraham about the future of his progeny (e.g., 15:1--7) also would have encouraged them. Later, Israelites
directly involved in the exodus, as well as their succeeding generations, no doubt read Genesis in order to understand this piece of the
great saga of their national origin. The fulfillment of God's historical promises to the patriarchs served as a testimony to his continuing
C U LT U R A L FA C T S A N D H I G H L I G H T S
Genesis records the birth and early history of humankind. Not only did God create the physical world, but he also formed man and woman
in his own image and endowed them with the gift of free will. Over time changes took place, including humanity's fall into sin and the
resultant great flood.
Tribes, cities and civilizations ebbed and flowed, rising and declining in a rhythm that has characterized human history ever since.
Centuries passed, and at some point God chose to concentrate his particular attention on one individual from an ordinary, idol-worshiping
family---who in his turn opted to listen and obey. From such unimpressive roots began the triumphant---if often temporarily tragic---
saga of redemption history.
T I M E L I N E
INTRODUCTION TO G E N E S I S 3
A S Y O U R E A D
Note how quickly and irreversibly the human race turned its back on Eden and on perfect fellowship with God (chs. 2--3) and how God
responded (chs. 4--8). Then, through the unlikely choice of a still-childless patriarch, God began to form the family from which the Israelite
nation would spring (chs. 11--30; 49). Study the life of Joseph, from his years of slavery to his meteoric rise to power in a strange land
to his revelation to his unsuspecting brothers (chs. 42--45). This book explains how and why the Israelites came to live in Egypt, setting
the stage for what would happen to this special people in Exodus and beyond.
D I D Y O U K N O W ?
* An individual in the ancient Near East could claim rights to a well on someone else's land (21:25--30).
* The bride price paid by a husband's family was to be held in trust to provide for the wife if she were to find herself abandoned or
* A man's seal, cord and staff were symbols of his individual and corporate identity---the ancient equivalent of an I.D. card or signature
* Both the Egyptians and the Babylonians compiled 'dream books,' containing sample dreams with keys to their interpretation (40:8).
* The philosophy behind the Egyptian practice of embalming was a belief that the body was to be preserved