Archaeology: A Brief Introduction / Edition 8

Archaeology: A Brief Introduction / Edition 8

by Brian Fagan
     
 

ISBN-10: 0130994367

ISBN-13: 9780130994363

Pub. Date: 05/28/2002

Publisher: Pearson Education

Brief and highly engaging, this introduction to the fundamental principles of method and theory in archaeology begins with the goals of archaeology, then goes on to consider the basic concepts of culture, time, and space, and the finding and excavation of archaeological sites. The volume provides an introduction to archaeology and prehistory and puts culture, space

Overview

Brief and highly engaging, this introduction to the fundamental principles of method and theory in archaeology begins with the goals of archaeology, then goes on to consider the basic concepts of culture, time, and space, and the finding and excavation of archaeological sites. The volume provides an introduction to archaeology and prehistory and puts culture, space and time, the present and the past, settlement and trade in an archaeological context. It also addresses finding archaeological sites, excavation, classification and technology, ancient climate and environment and the archaeology of society. For those interested in a thorough presentation of how archaeologists study human behavior in the past.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780130994363
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Publication date:
05/28/2002
Edition description:
EIGHTH
Pages:
364
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
Author's Notexii
About the Authorxiv
1Fossils, Cities, and Civilizations: The Birth of a Science1
What Is Archaeology?4
The Beginnings of Archaeology4
The Discovery of the Ancient Civilizations9
Early American Archaeology14
Diversity, Diffusion, and Human Progress18
The Development of Modern Scientific Archaeology19
"From Them to Us": Contemporary Archaeological Theory22
Summary24
2Introducing Archaeology and Prehistory26
The Tourist, the Collector, and the Archaeologist27
Who Needs and Owns the Past?33
What Do Archaeologists Do?34
Many Sites, Many Archaeologists36
Why Is Archaeology Important?38
The Prehistory of Humankind According to Archaeologists45
Summary50
3Culture and Context52
Human Culture53
Cultural Systems55
Culture Change61
The Goals of Archaeology62
The Archaeological Record66
Context70
Summary71
4Space and Time73
Space74
Time79
Relative Chronology81
Absolute (Chronometric) Chronology86
Summary96
5Finding Archaeological Sites98
The Process of Archaeological Research99
Accidental Discovery104
Archaeological Survey106
Sampling and Archaeological Survey109
Remote Sensing111
Assessing Archaeological Sites116
Subsurface Detection Systems118
Summary120
6Excavation121
Planned Excavation: Research Design122
Types of Excavation125
Digging, Tools, People130
Recording133
Stratigraphic Observation134
Excavation Problems135
Reburial and Repatriation143
Summary145
7Classification and Technology146
Back from the Field147
Classification and Taxonomy148
Typology150
Archaeological Types151
What Do Assemblages and Artifact Patternings Mean?161
Units of Ordering164
Ancient Technologies167
Summary177
8The Present and the Past178
The Archaeological Record Again180
Site-formation Processes181
Preservation184
Middle-Range Theory and the Archaeological Record193
The Living Past193
Ethnographic Analogy195
Living Archaeology (Ethnoarchaeology)196
Experimental Archaeology199
Summary200
9Ancient Climate and Environment202
Short- and Long-term Climatic Change203
Long-term Climate Change: The Great Ice Age205
Pollen Analysis211
Short-term Climatic Change: The Holocene214
Short-term Climatic Change: El Nino215
Summary222
10Come Tell Me How You Lived223
Evidence for Subsistence224
Ancient Diet225
Animal Bones227
Plant Remains235
Birds, Fish, and Mollusks238
Rock Art239
Summary241
11Settlement and Trade242
Settlement Patterns244
Population256
Trade and Exchange258
Summary264
12The Archaeology of People265
Individuals266
Groups267
Gender275
Wider Society: Prestate and State Societies279
Religious Beliefs280
Summary286
13Explaining the Past287
Interpretation of Culture History288
Ecological/Environmental (Processual) Archaeology293
Historical Materialist Approaches296
Cognitive-Processual Archaeology298
A Glance at the Future302
Summary306
14Archaeology and You308
Archaeology as a Profession309
Academic Qualifications and Graduate School313
Thoughts on Not Becoming a Professional Archaeologist314
Our Responsibilities to the Past316
A Simple Code of Archaeological Ethics for All318
Summary318
Sites and Cultures Mentioned in the Text320
Guide to Further Reading327
Glossary of Technical Terms338
References348
Illustration Credits349
Index351

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