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Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice / Edition 3

Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice / Edition 3

by Colin Renfrew, Paul Bahn, Paul Bahn

ISBN-10: 0500281475

ISBN-13: 9780500281475

Pub. Date: 06/28/2000

Publisher: Thames & Hudson

About the Author:
Colin Renfrew is Disney Professor Emeritus of Archaeology and former Director of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at the University of Cambridge

About the Author:
Paul Bahn is a prehistorian and archaeological writer


About the Author:
Colin Renfrew is Disney Professor Emeritus of Archaeology and former Director of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at the University of Cambridge

About the Author:
Paul Bahn is a prehistorian and archaeological writer

Product Details

Thames & Hudson
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.41(w) x 9.13(h) x 1.43(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the College Edition     9
Introduction: The Nature and Aims of Archaeology     12
The Framework of Archaeology     19
The Searchers: The History of Archaeology     21
The Speculative Phase     22
The Beginnings of Modern Archaeology     26
Classification and Consolidation     32
A Turning Point in Archaeology     40
World Archaeology     41
Summary     50
Further Reading     50
Box Features
Digging Pompeii: Past and Present     24
Evolution: Darwin's Great Idea     27
North American Archaeological Pioneers     30
The Development of Field Techniques     33
Women Pioneers of Archaeology     38
Processual Archaeology: Key Concepts     41
Interpretive or Postprocessual Archaeologies     44
Catalhoyuk: Interpretive Archaeologies in Action     46
Broadening the Frame     48
What is Left?: The Variety of the Evidence     51
Basic Categories of Archaeological Evidence     51
Formation Processes     54
Cultural Formation Processes - How People Have Affected What Survives in the Archaeological Record     56
Natural FormationProcesses - How Nature Affects What Survives in the Archaeological Record     57
Summary     72
Further Reading     72
Box Features
Experimental Archaeology     55
Wet Preservation: The Ozette Site     62
Dry Preservation: The Tomb of Tutankhamun     64
Cold Preservation 1: Mountain "Mummies"     67
Cold Preservation 2: The Iceman     68
Where?: Survey and Excavation of Sites and Features     73
Discovering Archaeological Sites and Features     74
Assessing the Layout of Sites and Features     95
Excavation     107
Summary     119
Further Reading     120
Box Features
The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project     76
Sampling Strategies     80
Archaeological Sites from the Air     84
GIS and the Giza Plateau     92
Tell Halula: Multi-period Surface Investigations     98
Geophysical Survey at Roman Wroxeter     102
Measuring Magnetism     104
Controlled Archaeological Test Site     106
Underwater Archaeology     109
Excavating the Red Bay Wreck     110
When?: Dating Methods and Chronology     121
Relative Dating      122
Stratigraphy     122
Typological Sequences     124
Genetic Dating     128
Linguistic Dating     129
Climate and Chronology     129
Absolute Dating     133
Calendars and Historical Chronologies     133
Annual Cycles: Varves and Tree-Rings     137
Radioactive Clocks     141
Trapped Electron Dating Methods     154
Calibrated Relative Methods     159
Chronological Correlations     162
World Chronology     165
Summary     174
Further Reading     174
Box Features
The Maya Calendar     134
The Principles of Radioactive Decay     142
The Publication of Radiocarbon Results     144
How to Calibrate Radiocarbon Dates     146
Dating Our African Ancestors     152
Dating the Thera Eruption     164
Discovering the Variety of Human Experience     175
How Were Societies Organized?: Social Archaeology     177
Establishing the Nature and Scale of the Society     178
Further Sources of Information for Social Organization     186
Techniques of Study for Mobile Hunter-Gatherer Societies      194
Techniques of Study for Segmentary Societies     198
Techniques of Study for Chiefdoms and States     207
The Archaeology of the Individual and of Identity     220
The Emergence of Identity and Society     223
Investigating Gender and Childhood     225
The Molecular Genetics of Social Groups and Lineages     228
Summary     230
Further Reading     230
Box Features
Settlement Patterns in Mesopotamia     182
Ancient Ethnicity and Language     193
Space and Density in Hunter-Gatherer Camps     196
Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis     201
Interpreting the Landscape of Early Wessex     204
Maya Territories     208
Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDSCAL)     210
Archaeological and Social Analysis at Moundville     216
Conflict and Warfare     218
Early Intermediate Period Peru: Gender Relations     224
What Was the Environment?: Environmental Archaeology     231
Investigating Environments on a Global Scale     231
Studying the Landscape: Geoarchaeology     238
Reconstructing the Plant Environment     245
Reconstructing the Animal Environment      253
Reconstructing the Human Environment     261
Summary     274
Further Reading     274
Box Features
Sea and Ice Cores and Global Warming     233
El Nino Events     234
Cave Sediments     240
Pollen Analysis     246
Elands Bay Cave     258
Water Pollution in Ancient North America     263
Site Catchment Analysis     264
Mapping the Ancient Environment: Cahokia and GIS     266
Ancient Gardens at Kuk Swamp     268
What Did They Eat?: Subsistence and Diet     275
What Can Plant Foods Tell Us About Diet?     276
Information from Animal Resources     289
Investigating Diet, Seasonality, and Domestication from Animal Remains     291
How Were Animal Resources Exploited?     307
Assessing Diet from Human Remains     311
Summary     315
Further Reading     316
Box Features
Paleoethnobotany: A Case Study     278
Butser Experimental Iron Age Farm     282
Investigating the Rise of Farming in Western Asia     286
Taphonomy     292
Quantifying Animal Bones     294
Bison Drive Sites      296
The Study of Animal Teeth     298
Farming Origins: A Case Study     302
Shell Midden Analysis     304
How Did They Make and Use Tools?: Technology     317
Unaltered Materials: Stone     319
Other Unaltered Materials     334
Synthetic Materials     341
Archaeometallurgy     345
Summary     355
Further Reading     356
Box Features
Artifacts or "Geofacts" at Pedra Furada?     320
How Were Large Stones Raised?     324
Refitting and Microwear Studies at Rekem     330
Woodworking in the Somerset Levels     336
Metallographic Examination     347
Copper Production in Ancient Peru     348
Early Steelmaking: An Ethnoarchaeological Experiment     354
What Contact Did They Have?: Trade and Exchange     357
The Study of Interaction     357
Discovering the Sources of Traded Goods: Characterization     364
The Study of Distribution     374
The Study of Production     382
The Study of Consumption     382
Exchange and Interaction: The Complete System     384
Summary     390
Further Reading      390
Box Features
Modes of Exchange     361
Materials of Prestige Value     362
Analyzing Artifact Composition     368
Lead Isotope Analysis     372
Trend Surface Analysis     378
Fall-off Analysis     379
Distribution: The Uluburun Wreck     380
Production: Greenstone Artifacts in Australia     383
Interaction Spheres: Hopewell     389
What Did They Think?: Cognitive Archaeology, Art, and Religion     391
Investigating How Human Symbolizing Faculties Evolved     393
Working with Symbols     399
From Written Source to Cognitive Map     400
Establishing Place: The Location of Memory     403
Measuring the World     404
Planning: Maps for the Future     406
Symbols of Organization and Power     408
Symbols for the Other World: The Archaeology of Religion     412
Depiction: Art and Representation     418
Mind and Material Engagement     426
Summary     428
Further Reading     428
Box Features
Paleolithic Art     396
Clues to Early Thought     398
Maya Symbols of Power     410
The World's Oldest Sanctuary     414
Recognizing Cult Activity at Chavin     416
Identifying Individual Artists in Ancient Greece     420
Conventions of Representation in Egyptian Art     422
Sacrifice and Symbol in Mesoamerica     424
Cognition and Neuroscience     427
Who Were They? What Were They Like?: The Bioarchaeology of People     429
Identifying Physical Attributes     431
Assessing Human Abilities     441
Disease, Deformity, and Death     447
Assessing Nutrition     459
Population Studies     460
Diversity and Evolution     463
Questions of Identity     467
Summary     467
Further Reading     468
Box Features
Spitalfields: Determining Biological Age at Death     434
Facial Reconstructions     439
Examining Bodies     448
Life and Death Among the Inuit     452
Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog     456
Genetics and Language Histories     462
Studying the Origins of New World and Australian Populations     466
Why Did Things Change?: Explanation in Archaeology     469
Migrationist and Diffusionist Explanations     470
The Processual Approach     474
Applications     476
The Form of Explanation: General or Particular     482
Attempts at Explanation: One Cause or Several?     483
Postprocessual or Interpretive Explanation     491
Cognitive Archaeology     495
Agency, Materiality, and Engagement     499
Summary     502
Further Reading     502
Box Features
Diffusionist Explanation Rejected: Great Zimbabwe     472
Molecular Genetics, Population Dynamics and Climate Change: Europe     474
The Origins of Farming: A Processual Explanation     477
Marxist Archaeology: Key Features     479
Language Families and Language Change     480
Origins of the State 1: Peru     484
Origins of the State 2: The Aegean, A Multivariate Approach     488
The Classic Maya Collapse     492
Explaining the European Megaliths     496
The Individual as an Agent of Change     500
The World of Archaeology     503
Archaeology in Action: Five Case Studies     505
The Oaxaca Projects: The Origins and Rise of the Zapotec State     506
The Calusa of Florida: A Complex Hunter-Gatherer Society     515
Research Among Hunter-Gatherers: Kakadu National Park, Australia     521
Khok Phanom Di: The Origins of Rice Farming in Southeast Asia     528
York and the Public Presentation of Archaeology     534
Further Reading     544
Whose Past?: Archaeology and the Public     545
The Meaning of the Past: The Archaeology of Identity     545
Archaeological Ethics     548
Who Owns the Past?     549
The Uses of the Past     554
Conservation and Destruction     558
Who Interprets and Presents the Past?     571
Archaeology and Public Understanding     571
Summary     576
Overview     577
Further Reading     577
Box Features
The Politics of Destruction: The Bamiyan Buddhas     547
The Fortunes of War     550
Applied Archaeology: Raised Fields in Peru     556
CRM in Practice: The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Project     560
Conservation in Mexico City: The Great Temple of the Aztecs     564
Destruction and Response: Mimbres     566
"Collectors Are the Real Looters"     568
Archaeology at the Fringe     572
Internet Archaeology     574
Glossary      578
Notes and Bibliography     587
Acknowledgments     634
Index     637

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