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Members of Hernando de Soto’s 1540 march through the interior of the southeastern United States, as well as other explorers at that time, describer encounters with complex and powerful Indian chiefdoms. Until this detailed work by Marvin T. Smith, first published in 1987, scholars had argued about the role that Europeans played in the disintegration of that Mississippi culture.
Rejecting the notion that the aboriginal nations acculturated to a European pattern, Smith shows that Old World epidemic diseases caused immediate population loss in interior areas. He develops a chronological framework for the period 1540-1670 based on European trade goods, which allows him to date the aboriginal sites and to examine the tempo of demographic shifts with more precision than archaeologists before him commanded.
The effects of early European contract—documented with data that include artifacts associated with burial practices, public works, and craft specialization—traveled farther than the European explorers themselves, as depopulation led to political breakdown and social collapse.
One product of this collapse, Smith argues, was the Creek Confederacy of the eighteenth century, a mix of refugee populations who banded together in defense alliances against the Europeans and other Indians.
|1.||Problems of Culture Change||1|
|Demography and early historic period culture change||4|
|Goals of the study||6|
|The data base and methodology||8|
|2.||The Historical Background||11|
|3.||Chronology from European Trade Goods||23|
|Dating the artifacts||29|
|4.||The Demographic Collapse||54|
|Documented effects of disease||58|
|5.||The Fall of Chiefdoms||86|
|6.||The Question of Acculturation||113|
|7.||The Aftermath: Toward the Formation of the Creek Confederacy||129|
|8.||Final Considerations and Future Research||143|
|1.||Additional Site Data||149|
|2.||Chronological Parameters of Lamar Ceramics in the Wallace Reservoir||161|