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Archaeology of the Everglades / Edition 1

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Overview

Originally prepared as a report for the National Park Service in 1988, Griffin's work places the human occupation of the Everglades within the context of South Florida's unique natural environmental systems. He documents, for the first time, the little known but relatively extensive precolumbian occupation of the interior portion of the region and surveys the material culture of the Glades area. He also provides an account of the evolution of the region's climate and landscape and a history of previous archaeological research in the area and fuses ecological and material evidence into a discussion of the sequence and distribution of cultures, social organization, and lifeways of the Everglades inhabitants.

Milanich and Miller have transformed Griffin's report into an accessible, comprehensive overview of Everglades archaeology for specialists and the general public. Management plans have been removed, maps redrawn, and updates added. The result is a synthesis of the archaeology of a region that is taking center stage as various state and federal agencies cooperate to restore the health of this important ecosystem, one of the nation's most renowned natural areas and one that has been designated a World Heritage Site and a Wetland of International Importance. This book will make a key work in Florida archaeology more readily available as a springboard for future research and will also, at last, allow John Griffin's contribution to south Florida archaeology to be more widely appreciated.

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Product Details

Table of Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables
Foreword
Preface
1 The Face of South Florida 1
Climate 2
Physiographic Regions 5
Plant Associations 16
Marine Systems 18
Resources 20
Stochastic Factors 23
2 The Evolution of the Landscape 28
The Postglacial Sea-level Rise 30
The Climatic Sequence and Vegetation 43
The Edge of the Tropics 47
3 Previous Archaeological Research 50
The Discoveries on Key Marco and Frank Hamilton Cushing 54
Clarence B. Moore 56
Ales Hrdlicka and the Search for Early Humans 58
The 1920s to 1940s 60
John M. Goggin in South Florida 62
Research since the Second World War 65
4 Material Culture of the Glades Area 72
Ceramics 73
Shell Artifacts 93
Bone Artifacts 108
Stone Artifacts 117
Wooden Artifacts 122
5 Time and Space in South Florida 123
Defining the Areas and Subareas 123
Building the Glades Pottery Sequence 134
Dating the Glades Sequence 141
The Prehistory of South Florida 144
6 The Impact of Conquest 161
Ethnography 162
Depopulation 169
The Spanish Indians 175
Seminole and Mikasuki Indians 178
Historic Period Sites 183
7 The Bear Lake Site 187
Excavations 190
8 Other Test Excavations 241
Onion Key 241
The Turner River Site 250
Walter Hamilton Place 259
Hamilton Garden Patch 261
Rookery Mound 263
Cane Patch 265
Panther Mound 267
Anhinga Trail Site 271
9 Settlement 274
Settlement Types 274
Site Size and Settlement Size 279
Site Distribution 280
Temporal Distributions 282
Sites and Seasonality 287
Site Plans 290
Structures 292
10 Subsistence 294
Faunal Collections from South Florida Sites 294
Comments on the Faunal Studies 298
Mollusca 304
Floral Resources 306
Water 309
Achievement of the Coastal Adaptation 311
11 Social Organization 313
Chiefdoms and the Calusa 314
The Calusa Hierarchy 315
Archaeological Correlates 319
Wooden Artifacts and Religion 326
12 Continuity and Change 328
The Cultural Stream 328
What They Ate 332
Where They Lived 333
Relation to Neighbors 335
Conquest and Decline 336
App South Florida Vertebrate Faunal Lists 339
Bibliography 349
Index 393
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