Read an Excerpt
Architectural Graphic Standards for Residential Construction
John Wiley & Sons
Copyright © 2003
The American Institute of Architects Hardcover
All right reserved.
Fire-rated assemblies for door and window openings, used
to protect against the spread of fire and smoke, consist of a
fire-rated door or window with frame, hardware, and accessories,
including gasketing. Each component is crucial to
the overall performance of the assembly as a fire barrier.
Choices to be made regarding the enclosure of openings in
fire-rated walls include the following:
1. Fire-rated wall requirements
2. Size of opening
3. Means of egress
a. Required size per occupancy
b. Quantity and location
c. Direction of egress flow and operation of enclosure
d. Hardware requirements
e. Window egress requirements
4. Materials and finishes
6. Visibility and glazing
FIRE PROTECTION CRITERIA
NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, is a
consensus standard that establishes minimum criteria for
installing and maintaining assemblies and devices used to
protect openings in walls, ceilings, and floors from the
spread of fire and smoke. The degree of fire protection (in
hours) required for a given opening is referenced in the
model building codes (BOCA, SBCCI, and UBC) and the Life
Safety Code(NFPA 101). Fire doors are classified by hourly
references determined by testing done in accordance with
NFPA 252, Standard Method of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies
(also known as UL 10B). Further information is available
in chapter 6, section 6 of the NFPA's Fire Protection
TYPES OF OPENINGS
4-HR AND 3-HR OPENINGS (formerly class A): located in
fire walls or in walls that divide a single building into fire
1 ¼-HR AND 1-HR OPENINGS (formerly class D and B,
respectively): located in multistory vertical communication
enclosures and in 2-hr rated partitions providing horizontal
¾-HR AND 20-MIN. OPENINGS (formerly class C, E):
located in walls or partitions between rooms and corridors
with a fire-resistance rating of one hour or less.
The hourly protection rating for openings depends on the
use of the barrier, as in exit enclosures, vertical openings in
buildings, building separation walls, corridor walls, smoke
barriers, and hazardous locations. In most codes, class designations
have been replaced by hour classifications.
TYPES OF FRAMES
Fire-rated doorframes can be assembled at the factory or in
the field. Frames must be adequately anchored at the
jambs and floor according to the manufacturer's specifications.
Codes require doors to be installed in accordance
with NFPA 80. Section 2-5, Frames, indicates only labeled
frames are to be used.
LIGHT-GAUGE METAL FRAME: head and jamb members
with or without transom panel made from aluminum (45-min.
maximum rating) or light-gauge steel (1 ½-hr maximum
rating); installed over finished wall.
PRESSED STEEL (HOLLOW METAL): head and jamb members
with or without solid or glazed transoms or sidelights
made from 18-gauge or heavier steel (3-hr. maximum rating);
required for most metal doors.
The following definitions are typically used in relation to fire-rated
AUTOMATIC: providing a function without the necessity of
FIRE BARRIER: a continuous membrane, either vertical or
horizontal (for example, a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly),
that is designed and constructed with a specified fire-resistance
rating to limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement
FIRE RESISTANCE: the property of materials or their
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive
heat, hot gas, or flames under conditions of use.
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING: the time, in minutes or hours,
that materials or assemblies have withstood fire exposure
in accordance with the test procedure of NFPA 252.
LABELED: equipment or materials marked with the label,
symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization concerned
with product evaluation and acceptable to the local
jurisdiction. This organization must periodically inspect production
of labeled equipment, and the manufacturer, by
labeling the product, indicates compliance in a specified
manner with appropriate standards or performance.
NONCOMBUSTIBLE: a material that, in the form in which it
is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not aid
combustion or add appreciable heat to an ambient fire.
SELF-CLOSING: as applied to a fire door or other protective
opening, self-closing means the door is normally closed and
is equipped with an approved device that will ensure closure
after the door has been opened.
SMOKE BARRIER: a continuous membrane, either vertical
or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that
is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of
smoke. A smoke barrier may or may not have a fire-resistance
SWINGING FIRE DOORS
Outlined here are different types of swinging fire doors and
notes about the hardware used with them.
TYPES OF DOORS
1. Composite fire doors: wood, steel, or plastic sheets
bonded to and supported by a solid core material.
2. Hollow metal fire doors: flush or panel design with a
steel face of not less than 20-gauge steel.
3. Metal-clad fire-doors: flush or panel design consisting of
metal-covered wood cores or stiles and rails and insulated
panels that are covered with steel of 24-gauge or
4. Sheet metal fire doors: 22-gauge or lighter steel of corrugated,
flush sheet, or panel design.
5. Tin-clad fire doors: wood core with a terne plate or galvanized
steel facing (30- or 24-gauge).
6. Wood core doors: wood, hardboard, or plastic face
sheets bonded to a wood block or wood particleboard
core material with untreated wood edges.
1. Doors that swing in the direction of egress are preferred
for fire-rated doors.
2. Horizontal sliding and revolving doors are permitted with
1. Door hardware is provided by the builder independent of
the assembly or furnished by the manufacturer with the
door assembly. In either case, the manufacturer prepares
the door and frame to receive hardware to ensure the
integrity of the fire-rated assembly.
2. Fire doors are hung on steel ball-bearing hinges and must
be self-closing. Labeled automatic latches and door closers
can be self-operated or controlled by fail-safe devices
that activate in a fire.
3. Pairs of doors require coordinators with astragals to
ensure that both doors close.
4. Heads and jambs should be sealed with gaskets when
smoke control is required.
5. Panic hardware may be required when space occupancy
is greater than 100 people.
SLIDING DOOR UNITS
Sliding glass doors are a particular concern in securing a
building. The locking devices should include vertical rod, or
lever bolts, at top and bottom; the frame should be solid or
reinforced at the locking points; the stile must also be reinforced
at the locking points. The operating panels should be
designed so that they cannot be lifted out of their tracks
when in the locked position. Glazing and other components
should be installed from the inside so that entry cannot be
gained by disassembly.
WINDOW SECURITY DESIGN
The following items should be considered when designing
and selecting windows:
1. If accessible (residential: 12 ft vertical, 6 ft horizontal;
commercial: 18 ft vertical, 10 ft horizontal) and hidden
from public view, a higher grade is required.
2. If windows are protected by a detection device (such as
shutters, security screens, or bars), the window grade
could be irrelevant. If security screens, bars, or shutters
are used, requirements for fire exiting must be met.
3. The existence of windbreaks near a building may provide
cover for intruders.
4. The use of shades and window coverings may deter
intruders, depending on the ease of removal of these
devices or the noise from breakage. The use of lockable
shutters or rolldown blinds is very effective.
5. Window units should at least comply with ASTM F588-85
Standard Test Methods for Resistance of Window
Assemblies to Forced Entry for a minimum grade performance
and with NIJ-STD-0316, Physical Security of Window
Units, for higher grade performance.
FRAME DESIGN ELEMENTS
1. A rigid frame and sash is important to resist prying and
should be removable from the inside only.
2. The quality of the hardware and its placement and
anchorage are critical to security. Exposed removable
hinges should not be used.
3. Special attention must be given to the use of weather
stripping, since this can permit insertion of wires to
GLAZING DESIGN ELEMENTS
1. Multiple glazing systems provide a greater hazard to
entry/exit through broken-out windows.
2. Reflective glazing impedes outside daytime surveillance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR WINDOWS
1. Class IV. Very heavy fixed frames with laminated glass
over ¼ in. thick security screen, bars, or shutters with
special locking device.
2. Class III. Heavy duty sash with laminated glass over ¼
in. thick or polycarbonate glazing ¼ in. thick. Lock should
include at least two heavy duty dead locking bolts.
3. Class II. Heavy duty sash with laminated glass or polycarbonate
glazing; if wood, sash must be reinforced or
heavy; double locks required.
4. Class I. Regular glazing in commercial sash with double
locks; can be wood frame.
BUCK: a subframe of wood or metal set in a wall or partition
to support the finish frame of a door or window; also
called door buck or rough buck.
CASING: the finished, often decorative framework around a
door or window opening, especially that which is parallel to
the surrounding surface and at right angles to the jamb;
also called trim.
SUBCASING: finish frame components that support and
guide the door or sash.
HEAD: horizontal members at top of door or window.
JAMB: vertical members at sides of door or window.
STOP: integral or applied member that prevents a door or
window from swinging past its closed position, or members
that guide horizontal or vertical sliding movement.
SILL: horizontal members at bottom of door or window.
THRESHOLD: applied wood, stone, or metal plate, usually
SADDLE: part of a threshold, usually bridging dissimilar
HOLLOW METAL DOORS
Hollow metal doors are available in steel gauges ranging
from 20 to 12; which gauge to use depends on where and
how a door will be used. Consult local codes and governing
authorities for minimum gauges that may have been established.
Some manufacturers will custom make doors to a
specific design if an order is large enough.
For security, exterior moldings on exterior doors should be
welded into the door and all exposed fasteners should be
Hollow metal doors should receive at least one shop coat of
rust-inhibitive primer before delivery to the job site. In very
corrosive atmospheres, such as saltwater beach locations,
the doors and frames should be hot-dipped galvanized for
Doors can be purchased from the manufacturer with factory-applied
paint finishes in various colors.
FLUSH WOOD DOORS
SOLID CORE: wood block, single specie, maximum 2 ½ in.
width, surfaced two sides, no spaces or defects impairing
strength or visible through hardwood veneer facing.
HOLLOW CORE: wood, wood derivative, or class A insulation
SOUND-INSULATING CORE: thicknesses of 1 ¾ and 2 ¼
in.; sound transmission class rating of 36 for 1 ¾ in. and 42
for 2 ¼ in. barrier faces separated by a void or damping
compound to keep faces from vibrating in unison. Special
stops, gaskets, and threshold devices may be required.
LEAD-LINED CORE: 1/32 in. to ½ in. continuous lead sheeting
from edge to edge inside door construction; may be
reinforced with lead bolts or glued. (See UL requirements.)
GROUNDED CORE: wire mesh at center of core, grounded
with copper wire through hinges to frame.
WOOD FACE TYPES
Standard thickness face veneers range from 1/16 in. to 1/32
in.; they are bonded to hardwood with a crossband (1/10 in.
to 1/16 in.) and are the most economical and widely used
veneer type. Face veneers inhibit checking in the finish but
are difficult to refinish or repair. They can be used on all
Bonded to a crossband, 1/8 in. sawn veneers are easily refinished
Staved-block and stile-and-rail solid cores take ¼ in. sawn
veneers. These are the same as 1/8 in. sawn veneers but do
not have a crossband on stile-and-rail solid cores with horizontal
blocks. Faces can be cut with decorative grooves.
LIGHT AND LOUVER OPENINGS
Custom made to specifications, this type of door has wood
beads and slats that match the face veneer. Space
between the opening in the door and the edge of the door
can be no less than 5 in.
In hollow-core doors, the cutout area can be at most half
the height of the door. Doors with openings greater than
40% are not guaranteed. Weatherproofing of exterior doors
is required to prevent moisture from leaking into the core.
Partial finishing is available, with sealing coats in place but
the final finish applied on the job. Complete factory finishing
requires the door to be prefit and premachined.
For opaque finishes only, high or medium-low density overlay
faces of phenolic resins and cellulose fibers can be
fused to the inner faces of a hardwood door to serve as a
base for the final finish.
Laminated plastic (1/16 in. thick, minimum) can be bonded to
a wood back of two or more plies (1/16 in., minimum).
Hardboard, 1/8 in. thick and smooth on one or both sides,
can be used as a facing.
GENERAL NOTES: WOOD DOORS
1. Kiln-dried wood: moisture content at 6-12%.
2. Type I doors: fully waterproof bond, exterior and interior.
3. Type II doors: water-resistant bond, interior only.
4. Tolerances: height, width, thickness, squareness, and
warp per NWWDA standards; vary with solid vs. builtup
5. Prefit: doors at 3/16 in. less than width and 1/8 in. less in
height than nominal size, ± 1/32 in. tolerance, with vertical
6. Premachining: doors mortised for locks and cut out for
hinges when so specified.
7. Premium: for transparent finish; good/custom: for paint
or transparent finish; sound: for paint, with two coats
completely covering defects.
Panel doors consist of a framework of vertical (stile) and
horizontal (rail) members that hold solid wood or plywood
panels, glass lights, or louvers in place.
Doors are made of solid or builtup stiles, rails, and vertical
members (muntins), doweled as in NWWDA standards.
Stock material includes ponderosa pine or other Western
pine, fir, hemlock, or spruce and hardwood veneers.
Excerpted from Architectural Graphic Standards for Residential Construction
Copyright © 2003 by The American Institute of Architects Hardcover.
Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.