Argument! / Edition 2

Argument! / Edition 2

by John Gooch, Dorothy Seyler, Dorothy U. Seyler
     
 

ARGUMENT! marries solid instruction in critical reading and analysis, argument, and research strategies with a visually engaging and dynamic design. ARGUMENT! teaches students how to read with a critical eye, how to think about and respond to the ideas of others, and ultimately how to craft their own effective, relevant, and engaging arguments.

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Overview

ARGUMENT! marries solid instruction in critical reading and analysis, argument, and research strategies with a visually engaging and dynamic design. ARGUMENT! teaches students how to read with a critical eye, how to think about and respond to the ideas of others, and ultimately how to craft their own effective, relevant, and engaging arguments.

With ARGUMENT! students will learn how to acknowledge and respond to the complex arguments (both visual and textual) that exist all around them in addition to entering debates with their own strong and thoughtful voice.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780073384023
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
01/13/2012
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
480
Sales rank:
268,246
Product dimensions:
8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.50(d)

Meet the Author

Dorothy U. Seyler is professor of English at Northern Virginia Community College. A Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the College of William and Mary, Dr. Seyler holds advanced degrees from Columbia University and the State University of New York at Albany. She taught at Ohio State University, the University of Kentucky, and Nassau Community College before moving with her family to Northern Virginia.

She has coauthored Introduction to Literature and Language Power, both in second editions, and is the author of The Writer's Stance, Patterns of Reflection, in its third edition, The Reading Context, Steps to College Reading, Understanding Argument, and Read, Reason, Write, currently in its fifth edition and Doing Research, currently in its second edition. In addition, Professor Seyler has published articles in professional journals and popular magazines. She enjoys tennis, golf, and traveling, as well as writing about all three.

Table of Contents

Argument
PART ONE
[reading arguments critically]

1 Reading Arguments with a Critical Eye 2

2 Responding Critically to the Arguments of Others 22
PART TWO
[writing arguments]

3 The Basics of Argument 46

4 Writing Effective Arguments 66

5 More about Argument: Induction, Deduction, Analogy, and Logical Fallacies 86

6 The Refutation Essay 104

7 The Position Essay 118

8 The Causal Essay 134

9 The Problem/Solution Essay 150
PART THREE
[writing a researched argument]

10 Planning the Researched Argument 162

11 Evaluating and Utilizing Sources 186

12 Drafting and Revising the Researched Argument 200

13 Documenting Sources (MLA, APA, and More) 224
PART FOUR
[an anthology of contemporary arguments]

14 The Myth and Reality of the Image in American Consumer Culture 254

15 The Challenges of Living in a High-Tech, Multimedia World 270

16 Violent Media or Violent Society? 288

17 America in the Age of Obama 302

18 Students, Teachers, and Schools in the 21st Century 320

19 Freedom of Expression in the 21st Century 336

20 Enduring Controversies in a New Age: Abortion, Animal Rights, Capital Punishment, and Health Care 354

21 Marriage and Gender Roles: Changing Attitudes vs. Traditional Values 372

22 Arguing About Science: Policy, Politics, and Culture 386

23 Competing Perspectives on the American Economic and Financial Crisis 400

c h a p t e r 1

Reading Arguments with a Critical Eye

What Does an Argument Look Like? 4

Recognizing Purpose in Everyday Arguments 4

Understanding Audience in Everyday Arguments 5

Why You Need to Learn to Read and

Write Arguments. Right Now. 6

PHYLLIS KORKKI“Young Workers: U Nd 2 Improve Ur Writing Skills” 7

What You Can Expect from Your Writing Assignments 8

Why Read and Respond to the Work of Others? 8

Critical Reading and the Contexts of Argument 8

Active Reading: Use Your Mind! 9

Understanding the Arguments of Others 9

Editorial: “Music Piracy: A New Tune” 11

Examining the Context of an Argument 12

Who Is the Author? 12

Who Is the Audience? 12

What Is the Author’s Purpose? 13

What Are the Writer’s Sources of Information? 13

Understanding an Author’s Attitude and Tone 14

Denotative and Connotative Word Choice 14

Recognizing Tone 16

Analyzing an Author’s Tone 16

Analyzing for Tone: Word Choice 16

Analyzing for Tone: Sentence Structure 17

Analyzing for Tone: Metaphors 18

Analyzing for Tone: Organization and Examples 18

Analyzing for Tone: Repetition 19

Analyzing for Tone: Hyperbole,

Understatement, and Irony 19

Analyzing for Tone: Visuals 19

c h a p t e r 2

Responding Critically to the Arguments of Others

Responding to Arguments 24

Responding to Content: What Does It Say? 24

Writing Summaries 24

ABRAHAM LINCOLN“The Gettysburg Address” 24

ELLEN GOODMAN“In Praise of a Snail’s Pace” 26

Writing Paraphrases 28

BERTRAND RUSSELLFrom “A Free Man’s Worship” 29

The Analytic Response: How Is It Written? 29

Understanding Purpose and Audience in a Style Analysis 30

DAVE BARRY“In a Battle of Wits with Kitchen Appliances, I’m Toast” 31

Planning a Style Analysis 32

Drafting a Style Analysis 32

ELLEN GOODMAN“Choosing Our Families” 33

Student Essay: “Goodman’s Feast of Style” 35

The Evaluation Response: Does It Achieve Its Purpose? 36

Combining Summary, Analysis, and Evaluation: The Critique or Review 36

Knowing Your Audience 37

Understanding Your Purpose 37

Establishing a General Plan 38

Drafting the Critique or Review 38

The Research Response: How Does It Help Me Understand Other Works, Ideas, and Events? 38

DAVID LEONHARDT“Chance and Circumstance” 39

MEDICAL NEWS TODAY“Grim Warning for America’s Fast Food Consumers Offered by ‘Supersize Me’ Mice Research” 42

ALYSON WAITE“Beware of Facebook Danger” 43

PART TWO
[writing arguments]

c h a p t e r 3

The Basics of Argument

Characteristics of Argument 48

Argument Is Conversation with a Goal 48

Argument Takes a Stand on an Arguable Issue 49

Argument Uses Reasons and Evidence 49

Argument Incorporates Values 50

Argument Recognizes the Topic’s Complexity 50

The Shape of Argument 50

The Aristotelian Model 50

The Toulmin Model 52

The Language of Claims and Support 53

Types of Claims 53

Support for Claims 56

RICHARD MORIN“Paradise Lost” 58

Using Toulmin’s Terms to Analyze Arguments 61

LES SCHOBERT“Let the Zoo’s Elephants Go” 62

c h a p t e r 4

Writing Effective Arguments

BARACK OBAMAInaugural Address 68

Know Your Audience 69

Who Is My Audience? 69

What Will My Audience Already Know about My Topic? 69

Where Does My Audience Stand on the Issue? 71

How Should I Speak to My Audience? 72

Understand Your Writing Purpose 74

Move from Topic to Claim to Possible Support 74

Selecting a Topic 74

Drafting a Claim or Thesis 75

Listing Possible Grounds 75

Listing Grounds for the Other Side or Another Perspective 75

Considering the Rogerian or Conciliatory Argument 76

Planning Your Approach 77

Organizing and Drafting Your Argument 78

Revising Your Draft 78

Editing 80

Word Choice and Tone 80

Proofreading 81

DEBORAH TANNEN“We Need Higher Quality Outrage” 84

c h a p t e r 5

More about Argument: Induction, Deduction, Analogy, SLIPPERY SLOPE and Logical FallaciesInduction 88

Deduction 89

Analogy 90

Arguments That Do Not Work: Logical Fallacies 91

Causes of Illogic 92

Fallacies That Result from Oversimplifying 93

LIVESCIENCE STAFF“Why Teens Are Lousy at Chores” 94

Fallacies That Result from Ignoring the Issue 97

GREGORY KANE“To Murder Victims’ Families, Executing Killers Is Justice” 98

Letter: “Legalization of Drugs Would Solve Many

Problems for Government” 102

Letter: “Better Things to Worry about Than Smoking” 103

c h a p t e r 6

The Refutation Essay

What Is a Refutation Essay? 106

Guidelines for Writing a Refutation Essay 107

DAVID SADKER“Gender Games” 107

Using Research in Refutation Arguments 110

JIM BUIE“The Case for Legal Late-Term Abortions” 110

COLBERT I. KING“You Can’t Fight Terrorism with Racism” 114

c h a p t e r 7

The Position Essay

Characteristics of a Position Argument 120

Writing a Position Essay 120

Planning and Organizing the Position Essay 120

Counterarguments and Finding Common Ground 121

Editorial: “Ultimately We Control Our Own Privacy Levels on Facebook” 125

Drafting the Position Essay 126

BRANDON KEIM“Brain-Enhancing Drugs: Legalize ’Em, Scientists Say” 131

c h a p t e r 8

The Causal Essay

What Is a Causal Essay? 136

Characteristics of Causal Arguments 137

Recognizing Relationships in Causal Arguments 137

Mill’s Methods for Investigating Causes 138

Planning and Drafting a Causal Argument 139

Planning the Causal Argument 139

Using Visuals in the Causal Essay 141

Drafting the Causal Argument 141

Counterarguments in Causal Essays 142

A Checklist for Revision 142

GREGG EASTERBROOK“TV Really Might Cause Autism” 143

Guidelines for Analyzing Causal Arguments 145

EUGENE ROBINSON“A Specious ‘Experiment’ ” 147

c h a p t e r 9

The Problem/Solution Essay

Characteristics of Problem/Solution Arguments 152

Planning and Writing a Problem/Solution Argument 154

Drafting 155

A Checklist for Revision 156

Editorial: “Reviewing Criminal Justice” 157

Guidelines for Analyzing Problem/Solution Arguments 158

JAMES Q. WILSON“A New Strategy for the War on Drugs” 160

PART THREE[writing a researched argument]

c h a p t e r 10

Planning the Researched Argument

Finding a Workable and Manageable Topic 164

Who Is My Audience? 164

What Are the Assignment’s Time and Length Constraints? 167

What Kinds of Topics Should I Avoid? 167

How Can I Select a Good Topic? 168

Writing a Tentative Claim or Research Proposal 169

Locating Effective Print and Online Sources 170

Preparing a Working Bibliography 171

Basic Form for Books 172

Basic Form for Articles 172

Knowing Your Library 172

Locating Books 173

Using the Reference Collection 174

Basic Reference Tools 174

Using Indexes to Periodicals: In Print and Online 175

Using Indexes to Academic Journals: In Print and Online 179

Searching the Internet 180

Conducting Field Research 180

Federal, State, and Local Government Documents 180

Correspondence 182

Interviews 183

Lectures 183

Films, Tapes, Television, Online Multimedia Sources 183

Surveys, Questionnaires, and Original Research 183

c h a p t e r 11

Evaluating and Utilizing Sources

Finding Sources 188

Evaluating Sources and Maintaining Credibility 189

Documenting Sources to Avoid Plagiarism 192

What Is Common Knowledge? 194

Taking Notes on Sources 194

Using “Tags” or “Signal Phrases” to Avoid Misleading Documentation 196

c h a p t e r 12

Drafting and Revising the Researched Argument

Organizing the Paper 202

The Formal Outline 203

Drafting the Paper 204

Plan Your Time 204

Handle Documentation As You Draft 204

Choose and Maintain an Appropriate Writing Style 204

Avoid Ineffective Openings 205

Write Effective Openings 206

Compose Solid, Unifi ed Paragraphs 207

Provide Unity and Coherence 207

Guide Readers through Source Material 209

Synthesize Source Material and Your Own Ideas 210

Avoid Ineffective Conclusions 212

Write Effective Conclusions 212

Choose an Effective Title 213

The Completed Paper 213

Revising the Paper: A Checklist 213

Rewriting 214

Editing 214

Proofreading 214

c h a p t e r 13

Documenting Sources (MLA, APA, and More)

MLA Style 226

MLA In-Text (Parenthetical) Documentation 226

Preparing MLA Citations for a “Works Cited” Page 228

Author/Year or APA Style 235

APA Style: In-Text Citations 235

APA Style: Preparing a List of References 238

Sample Student Essay in APA Style 241

Footnote or Endnote Style 250

In-Text Citations 250

Footnote/Endnote Form: First (Primary) Reference 250

Sample Footnotes/Endnotes 251

Footnote/Endnote Form: Short Forms 252

Sample Bibliography 253
PART FOUR
[an anthology of contemporary arguments]

c h a p t e r 14

The Myth and Reality of the Image in American Consumer Culture

HUGH GRAHAM“The End of Consumer Culture?” 256

MICHELLE COTTLE“Turning Goys Into Girls” 260

NISSAN ADVERTISEMENT 264

ROB WALKER“Social Lubricant: How a Marketing Campaign Became the Catalyst for a Societal Debate” 265

PRODUCT PLACEMENT: MCDONALD’S AD IN 30 ROCK 267

JEFF HOWE“Why the Music Industry Hates Guitar Hero” 268

c h a p t e r 15

The Challenges of Living in a High-Tech, Multimedia World

“ACCIDENT” ADVERTISEMENT FROM APPLE (MAC VS. PC) 273

RUTH MARCUS“PowerPoint: Killer App?” 274

SAM DIAZ“Obama: ‘It is unacceptable that the United States ranks 15th in the world in broadband adoption’ ” 276

JOEL ACHENBACH“Out of the Woods: Today’s Kids Can’t See the Forest for the MTV” 277

ANDREW SULLIVAN“Society Is Dead: We Have Retreated Into the iWorld” 279

STEPHEN J. DUBNER“Is MySpace Good for Society? A Freakonomics Quorum” 281

JACQUIELYNN FLOYD“On Facebook, Biggest Threat to Your Private Data May Be You” 285

c h a p t e r 16

Violent Media or Violent Society?

GLORIA STEINEM“Supremacy Crimes” 290

KIDS, GUNS, AND TELEVISION 293

BILL RICHARDSEditorial cartoon 294

KATHERINE ELLISON“What’s Up Doc? A Bloody Outrage, That’s What” 295

AARON MCGRUDERThe Boondocks 298

BRENT STAPLES“How Hip-Hop Music Lost Its Way and Betrayed Its Fans” 299

c h a p t e r 17

America in the Age of Obama

MEET THE PRESS TRANSCRIPT, TOM BROKAW AND COLIN POWELL 304

STEVE BENSONPolitical cartoon on Barack Obama 310

STEVEN GRAY“What Obama’s Election Really Means to Black America” 311

TIME MAGAZINE COVER 313

JON MEACHAM“The Age of Obama: Obama Will Need the Spirits of Kennedy, FDR and Lincoln, and Also a Patient Public” 314

ZEB WELLS, TODD NAUCK, AND FRANK D’ARMATAThe Amazing Spider-Man, Inaugural Day edition 318

c h a p t e r 18

Students, Teachers, and Schools in the 21st Century

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION WEB SITE 322

DARYL CAGLEPolitical cartoon on standardized testing 325

GARY VARVELEditorial cartoon about education 326

BOB HERBERT“Left Behind, Way Behind” 327

CYNTHIA KOPKOWSKI MCCABE“Education Funding: Follow the Money” 328

MARY SUE COLEMAN“The Digital Library Plan: Riches We Must Share” 331

NICK TAYLOR“The Digital Library Plan: But Not at Writers’ Expense” 332

c h a p t e r 19

Freedom of Expression in the 21st Century

JOHN W. WHITEHEAD“The Schools Are Destroying Freedom of Speech” 338

KEN DAUTRICH AND JOHN BARE“Why the First Amendment (and Journalism) Might Be in Trouble” 340

MARK DAVIS“A Little Civility, Please” 343

ROBERT O’NEIL“What Limits Should Campus Networks Place on Pornography?” 344

RICK SANTORUM“A Perfect Storm: Privacy. Neutrality. Free Expression” 347

FREE SPEECH COALITION, INC. WEB SITE 349

PHOTO OF “BONG HITS 4 JESUS” BANNER 351

BRIAN FAIRRINGTONPolitical cartoon on free speech 352

c h a p t e r 20

Enduring Controversies in a New Age: Abortion, Animal Rights, Capital Punishment, and Health Care

PHOTO ABOUT RESCINDING MEXICO CITY POLICY 357

PHOTO OF ANIMAL RIGHTS PROTEST 358

STOP AERIAL WOLF HUNTING IN ALASKA WEB SITE 359

MICHAEL HOGUEIllustration about the death penalty 360

KHALIL BENDIBPolitical cartoon on race and the death penalty 361

YOUTUBE VIDEO ABOUT THE DEATH PENALTY 362

JASON LINKINS“Elizabeth Edwards: Favors Clinton’s Health Plan, Says Obama’s ‘Not Universal,’ Slams McCain’s as Ineffective” 363

MAGGIE MAHAR“Is Health Care a Right?” 365

YARON BROOK“The Right Vision of Health Care” 368

c h a p t e r 21

Marriage and Gender Roles: Changing Attitudes vs. Traditional Values

GRAPH BY TODD TRUMBULL, SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE 374

KEVIN DRUM“Gay Rights in California” 375

PROTECT MARRIAGE: VOTE “YES” ON PROPOSITION 8 WEB SITE 376

MAX MUTCHNICK“My Daughters Have No Mother” 378

DARRIN BELLPolitical cartoon on gay marriage 380

SAM SCHULMAN“The Worst Thing About Gay Marriage” 381

c h a p t e r 22

Arguing About Science: Policy, Politics, and Culture

MICHAEL M. CROW“The Challenge for the Obama Administration Science Team” 388

AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH WEB SITE 391

KENNETH R. MILLER“Trouble Ahead for Science” 393

BEN STEIN“Florida’s Darwinian Interlude” 395

LAURA K. DONOHUE“Censoring Science Won’t Make Us Any Safer” 396

c h a p t e r 23

Competing Perspectives on the American Economic and Financial Crisis

PAUL KRUGMAN“Behind the Curve” 402

THOMAS SOWELL“Bailout Politics” 404

AMERICANS UNITED FOR CHANGE ADVERTISEMENTS 406

WILLIAM WARRENPolitical cartoon on Barack Obama 407

ROBERT REICH“The Real Scandal of AIG” 408

YOUTUBE VIDEO OF JIM CRAMER ON THE TODAY SHOW 409

ROBERT J. SAMUELSON“The Shadow of Depression” 410

Credits 413

Index 419

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