Arithmetic Tests and Studies, in the Psychology of Arithmetic (Classic Reprint)by George S. Counts
This investigation is a study of the arithmetical abilities or attainments of school children as measured by an arithmetic test. The study naturally falls into two divisions, the first including chapters ii, iii, and iv, the second, chapters v and vi. In the former, the test used in the
Excerpt from Arithmetic Tests and Studies, in the Psychology of Arithmetic
This investigation is a study of the arithmetical abilities or attainments of school children as measured by an arithmetic test. The study naturally falls into two divisions, the first including chapters ii, iii, and iv, the second, chapters v and vi. In the former, the test used in the investigation is described, and results are discussed which throw light on its use. In the latter, two special studies are made in which the test is used as a measuring instrument. These five chapters will now be described in greater detail.
In chapter ii it is shown that there is a need for a spiral test in the "fundamentals" of arithmetic to be used in diagnosing city, school, class, and individual weaknesses in the various operations included in the term "fundamentals." It is further pointed out that Series A and B of the Courtis standard tests are inadequate to meet this need. The test then, as developed, composed of 15 sets of different types of examples, is described and analyzed. This is followed by a statement concerning the collection of the data upon which the remainder of the study is based.
The purpose of chapter iii is fivefold: (1) In order that the test may be of the greatest value educationally it is necessary that standard attainments for children in the various grades in each of the 15 sets be determined. This is done on the basis of results from Cleveland and Grand Rapids. The validity of these results is discussed from the standpoint of the Courtis standard scores. (2) A system of weights is derived by which it is made possible to convert the scores made by a particular group or individual in the 15 different types of arithmetical operations into a single score to represent general arithmetical attainments of the individual or group. (3) The use of the test is discussed in detail, the method by which it may be employed to diagnose city, school, class, and individual weaknesses being shown.
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