Arsenic in Drinking Water

Arsenic in Drinking Water

by National Research Council
     
 

ISBN-10: 0309063337

ISBN-13: 9780309063333

Pub. Date: 06/05/2000

Publisher: National Academies Press

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been considering a more stringent regulation of arsenic in water. A significant reduction in the maximum contaminant level (MCL) could increase compliance costs for water utilities. This book discusses the adequacy of the current EPA MCL for protecting human health in the context of stated EPA policy and provides

Overview

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been considering a more stringent regulation of arsenic in water. A significant reduction in the maximum contaminant level (MCL) could increase compliance costs for water utilities. This book discusses the adequacy of the current EPA MCL for protecting human health in the context of stated EPA policy and provides an unbiased scientific basis for deriving the arsenic standard for drinking water and surface water.

Arsenic in Drinking Water evaluates epidemiological data on the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health effects of arsenic exposure of Taiwanese populations and compares those effects with the effects of arsenic exposure demonstrated in other countriesâ€"including the United States.

The book also reviews data on toxicokinetics, metabolism, and mechanism and mode of action of arsenic to ascertain how these data could assist in assessing human health risks from arsenic exposures. This volume recommends specific changes to improve the toxicity analyses and risk characterization. The implications of the changes for EPA’s current MCL for arsenic are also described.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780309063333
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Publication date:
06/05/2000
Series:
Drinking Water
Pages:
330
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 1(9)
Introduction
10(6)
Background
11(1)
Scientific Controversies
12(1)
Organization of this Report
13(1)
References
14(2)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1988 Risk Assessment For Arsenic
16(11)
Overview of the EPA 1988 Special Report
16(5)
EPA's 1988 Risk Assessment: 10 Years Later
21(3)
Summary
24(1)
References
25(2)
Chemistry And Analysis Of Arsenic Species In Water And Biological Materials
27(56)
Summary of Arsenic Compounds in Water and Food
27(3)
Relevant Chemical Considerations
30(5)
Analysis of Arsenic Compounds
35(6)
Arsenic in Water
41(5)
Arsenic in Food
46(10)
Arsenic in Urine, Blood, Hair, and Nails
56(10)
Summary and Conclusions
66(2)
Recommendations
68(1)
References
68(15)
Health Effects Of Arsenic
83(67)
Cancer Effects
83(18)
Noncancer Effects
101(29)
Summary and Conclusion
130(3)
Recommendations
133(1)
Referecnces
133(17)
Disposition Of Inorganic Arsenic
150(27)
Absorption
150(1)
Biotransformation
151(8)
Transportation, Distribution, and Elimination
159(5)
Kinetic Model
164(1)
Summary and Conclusions
165(2)
Recommendations
167(1)
References
167(10)
Biomarkers Of Arsenic Exposure
177(16)
Arsenic in Urine
177(3)
Arsenic in Blood
180(2)
Arsenic in Hair and Nails
182(2)
Summary and Conclusions
184(1)
Recommendations
185(1)
References
186(7)
Mechanisms Of Toxicity
193(36)
Cancer Effects
193(14)
Noncancer Effects
207(6)
Summary and Conclusions
213(1)
Recommendations
214(1)
References
215(14)
Variation In Human Sensitivity
229(22)
Variation in Arsenic Metabolism
229(6)
Nutritional Status
235(8)
Summary and Conclusions
243(1)
Recommendations
244(1)
References
244(7)
Essentiality And Therapeutic Uses
251(13)
Definition of Essentiality
251(1)
Evidence for Essentiality
252(5)
Therapeutic Uses of Arsenic
257(2)
Summary and Conclusions
259(1)
Recommendations
260(1)
References
260(4)
Statistical Issues
264(35)
A Review of Dose-Response Modeling and Risk Assessment
265(2)
The EPA 1988 Analysis
267(2)
Problems with Risk Assessment Based on Ecological Data
269(4)
Internal-Cancer Data from Taiwan
273(11)
Other Issues
284(6)
Discussion
290(3)
Summary and Conclusion
293(2)
Recommendations
295(1)
References
296(3)
Risk Characterization
299(3)
References
301(1)
Addendum To Chapter 9 302(5)
Addendum To Chapter 10 307

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