Art History, Combined Volume / Edition 4

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Overview

For two-semester courses in Art History, Global Art History, and for Introductory Art courses taught from a historical perspective.

ART HISTORY provides students with the most student-friendly, contextual, and inclusive art history survey text on the market. These hallmarks make ART HISTORY the choice for instructors who seek to actively engage their students in the study of art.

This new edition of ART HISTORY is the result of a happy and productive collaboration between two scholar-teachers (Marilyn Stokstad and Michael Cothren) who share a common vision that survey courses on the history of art should be filled with as much enjoyment as erudition, and that they should foster an enthusiastic, as well as an educated, public for the visual arts.

Like its predecessors, this new edition seeks to balance formal and iconographic analysis with contextual art history in order to craft interpretations that will engage a diverse student population. Throughout the text, the visual arts are treated as part of a larger world, in which geography, politics, religion, economics, philosophy, social life, and the other fine arts are related components of a vibrant and cultural landscape.

Please visit www.pearsonhighered.com/stokstad4e more information and to view a video from author, Marilyn Stokstad, to see a chapter from the book and an online demo of the Prentice Hall Digital Art Library.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
This slipcased survey of art history covers the masterworks of the Western world and also provides exhaustive coverage of the unique traditions of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and more, producing a resource that is refreshingly global in scope. The essays, which pay special attention to the context of each artwork, are accompanied by nearly 2,000 illustrations. With a glossary of essential art terms, a special techniques section, and the inclusion of architectural drawings and plans, Stokstad's Art History is an exemplary reference for students and professionals alike.
Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
Destined to establish itself as a modern classic, this hugely informative, wholly enjoyable global history of art from prehistoric times to the present views art as a fundamental, inextricable vehicle for the human spirit. Although Western visual art and architecture receive the most attention, there is also extensive coverage of India, China, Japan, Africa, Islamic art and Pacific cultures. Few texts so wide-rangingly connect the artistic output of each period to the artists' lives, sources of funding and historical, social and political context. The 1625 stunning illustrations (761 in color) are unrivaled in their adventurous selection and quality by any book of this type. Time lines chart parallel developments across cultures and civilizations; inserts spotlight literary and intellectual trends and artists' techniques. Stokstad, art history professor at the University of Kansas, has produced both a college text and a layperson's guide that is more fun than H.W. Janson's standard History of Art, and more multicultural.
Library Journal
This newly expanded edition of a major art history survey continues to fulfill the function of the original (LJ 4/15/96), which was written as a classroom tool. Stokstad and Cateforis (art history, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence) here include additional media such as textiles, jewelry, furniture, and photography thereby enlarging the scope and approach to the study of art history as well as recognizing the social, cultural, and political aspects of the arts throughout the world. Arranged topically, each section opens with a color illustration and a vignette on a work representing the period covered. The numerous color illustrations, text boxes, and varying page designs are aimed at making this a more interesting and user-friendly research tool. Much of the text described as "the cumulative efforts of a distinguished group of scholars and educators" has been rewritten to include newly recovered or restored works of art, themes of controversy and debate, and changes in scholarship and attribution. Each volume includes an appropriate glossary, bibliography, and index. Designed to make the introduction to art history intellectually stimulating and visually exciting, this accessible, attractive edition is recommended for the reference shelves of students and teachers alike. Paula Frosch, Metropolitan Museum of Art Lib., NY Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information.
Library Journal
A new eight-pound entry in the one-volume history-of-art battle of the titans, this title competes directly with Gardner's Art Through the Ages (1926; 10th ed., 1996), Janson's History of Art (1962; 5th ed., 1995), Hartt's Art: A History (1976; 4th ed. 1993), and Honour and Fleming's The Visual Arts: A History (1982; 4th ed., 1995). Each comes with hundreds of illustrations of wildly varying quality-Stokstad's are mostly color, mostly adequate-and each attempts to combine the factual density requirements of a survey course textbook with attractive writing and narrative. In addition, at least in the recent editions, each aims to be "inclusive," discussing women and minority artists to some degree. Distinguished art historian Stokstad (Univ. of Kansas) and her coauthors, mostly colleagues, have done a creditable job. Acknowledging straight off that students today lack a deep knowledge of cultural history, Stokstad aims to be "user-friendly," and her book comes replete with a computer-like "starter kit" of definitions, explanatory text boxes on techniques, and some very good explicatory line drawings, usually architectural. Of the five competitors, four are published by Abrams and all are priced within five dollars of one another. Gardner is much more column after column of text, with little relief. Hartt, a Renaissance scholar, and Honour and Fleming, specialists in the Baroque, write with personal voices; Stokstad, a medievalist, also has a pleasant style. This reviewer recommends that libraries stock Honour and Fleming for their excellent writing and clear art historical point of view and Stockstad's work, which is well written, achieves a good balance of narrative and facts, and is the most inclusive. One caveat: The review copy of Stokstad had broken from its casing before arrival.-Jack Perry Brown, Art Inst. of Chicago Lib.
Booknews
New edition of a two-volume text that balances formalist traditions with the newer interests of contextual art history. Reaching beyond the West to include a critical examination of the arts of other regions and cultures, it covers not only paintings and sculpture but also architecture, drawings, photographs, works in metal and ceramics, textiles, and jewelry. Attractively designed and illustrated with about 1,350 color and b&w white photographs, as well as hundreds of line drawings that include architectural plans and cutaways. Oversize: 9x12<">. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205744220
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/15/2010
  • Series: MyArtsLab Series
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 1240
  • Product dimensions: 9.40 (w) x 11.20 (h) x 2.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Marilyn Stokstad, teacher, art historian, and museum curator, has been a leader in her field for decades and has served as president of the College Art Association and the International Center of Medieval Art. In 2002, she was awarded the lifetime achievement award from the National Women’s Caucus for Art. In 1997, she was awarded the Governor’s Arts Award as Kansas Art Educator of the Year and an honorary degree of doctor of humane letters by Carleton College. She is Judith Harris Murphy Distinguished Professor Emerita at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. She has also served in various leadership capacities at the University’s Spencer Museum of Art and is Consultative Curator of Medieval Art at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Missouri

Michael W. Cothren is Scheuer Family Professor of Humanities at Swarthmore College, where he has also served as Art Department Chair, Coordinator of Medieval Studies, and Divisional Chair of the Humanities. Since arriving at Swarthmore in 1978, he has taught specialized courses on Medieval, Roman, and Islamic art and architecture, as well as seminars on visual narrative and on theory and method, but he particularly enjoys teaching the survey to Swarthmore beginners. His research and publications focus on French Gothic art and architecture, most recently in a book on the stained glass of Beauvais Cathedral entitled Picturing the Celestial City. Michael is a consultative curator at the Glencairn Museum in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania. He has served on the board of the International Center of Medieval Art and as President both of the American Committee of the International Corpus Vitrearum and of his local school board. When not teaching, writing, or pursuing art historical research, you can finding him hiking in the red rocks around Sedona, Arizona.

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Read an Excerpt

Students ought to enjoy their first course in art history. Only if they do will they want to experience and appreciate the visual arts—for the rest of their lives—as offering connections to the most tangible creations of the human imagination. To this end, we continue to seek ways to make each edition of Art History a more sensitive, engaging, supportive, and accessible learning resource. The characteristics that elicited such a warm welcome when Art History was first published in 1998 remain its hallmarks today in the revised second edition. HALLMARKS OF ART HISTORY

Art History is contextual in its approach and object-based in its execution. Throughout the text we treat the visual arts, not in isolation, but within the essential contexts of history, geography, politics, religion, and other humanistic studies, and we carefully define the parameters—social, religious, political, and cultural—that either have constrained or have liberated individual artists. A feature called The Object Speaks explores the role of a work of art within its context by focusing in depth on some of the many things a work of art may have to say. At the same time that we stay grounded in the works of art that make art history distinctive among other humanistic disciplines, we emphasize the significance of the work of art.

Art History reflects the excitement and pleasures gained by studying art. In writing about art's history, we try to express our affection for the subject. Each chapter opens with a scene-setting vignette that concentrates on a work of art from that chapter. Set-off text boxes,many illustrated, present interesting, thought-provoking material. A number of them follow the theme of women in the arts—as artists and as patrons. Others give insights into discoveries and controversies. The discipline of art history is many dimensional in its possibilities, and Art History invites a positive sampling of these possibilities.

Art History is comprehensive. We reach beyond the Western tradition to examine the arts of other regions and cultures, from their beginnings to the twenty-first century. We cover not only the world's most significant paintings and works of sculpture and architecture but also drawings and prints; photographs; works in metal, ceramic, and glass; textiles; jewelry; furniture and aspects of interior design (things that were once considered only utilitarian); such temporal arts as happenings and performance art; and new mediums such as video art, installation art, and digital art. Acknowledging that the majority of survey courses concentrate on the Western tradition, we have organized the chapters on non-Western arts and cultures so that art can be studied from a global perspective within an integrated sequence of Western and non-Western art. just as smoothly, non-Western material can be skipped over without losing the thread of the western narrative.

Art History offers a pedagogical advantage. When first published, Art History was instantly embraced for its groundbreaking use of drawings and diagrams to aid readers in mastering the terminology of art history. The Elements of Architecture and Technique boxes visually explain how buildings are constructed and how artists use materials to do everything from creating cave paintings to decorating armor to making photographs. Maps and timelines guide the reader visually through the narrative. Every chapter has at least one map and a timeline, and the maps identify every site mentioned in the text. Terms specific to art history are printed in boldface type, which indicates their inclusion in the 900 word Glossary. The Bibliography, compiled for the second edition by distinguished art librarian, Susan Craig, has been updated by us for this edition.

As much as possible, without distorting the narrative of art history, we have chosen works of art that are in North American museums, galleries, and collections so that readers can most easily experience these works directly. This selection includes works from college and university galleries and museums.

Art History has a Companion Website™ that makes it possible to integrate the art history survey course with the vast power of the Internet. For students, the Stokstad Companion Website™ features Study Guide, Reference, Communication, and Personalization Modules. For instructors, the Companion Website™ has a special Faculty Module and Syllabus Manager™.

Art History comes with a complete ancillary package that includes an interactive CD-ROM with hundreds of images from the book, a student Study Guide, and an instructor's Resource Manual with Test Bank. WHAT'S NEW?

We responded to your suggestions for making Art History even more teachable. In this revised second edition, we improved the Use Notes and Starter Kit, particularly the definitions of the formal elements, adding new color and diagrams and clarifying the discussions of content, style, and medium. The introduction continues to be organized around a series of questions but has been revised. The section Nature or Art? has been upgraded and includes subsections on Styles of Representation and The Human Body as idea and ideal. The section What Is Art History? includes a subsection on Studying Art Formally and Contextually.

We fine-tuned our coverage of Ancient and Medieval art and used the opportunity of a revised edition to make a few organizational changes. The discussions of Greek and Roman art in Chapters 5 and 6 now have greater chronological flow. For example, the Canon of Polykleitos (Chap. 5) has become a text box at the beginning of the section on the Mature Classical period, where it is closer to the discussion of freestanding sculpture in the Early Classical period. The Roman Republic (Chap. 6) is now a separate topic, with Augustan styles treated under the Early Empire, along with architecture, the Roman city and home, and wall painting. Likewise, Imperial Rome is a separate topic encompassing imperial architecture, mosaics, the urban plan, monumental sculpture, and portrait sculpture.

In Chapters 7 and 8 we introduce three of the major religions of the Western world in chronological order: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Chapter 7 the discussion of early Jewish art is followed by early Christian art and then moves on to the art of the Western Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches. We have also reorganized and added images to Chapter 8, which is dedicated to Islamic art. The new organization and illustrations give readers the opportunity to study and compare the use, meaning, and appearance of such major building types as synagogues, churches, and mosques.

Art History has been updated to include the most recent scholarship, scholarly opinion, technical analysis, archaeological discoveries, and controversies. While the text's currency is not always conspicuous, revised opinion has been incorporated into discussions of art works included in previous editions. Examples include revised opinion on who commissioned the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestries and new research on the original ownership of Uccello's Battle of San Romano. We have included a page from the newly purchased Morgan Library Picture Bible with its multilingual commentaries, reevaluated and updated the discussion of Islamic art, and given increased attention to the sixteenth-century masters. We have also brought the text into the twenty-first century, with the inclusion in Chapter 29 of cutting edge contemporary artists Jeff Wall, Jennifer Steinkamp, Matthew Barney, and architect Daniel Libeskind, and with discussions of constructed realities and digital art.

More canonical works are included. We have added text and pictures for thirty-seven works of art new to this edition, including a wall painting from the Chauvet cave, the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Bronzino's Allegory with Venus and Cupid, Claude Lorrain's Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, and Courbet's The Stone Breakers, among others.

Recently cleaned and/or restored works of art and architecture are now illustrated in their cleaned or restored states. Among the many new images are Polykleitos's Spear Bearer, Cimabue's Virgin and Child Enthroned, Masaccio's Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, and Borromini's San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.

We have enhanced the picture program in several other ways. Many works formerly in black and white are now reproduced in color. We have added plans, details, additional views, or an enlarged viewing area of eleven other key images to permit closer and more accurate analysis of the art. And we have substituted higher-quality images or larger and better views for many others. These changes have appreciably increased the total number of color images.

We have strengthened the pedagogy of Art History. We are proud to present a book that is new and also looks new. Working with Sarah Touborg and her team at Prentice Hall, we have tweaked the handsome design of the second edition. The chapter opening essays and the text boxes are now easier to read. We have also revised the timelines to be more inclusive and have redrawn the maps to show topographical detail and to more clearly distinguish political or cultural boundaries. To improve the illustration program without increasing the number of pages (and the weight of the book?), we have dropped the "Parallels" feature. In addition, nine of the "boxes" are either significantly revised or new, including one on church furniture in Chapter 16, one on luxury arts in Chapter 20, and one on digital art in Chapter 29.

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Table of Contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

CONTENTS vii

PREFACE xii

WHAT’S NEW xiv

FACULTY AND STUDENT RESOURCES FOR ART HISTORY xviii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND GRATITUDE xix

USE NOTES xxi

STARTER KIT xxii

INTRODUCTION xxvi

Chapter 1 PREHISTORIC ART 1

Chapter 2 ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 27

Chapter 3 ART OF ANCIENT EGYPT 49

Chapter 4 ART OF THE ANCIENT AEGEAN 81

Chapter 5 ART OF ANCIENT GREECE 101

Chapter 6 ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ART 159

Chapter 7 JEWISH, EARLY CHRISTIAN, AND BYZANTINE ART 217

Chapter 8 ISLAMIC ART 261

Chapter 9 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BEFORE 1200 291

Chapter 10 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART BEFORE 1279 325

Chapter 11 JAPANESE ART BEFORE 1333 355

Chapter 12 ART OF THE AMERICAS BEFORE 1300 377

Chapter 13 EARLY AFRICAN ART 403

Chapter 14 EARLY MEDIEVAL ART IN EUROPE 423

Chapter 15 ROMANESQUE ART 453

Chapter 16 GOTHIC ART OF THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES 491

Chapter 17 FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 529

Chapter 18 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE 561

Chapter 19 RENAISSANCE ART IN FIFTEENTH CENTURY ITALY 593

Chapter 20 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN ITALY 631

Chapter 21 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND THE IBERIAN PENINSULA 677

Chapter 22 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 711

Chapter 23 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA AFTER 1200 771

Chapter 24 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART AFTER 1279 791

Chapter 25 JAPANESE ART AFTER 1333 813

Chapter 26 ART OF THE AMERICAS AFTER 1300 835

Chapter 27 ART OF PACIFIC CULTURES 859

Chapter 28 ART OF AFRICA IN THE MODERN ERA 879

Chapter 29 EIGHTEENTH- AND EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA 903

Chapter 30 MID- TO LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES 961

Chapter 31 MODERN ART IN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS, 1900—1950 1017

Chapter 32 THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE SINCE 1950 1083

CONTEMPORARY WORLD MAP 1136

GLOSSARY 1137

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1146

CREDITS 1158

INDEX 1163

DETAILED CONTENTS

CONTENTS vii

PREFACE xiv

WHAT’S NEW xv

FACULTY AND STUDENT RESOURCES FOR ART HISTORY xviii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND GRATITUDE xix

USE NOTES xxi

STARTER KIT xxii

INTRODUCTION xxvi

CHAPTER 1 PREHISTORIC ART 1

THE STONE AGE 2

THE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD 2

Shelter or Architecture? 4

Artifacts or Works of Art? 5

Cave Painting 8

Cave Sculptures 12

THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD 13

Architecture 13

Sculpture and Ceramics 20

NEW METALLURGY, ENDURING STONE 22

The Bronze Age 22

Rock Carvings 23

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Power of Naming 6

Intentional House Burning 20

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Prehistoric Woman and Man 24

A CLOSER LOOK

A House in Çatalhöyük 15

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Early Construction Methods 16

TECHNIQUE

Prehistoric Wall Painting 10

Pottery and Ceramics 22

RECOVERING THE PAST

How Early Art is Dated 12

CHAPTER 2 ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 27

THE FERTILE CRESCENT AND MESOPOTAMIA 28

Sumer 28

Akkad 33

Ur and Lagash 36

Babylon 37

THE HITTITES OF ANATOLIA 37

ASSYRIA 39

Kalhu (Nimrud) 39

Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad) 41

Nineveh (Kuyunjik) 43

NEO-BABYLONIA 43

PERSIA 44

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Art as Spoils of War—Protection or Theft? 32

The Code of Hammurabi 38

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

A Lyre from a Royal Tomb in Ur 34

A CLOSER LOOK

Enemies Crossing the Euphrates to Escape Assyrian Archers 41

TECHNIQUE

Cuneiform Writing 30

Textiles 43

CHAPTER 3 ART OF ANCIENT EGYPT 49

THE GIFT OF THE NILE 50

EARLY DYNASTIC EGYPT, C. 2950–2575 BCE 50

The God-Kings 50

Artistic Conventions 51

Funerary Architecture 53

THE OLD KINGDOM, C. 2575–2150 BCE 55

The Great Pyramids at Giza 55

Sculpture 59

Pictorial Relief in Tombs 61

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM, C. 1975–C. 1640 BCE 62

Portraits of Senusret III 62

Rock-Cut Tombs 62

Funerary Stelae 63

Town Planning 64

THE NEW KINGDOM, C. 1539–1075 BCE 64

The Great Temple Complexes 65

Hatshepsut 67

The Tomb of Ramose 69

Akhenaten and the Art of the Amarna Period 70

The Return to Tradition: Tutankhamun and Ramses II 72

The Books of the Dead 76

THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD, C. 1075–715 BCE 78

LATE EGYPTIAN ART, C. 715–332 BCE 79

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Egyptian Symbols 51

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel 74

A CLOSER LOOK

The Palette of Narmer 52

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Mastaba to Pyramid 55

TECHNIQUE

Preserving The Dead 56

Egyptian Pictorial Relief 65

Glassmaking 73

RECOVERING THE PAST

The Rosetta Stone 77

CHAPTER 4 ART OF THE ANCIENT AEGEAN 81

THE BRONZE AGE IN THE AEGEAN 82

THE CYCLADIC ISLANDS 82

THE MINOAN CIVILIZATION ON CRETE 84

The “Old Palace” Period, c. 1900–1700 BCE 84

The “New Palace” Period, c. 1700–1450 BCE 86

THE MYCENAEAN (HELLADIC) CULTURE 92

Helladic Architecture 92

Mycenaean Tombs 95

Ceramic Arts 99

BOXES

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Lion Gate 96

A CLOSER LOOK

The “Flotilla Fresco” from Akrotiri 92

TECHNIQUE

Aegean Metalwork 87

RECOVERING THE PAST

Pioneers of Aegean Archaeology 91

The “Mask of Agamemnon” 95

CHAPTER 5 ART OF ANCIENT GREECE 101

THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK CIVILIZATION 102

Historical Background 102

Religious Beliefs and Sacred Places 102

GREEK ART C. 900–C. 600 BCE 102

The Geometric Period 102

The Orientalizing Period 105

THE ARCHAIC PERIOD, C. 600–480 BCE 107

The Sanctuary at Delphi 107

Temples 108

Free-standing Sculpture 114

Painted Pots 117

THE EARLY CLASSICAL PERIOD, C. 480–450 BCE 120

Marble Sculpture 121

Bronze Sculpture 124

Ceramic Painting 127

THE HIGH CLASSICAL PERIOD, C. 450–400 BCE 128

The Acropolis 129

The Parthenon 130

The Propylaia and the Erechtheion 136

The Temple of Athena Nike 137

The Athenian Agora 138

City Plans 138

Stele Sculpture 140

Painting 141

THE LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD, C. 400–323 BCE 142

Sculpture 143

The Art of the Goldsmith 146

Painting and Mosaics 146

THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, 323–31/30 BCE 149

The Corinthian Order in Hellenistic Architecture 149

Sculpture 151

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Greek and Roman Deities 104

Classic and Classical 124

Who Owns the Art? The Elgin Marbles and the Euphronios Krater 135

Women at a Fountain House 139

Women Artists in Ancient Greece 148

Greek Theaters 150

The Celts 152

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Tomb of the Diver 122

A CLOSER LOOK

The Euphronios Krater 119

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

The Greek Orders 110

TECHNIQUE

Color in Greek Sculpture 113

Black-Figure and Red-Figure 120

The Canon of Polykleitos 134

RECOVERING THE PAST

The Riace Warriors 127

CHAPTER 6 ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ART 159

THE ETRUSCANS 160

Etruscan Architecture 160

Etruscan Temples 160

Tomb Chambers 162

Works in Bronze 166

THE ROMANS 168

Origins of Rome 168

Roman Religion 169

THE REPUBLIC, 509–27 BCE 169

Portrait Sculpture 169

ROMAN TEMPLES 173

THE EARLY EMPIRE, 27 BCE–96 CE 174

Art in the Age of Augustus 174

The Julio-Claudians 178

Roman Cities and the Roman Home 178

Wall Painting 181

The Flavians 187

THE HIGH IMPERIAL ART OF TRAJAN AND HADRIAN 190

Imperial Architecture 191

Imperial Portraits 201

THE LATE EMPIRE, THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES 203

The Severan Dynasty 204

The Soldier Emperors 204

Constantine the Great 208

Roman Art after Constantine 213

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Roman Writers on Art 169

Roman Portraiture 170

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Ara Pacis Augustae 176

A CLOSER LOOK

Sarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus 206

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Roman Architectural Orders 163

The Roman Arch 172

Roman Vaulting 188

Concrete 196

TECHNIQUE

Roman Mosaics 202

RECOVERING THE PAST

The Mildenhall Treasure 214

CHAPTER 7 JEWISH, EARLY CHRISTIAN, AND BYZANTINE ART 217

JEWS, CHRISTIANS, AND MUSLIMS 218

Early Jewish Art 218

Early Christian Art 222

IMPERIAL CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE AND ART 226

Architecture 226

Sculpture 229

Ravenna 230

EARLY BYZANTINE ART 233

The Golden Age of Justinian 233

Objects of Veneration and Devotion 242

Icons and Iconoclasm 244

MIDDLE BYZANTINE ART 246

Architecture and Mosaics 247

Objects of Veneration and Devotion 252

LATE BYZANTINE ART 254

Constantinople: The Chora Church 254

Moscow: Rublyov 259

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Narrative and Iconic 224

The Life of Jesus 231

Naming Christian Churches: Designation + Dedication + Location 239

Scroll and Codex 243

Iconoclasm 246

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Funerary Chapel of Theodore Metochites 256

A CLOSER LOOK

The Mosaic Floor of the Beth Alpha Synagogue 221

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Longitudinal-Plan and Central-Plan Churches 228

Pendentives and Squinches 236

RECOVERING THE PAST

Dura-Europos 223

CHAPTER 8 ISLAMIC ART 261

ISLAM AND EARLY ISLAMIC SOCIETY 262

ART AND ARCHITECTURE THROUGH THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY 265

Early Architecture 265

THE LATER PERIOD 270

Architecture of the Mediterranean 271

Architecture of the East 275

Portable Arts 276

The Arts of the Book 279

Manuscript Painting 280

ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE THREE EMPIRES 282

The Ottoman Empire 282

The Safavid Dynasty 285

Mughal Dynasty 288

THE MODERN ERA 289

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Five Pillars of Islam 267

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Great Mosque of Cordoba 268

A CLOSER LOOK

A Mamluk Glass Oil Lamp 273

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Arches 271

TECHNIQUE

Ornament 264

Carpet Making 286

CHAPTER 9 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BEFORE 1200 291

THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 292

INDUS CIVILIZATION 292

THE VEDIC PERIOD 295

THE MAURYA PERIOD 295

THE PERIOD OF THE SHUNGAS AND EARLY ANDHRAS 298

Stupas 298

Buddhist Rock-Cut Halls 302

THE KUSHAN AND LATER ANDHRA PERIODS 302

The Gandhara Style 303

The Mathura Style 303

The Southeast Indian Style 305

THE FOURTH THROUGH SEVENTH CENTURIES 306

Buddhist Sculpture 306

Painting 306

The Early Northern Temple 308

Monumental Narrative Reliefs 309

The Early Southern Temple 312

THE EIGHTH THROUGH THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES 312

The Monumental Northern Temple 313

The Monumental Southern Temple 317

The Bhakti Movement in Art 318

ART OF SOUTHEAST ASIA 319

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Buddhism 297

Hinduism 298

Mudras 304

Meaning and Ritual in Hindu Temples and Images 310

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Shiva Nataraja of the Chola Dynasty 314

A CLOSER LOOK

Descent of the Ganges Relief, Mamallapuram 313

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Stupas and Temples 301

CHAPTER 10 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART BEFORE 1279 325

THE MIDDLE KINGDOM 326

NEOLITHIC CULTURES 326

Painted Pottery Cultures 326

Liangzhu Culture 326

BRONZE AGE CHINA 328

Shang Dynasty 328

Zhou Dynasty 329

THE CHINESE EMPIRE: QIN DYNASTY 332

HAN DYNASTY 332

Philosophy and Art 333

Architecture 335

SIX DYNASTIES 335

Painting 336

Calligraphy 337

Buddhist Art and Architecture 338

SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES 338

Buddhist Art and Architecture 339

Figure Painting 343

SONG DYNASTY 344

Philosophy: Neo-Confucianism 345

Northern Song Painting 345

Southern Song Painting and Ceramics 348

THE ARTS OF KOREA 350

The Three Kingdoms Period 350

The Unified Silla Period 352

Goryeo Dynasty 352

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Chinese Characters 331

Daoism 334

Confucius and Confucianism 337

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Silk Road during the Tang Period 342

A CLOSER LOOK

Rubbing of a stone relief 335

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Pagodas 345

TECHNIQUE

Piece-Mold Casting 329

CHAPTER 11 JAPANESE ART BEFORE 1333 355

PREHISTORIC JAPAN 356

Jomon Period 356

Yayoi Period 356

Kofun Period 356

ASUKA PERIOD 359

Horyuji 360

NARA PERIOD 361

HEIAN PERIOD 363

Esoteric Buddhist Art 363

Pure Land Buddhist Art 365

Secular Painting and Calligraphy 367

KAMAKURA PERIOD 370

Pure Land Buddhist Art 371

Zen Buddhist Art 375

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Writing, Language, and Culture 357

Buddhist Symbols 362

Arms and Armor 371

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Daruma, Founder of Zen 374

A CLOSER LOOK

The Tale of Genji 368

TECHNIQUE

Joined-Block Wood Sculpture 366

RECOVERING THE PAST

The Great Buddha Hall 364

CHAPTER 12 ART OF THE AMERICAS BEFORE 1300 377

THE NEW WORLD 378

MESOAMERICA 378

The Olmec 378

Teotihuacan 381

The Maya 384

CENTRAL AMERICA 390

SOUTH AMERICA: THE CENTRAL ANDES 391

Chavin de Huantar 391

The Paracas and Nazca Cultures 392

The Moche Culture 393

NORTH AMERICA 395

The East 395

The North American Southwest 397

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Maya Writing 385

The Cosmic Ballgame 389

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Rock Art 400

A CLOSER LOOK

Maya Stela 387

TECHNIQUE

Andean Textiles 394

CHAPTER 13 EARLY AFRICAN ART 403

THE LURE OF ANCIENT AFRICA 404

AFRICA—THE CRADLE OF ART AND CIVILIZATION 404

AFRICAN ROCK ART 404

Saharan Rock Art 405

SUB-SAHARAN CIVILIZATIONS 406

Nok 407

Igbo-Ukwu 408

Ife 409

Benin 410

OTHER URBAN CENTERS 416

Jenné 416

Great Zimbabwe 417

Aksum and Lalibela 419

Kongo Kingdom 419

EXPORTING TO THE WEST 421

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Myth of “Primitive” Art 406

Southern African Rock Art 408

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

A Warrior Chief Pledging Loyalty 414

A CLOSER LOOK

Igbo-Ukwu 413

TECHNIQUE

Lost-Wax Casting 415

CHAPTER 14 EARLY MEDIEVAL ART IN EUROPE 423

THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 424

THE ART OF THE “BARBARIANS” IN EUROPE 425

The Merovingians 425

The Norse 427

The Celts and Anglo-Saxons in Britain 427

THE EARLY CHRISTIAN ART OF THE BRITISH ISLES 428

Illustrated Books 429

MOZARABIC ART IN SPAIN 433

Beatus Manuscripts 433

THE VIKING ERA 435

The Oseberg Ship 435

Picture Stones at Jelling 436

Timber Architecture 436

THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE 438

Carolingian Architecture 438

Illustrated Books 442

Carolingian Metalwork 445

OTTONIAN EUROPE 446

Ottonian Architecture 446

Ottonian Sculpture 448

Illustrated Books 450

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Defining the Middle Ages 425

The Medieval Scriptorium 432

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Lindisfarne Gospels 430

A CLOSER LOOK

Psalm 23 in the Utrecht Psalter 445

RECOVERING THE PAST

Sutton Hoo 429

CHAPTER 15 ROMANESQUE ART 453

EUROPE IN THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 454

Political and Economic Life 454

The Church 454

ROMANESQUE ART 455

ARCHITECTURE 456

“First Romanesque” 457

“Pilgrimage Churches” 457

Cluny 460

The Cistercians 463

Regional Styles in Romanesque Architecture 464

Secular Architecture: Dover Castle, England 472

ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE 473

Wiligelmo at the Cathedral of Modena 474

The Priory Church of Saint-Pierre at Moissac 474

The Church of Saint-Lazare at Autun 477

SCULPTURE IN WOOD AND BRONZE 480

Christ on the Cross (Majestat Batlló) 480

Mary as the Throne of Wisdom 480

Tomb of Rudolf of Swabia 481

Reiner of Huy 482

TEXTILES AND BOOKS 482

Chronicling History 483

Sacred Books 486

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Pilgrim’s Journey 458

Relics and Reliquaries 462

St. Bernard and Theophilus: The Monastic Controversy over the Visual Arts 464

The Paintings of San Climent in Taull: Mozarabic Meets Byzantine 468

Hildegard of Bingen 487

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Bayeux Embroidery 484

A CLOSER LOOK

The Last Judgment Tympanum at Autun 478

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

The Romanesque Church Portal 473

CHAPTER 16 GOTHIC ART OF THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES 491

THE EMERGENCE OF THE GOTHIC STYLE 492

The Rise of Urban and Intellectual Life 492

The Age of Cathedrals 493

GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 493

The Birth of Gothic at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis 494

Gothic Cathedrals 496

Art in the Age of St. Louis 507

GOTHIC ART IN ENGLAND 512

Manuscript Illumination 512

Architecture 515

GOTHIC ART IN GERMANY AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 517

Architecture 518

Sculpture 520

GOTHIC ART IN ITALY 522

Sculpture: The Pisano Family 522

Painting 525

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Abbot Suger on the Value of Art in Monasteries 493

Master Builders 502

Villard de Honnecourt 508

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Sainte-Chapelle in Paris 510

A CLOSER LOOK

The Opening of Psalm 1 in the Windmill Psalter 514

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Rib Vaulting 497

The Gothic Church 499

TECHNIQUE

Stained-Glass Windows 496

RECOVERING THE PAST

The Church of St. Francis at Assisi 523

CHAPTER 17 FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 529

FOURTEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE 530

ITALY 531

Florentine Architecture and Metalwork 532

Florentine Painting 532

Sienese Painting 539

FRANCE 547

Manuscript Illumination 547

Metalwork and Ivory 549

ENGLAND 552

Embroidery: Opus Anglicanum 552

Architecture 554

THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 554

Mysticism and Suffering 554

The Supremacy of Prague 555

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

A New Spirit in Fourteenth-Century Literature 531

The Black Death 546

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

An Ivory Chest with Scenes of Romance 550

A CLOSER LOOK

The Hours of Jeanne d’Évreux 548

TECHNIQUE

Buon Fresco 537

Cennino Cennini on Panel Painting 542

CHAPTER 18 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE 561

THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE 562

ART FOR THE FRENCH DUCAL COURTS 562

Painting and Sculpture for the Chartreuse de Champmol 562

Manuscript Illumination 566

Textiles 568

PAINTING IN FLANDERS 571

The Founders of the Flemish School 571

Painting at Mid Century: The Second Generation 580

EUROPE BEYOND FLANDERS 583

France 584

Germany and Switzerland 586

THE GRAPHIC ARTS 589

Single Sheets 589

Printed Books 589

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Altars and Altarpieces 564

Women Artists in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 566

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Ghent Altarpiece 576

A CLOSER LOOK

A Goldsmith in his Shop 581

TECHNIQUE

Oil Painting 571

Woodcuts and Engravings on Metal 590

CHAPTER 19 RENAISSANCE ART IN FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ITALY 593

HUMANISM AND THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 594

FLORENCE 594

Architecture 595

Sculpture 602

Painting 609

Painting in Florence after Masaccio 612

ITALIAN ART IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 615

Urbino 615

Mantua 620

Rome 621

The Later Fifteenth Century in Florence 623

Venice 627

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Competition Reliefs 601

The Morelli–Nerli Wedding Chests 616

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Foundling Hospital 598

A CLOSER LOOK

Primavera 626

TECHNIQUE

Renaissance Perspective 608

CHAPTER 20 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN ITALY 631

EUROPE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 632

ITALY IN THE EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY: THE HIGH RENAISSANCE 632

Three Great Artists of the Early Sixteenth Century 633

Architecture in Rome and the Vatican 650

Architecture, Painting, and Sculpture in Northern Italy 650

Venice and the Veneto 654

MANNERISM 659

Painting 660

Sculpture 665

ART AND THE COUNTER-REFORMATION 666

Art and Architecture in Rome and the Vatican 666

LATER SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN VENICE AND THE VENETO 670

Oil Painting 670

Architecture: Palladio 672

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Vitruvian Man 637

St. Peter’s Basilica 651

Women Patrons of the Arts 658

Veronese is Called before the Inquisition 671

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Raphael’s Cartoons for Tapestries in the Sistine Chapel 646

A CLOSER LOOK

The School of Athens 640

CHAPTER 21 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND THE IBERIAN PENINSULA 677

THE REFORMATION AND THE ARTS 678

GERMANY 679

Sculpture 679

Painting 680

FRANCE 689

A French Renaissance under Francis I 689

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 692

Architecture 694

Painting 694

THE NETHERLANDS 696

Art for Aristocratic and Noble Patrons 696

Antwerp 701

ENGLAND 705

Artists in the Tudor Court 705

Architecture 708

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Castle of the Ladies 690

Sculpture for the Knights of Christ at Tomar 693

Armor for Royal Games 707

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Breugel’s Cycle of the Months 702

A CLOSER LOOK

The French Ambassadors 704

TECHNIQUE

German Metalwork: A Collaborative Venture 684

CHAPTER 22 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 711

“BAROQUE” 712

ITALY 712

Architecture and Sculpture in Rome 712

Painting 718

SPAIN 729

Painting in Spain’s Golden Age 729

Architecture in Spain 734

FLANDERS AND THE NETHERLANDS 735

Flanders 735

The Dutch Republic 742

France 755

Architecture and its Decoration at Versailles 758

Painting 759

ENGLAND 765

Architecture 765

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Science and the Changing Worldview 756

Grading the Old Masters 764

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Caravaggio in the Contarelli Chapel 722

A CLOSER LOOK

Brueghel and Rubens’s Allegory of Sight 740

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Seventeenth-Century French Garden Design 760

TECHNIQUE

Etchings and Drypoint 748

CHAPTER 23 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA AFTER 1200 771

INDIA AFTER 1200 772

Buddhist Art 772

Jain Art 773

Hindu Art 774

THE BUDDHIST AND HINDU INHERITANCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 775

Theravada Buddhism in Burma and Thailand 775

Vietnamese Ceramics 777

Indonesian Traditions 778

MUGHAL PERIOD 778

Mughal Architecture 779

Mughal Painting 781

Rajput Painting 784

INDIA’S ENGAGEMENT WITH THE WEST 786

British Colonial Period 786

The Modern Period 787

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Tantric Influence in the Art of Nepal and Tibet 776

Foundations of Indian Culture 778

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Luxury Arts 782

A CLOSER LOOK

Private Audience Hall, Fatehpur Sikri 780

TECHNIQUE

Indian Painting on Paper 783

CHAPTER 24 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART AFTER 1279 791

THE MONGOL INVASIONS 792

YUAN DYNASTY 792

MING DYNASTY 795

Court and Professional Painting 796

Decorative Arts 798

Architecture and City Planning 799

The Literati Aesthetic 800

QING DYNASTY 804

Orthodox Painting 805

Individualist Painting 805

THE MODERN PERIOD 806

ARTS OF KOREA: THE JOSEON DYNASTY TO THE MODERN ERA 807

Joseon Ceramics 807

Joseon Painting 808

Modern Korea 810

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Foundations of Chinese Culture 793

Marco Polo 794

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Poet on a Mountaintop 802

A CLOSER LOOK

Spring Dawn in the Han Palace 798

TECHNIQUE

Formats of Chinese Painting 797

The Secret of Porcelain 800

CHAPTER 25 JAPANESE ART AFTER 1333 813

MUROMACHI PERIOD 814

Zen Ink Painting 814

The Zen Dry Garden 816

MOMOYAMA PERIOD 817

Architecture 818

Decorative Paintings for Shoin Rooms 818

The Tea Ceremony 820

EDO PERIOD 821

Rinpa School Painting 821

Naturalistic Painting 824

Literati Painting 825

Ukiyo-e: Pictures of the Floating World 826

Zen Painting: Buddhist Art for Rural Commoners 827

Crafts 828

THE MODERN PERIOD 829

Meiji Period Nationalist Painting 829

Japan After World War II 830

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Foundations of Japanese Culture 817

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Lacquer Box for Writing Implements 822

A CLOSER LOOK

Kosode with Design of Waves and Floral Bouquets 830

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Shoin Design 819

TECHNIQUE

Inside a Writing Box 824

Japanese Woodblock Prints 828

RECOVERING THE PAST

Craftmakers as Living National Treasures 832

CHAPTER 26 ART OF THE AMERICAS: AFTER 1300 835

THE AZTEC EMPIRE 836

Tenochtitlan 836

Sculpture 837

Featherwork 838

Manuscripts 839

THE INCA EMPIRE IN SOUTH AMERICA 840

Cuzco 841

Textiles 842

Metalwork 843

The Aftermath of the Spanish Conquest 843

NORTH AMERICA 843

The Eastern Woodlands 844

The Great Plains 846

The Northwest Coast 849

The Southwest 852

A NEW BEGINNING 855

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Navajo Night Chant 854

Craft or Art? 856

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Hamatsa Masks 850

A CLOSER LOOK

Calendar Stone 839

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Inca Masonry 842

TECHNIQUE

Basketry 845

CHAPTER 27 ART OF PACIFIC CULTURES 859

THE PEOPLING OF THE PACIFIC 860

AUSTRALIA 861

MELANESIA 862

New Guinea 863

New Ireland 865

New Britain 866

MICRONESIA 866

POLYNESIA 868

Marquesas Islands 869

Hawai’i 872

Monumental Moai on Rapa Nui 873

Samoa 874

RECENT ART IN OCEANIA 874

Pacific Arts Festival 974

BOXES

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Te-Hau-ki-Turanga 870

A CLOSER LOOK

Man’s Love Story 876

CHAPTER 28 ART OF AFRICA IN THE MODERN ERA 879

TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY AFRICA 880

Domestic Architecture 882

Children and the Continuity of Life 883

Initiation 885

The Spirit World 889

Leadership 891

Death and Ancestors 895

CONTEMPORARY ART 899

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Foundations of African Cultures 883

Divination among the Chokwe 892

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Kuba Funerary Rites 896

A CLOSER LOOK

Kongo Nkisi Nkonde 890

CHAPTER 29 EIGHTEENTH AND EARLY NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA 903

INDUSTRIAL, INTELLECTUAL, AND POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS 904

THE ROCOCO STYLE 904

Rococo Salons 905

Rococo Painting and Sculpture 906

Rococo Church Decoration 910

ITALY: THE GRAND TOUR AND NEOCLASSICISM 911

Grand Tour Portraits and Views 911

Neoclassicism in Rome 913

NEOCLASSICISM AND EARLY ROMANTICISM

IN BRITAIN 915

The Classical Revival in Architecture and Design 916

The Gothic Revival in Architecture and Design 919

Trends in British Painting 920

LATER EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN FRANCE 930

Architecture 930

Painting and Sculpture 932

ART IN SPAIN AND SPANISH AMERICA 938

Portraiture and Protest in Spain: Goya 938

The Art of the Americas under Spain 941

EARLY NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART: NEOCLASSICISM

AND ROMANTICISM 943

Neoclassicism and Romanticism in France 944

Romantic Landscape Painting 953

Gothic and Neoclassical Styles in Architecture 956

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Academies and Academy Exhibitions 924

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Raft of the “Medusa” 946

A CLOSER LOOK

Georgian Silver 919

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

Iron as a Building Material 926

TECHNIQUE

Lithography 952

CHAPTER 30 MID TO LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES 961

EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES IN THE MID TO LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY 962

FRENCH ACADEMIC ARCHITECTURE AND ART 962

Academic Architecture 963

Academic Painting and Sculpture 964

EARLY PHOTOGRAPHY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES 967

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE AVANT GARDE: REALISM AND BEYOND 971

Realism and Revolution 971

The Painter of Modern Life: Manet 976

Responses to Realism Beyond France 979

IMPRESSIONISM 984

The Landscape 984

The Figure 987

Modern Life 989

LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART AND THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERNISM 991

Post-Impressionism 992

Late Nineteenth-Century Art in Britain 997

Symbolism 1001

Late Nineteenth-Century French Sculpture 1003

Art Nouveau 1004

Cézanne and the Beginnings of Modernism 1007

THE ORIGINS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE 1009

Technology and Structure 1009

The Chicago School of Architecture 1011

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Snake Charmer 966

The Mass Dissemination of Art 974

Art on Trial in 1877 999

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Modern Artists and World Cultures 994

A CLOSER LOOK

Manet’s A Bar at the Folies-Bergère 980

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

The City Park 1014

TECHNIQUE

The Photographic Process 970

CHAPTER 31 MODERN ART IN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS, 1900–1950 1017

EUROPE AND AMERICA IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY 1018

EARLY MODERN ART IN EUROPE 1019

The Fauves: Wild Beasts of Color 1019

Picasso, Primitivism, and the Coming of Cubism 1021

The Bridge and Primitivism 1026

Independent Expressionists 1028

Spiritualism of the Blue Rider 1029

Extensions of Cubism 1031

Toward Abstraction in Sculpture 1035

Dada: Questioning Art Itself 1036

MODERNIST TENDENCIES IN AMERICA 1040

The Ashcan School 1040

Stieglitz and the “291” Gallery 1041

The Armory Show and Home-Grown Modernism 1042

EARLY MODERN ARCHITECTURE 1043

European Modernism 1045

American Modern Architecture 1046

ART BETWEEN THE WARS IN EUROPE 1048

Utilitarian Art Forms in Russia 1048

Rationalism in the Netherlands 1052

Bauhaus Art in Germany 1054

Surrealists Rearrange Our Minds 1056

Unit One in England 1060

MODERN ART IN THE AMERICAS BETWEEN THE WARS 1061

The Harlem Renaissance 1061

Rural America 1065

Canada 1067

Mexico 1068

Brazil 1070

Cuba 1071

POSTWAR ART IN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS 1071

Figural Responses and Art Informel in Europe

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM 1073

The Center Shifts: Postwar Art in New York 1073

The Formative Phase 1074

Jackson Pollock and Action Painting 1075

Color Field Painting 1079

Sculpture of the New York School 1081

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

Suppression of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany 1055

Federal Patronage for American Art During the Depression 1066

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

Guernica 1062

A CLOSER LOOK

Portrait of a German Officer 1044

ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE

The Skyscraper 1050

The International Style 1057

CHAPTER 32 THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE SINCE 1950 1083

THE WORLD SINCE THE 1950S 1084

The Art World Since the 1950s 1084

THE EXPANDING ART WORLD 1084

Assemblage 1084

Happenings and Performance Art 1085

Photography 1089

Pop Art 1090

THE DEMATERIALIZATION OF THE ART OBJECT 1094

Minimalism 1094

Conceptual and Performance Art 1095

Process Art 1097

Feminism and Art 1099

Earthworks and Site-Specific Sculpture 1102

ARCHITECTURE: MIDCENTURY MODERNISM TO POSTMODERNISM 1104

Midcentury Modernist Architecture 1104

Postmodern Architecture 1105

POSTMODERNISM 1106

Painting 1106

Postmodernism and Gender 1109

Postmodernism, Race and Ethnicity 1111

Sculpture 1112

ART, ACTIVISM, AND CONTROVERSY: THE NINETIES 1114

The Culture Wars 1115

Activist Art 1117

Postcolonial Discourse 1121

High Tech and Deconstructive Architecture 1123

Video and Film 1125

GLOBALISM: INTO THE NEW MILLENNIUM 1126

Art and Technology 1127

Art and Ambiguous Identities 1128

BOXES

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS

The Guerrilla Girls 1108

Controversies Over Public Funding for the Arts 1120

THE OBJECT SPEAKS

The Dinner Party 1100

A CLOSER LOOK

Martin Puryear, Plenty’s Boast, 1994–1995 1098

CONTEMPORARY WORLD MAP 1136

GLOSSARY 1137

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1146

CREDITS 1158

INDEX 1163

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