Art in Renaissance Italy / Edition 4

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Overview

Art mattered in the Renaissance... People expected painting, sculpture, architecture, and other forms of visual art to have a meaningful effect on their lives,” write the authors of this introduction to Italian Renaissance art.

A glance at the pages of Art in Renaissance Italy shows at once its freshness and breadth of approach, which includes thorough explanation into how and why works of art, buildings, prints, and other forms of visual production came to be. The authors also discuss how men and women of the Renaissance regarded art and artists, why works of Renaissance art look the way they do, and what this means to us. Unlike other books on the subject, this one covers not only Florence and Rome, but also Venice and the Veneto, Assisi, Siena, Milan, Pavia, Padua, Mantua, Verona, Ferrara, Urbino, and Naples—each governed in a distinctly different manner, every one with individual, political, and social structures that inevitably affected artistic styles. Spanning more than three centuries, the narrative brings to life the rich tapestry of Italian Renaissance society and the art that is its enduring legacy. Throughout, special features, including textual sources from the period and descriptions of social rituals, evoke and document the people and places of this dynamic age.

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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
This fine work by Paoletti and Radke (art history, Wesleyan Univ. and Syracuse Univ., respectively) is wide in scope, covering the years from 1300 to the late 1500s, and purposely opens discussion to include many major Italian cities, in response to Vasari's bias solely for Florence. Whereas other books are organized by time (Frederick Hartt's History of Italian Renaissance Art, Abrams, 1994. 4th ed.), by artists (Sydney J. Freedberg's Painting in Italy, Yale Univ., 1992. o.p.), or by patronage (Alison Cole's Virtue and Magnificence, Abrams, 1995), this book's essence is the relationships among artist, art, location, and public. Other recent books have used this focus, but Paoletti and Radke manage a more adroit presentation. Primary source material is interspersed throughout the text to set concepts in their historic framework. Appendixes, including city maps, ruling genealogies, and artist's biographies, are constructive. Highly suitable as an introductory text, this is an excellent choice for public libraries.-Nadine Dalton Speidel, Cuyahoga Cty. P.L., Parma, Ohio
Booknews
This combination of narrative and illustrations spans three-plus centuries, covering the social and historical context of art in not only Florence and Rome, but also Venice and the Veneto, Asissi, Siena, Milan, Pavia, Padua, Mantua, Verona, Ferrara, Urbino, and Naples<-- >identifying the distinctive artistic styles that were shaped by the political and social institutions in each area. The 576 illustrations include 140 color plates; familiar as well as rewarding unfamiliar images are presented. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205010479
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/13/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 576
  • Sales rank: 254,951
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 11.50 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

John T. Paoletti is Kenan Professor of the Humanities, Emeritus and Professor of Art History, Emeritus at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. He has published widely on the patronage of the Medici family in Florence and on Michelangelo. He has also written on art since 1945. He was formerly editor of The Art Bulletin of the College Art Association.

Gary M. Radke is a renaissance specialist and Dean’s Professor of the Humanities at Syracuse University and a Fellow of the American Academy in Rome. He has published on 13th-century Italian architecture, 15th-century sculpture, and the patronage of nuns in Renaissance Venice.

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Read an Excerpt

For four centuries the history of art produced in Renaissance Italy has been presented as a series of biographies of individual artists. Formulations such as "Michelangelo's David," "Leonardo's Last Supper," "Palladio's Villa La Rotonda" ring true to modern ears, because they celebrate the creative individuality of these masters and their works. But in structuring histories of Renaissance art around artists, rather than according to the places in which they worked, the persons and institutions whom they served, and the societal expectations they met—the point of view taken in this text—historians have often failed to indicate that the critical interrelations of these social forces with the arts gave them a compelling visual life over time. Italian Renaissance artists were no more solitary geniuses than are most architects and commercial artists today. They understood that they might gain personal recognition and fame from their creations. They also knew that their patrons—civic leaders in the case of the David, the Duke of Milan with the Last Supper, and a wealthy churchman for the Villa La Rotonda—expected even greater renown for their patronage and their astute exploitation of the visual arts.

Our point of view—that art must be seen in terms of its patronage and the specific times and circumstances in which it was created—is hardly new to art history. Many specialized studies and a number of more geographically and chronologically limited books have used such an approach. This volume, however, provides a comprehensive, fully illustrated, pan-Italian consideration of art from the thirteenth through the sixteenth century.We have broadened our consideration of the diverse traditions of cities throughout Italy, rather than focusing primarily on Florence (which has too often been used to make other centers, even well-recognized ones such as Venice and Rome, seem like cultural and artistic satellites of the Tuscan capital). Expanded geographic and stylistic parameters provide a richer picture of art produced in (renaissance Italy, including works of Florentine art that have previously been accorded marginal or problematic status. We have also rejected rigid separation of the arts by media, preferring to discuss painting, sculpture, and architecture as complementary arts, recognizing that most artists worked in a variety of forms and that they and their patrons regularly thought in terms of ensembles, not isolated masterpieces.

To set our selected works of art more firmly into their original historical fabric, we have added several special features to this book. Wherever possible, captions indicate the patron as well as the artist who created the work. "Contemporary Scene" boxes give a glimpse of daily life during the Renaissance, suggesting some of the sociological "givens" that affected people's view of the world: their religious practices, how they entertained themselves, the foods they ate, and more. "Contemporary Voice" boxes provide actual period texts, drawn not just from literary figures and the theorists and historians who wrote about art but also from authors who wrote for more mundane purposes, tempering the elite bias that a focus on patronage—or, in previous (texts, on artistic genius—can sometimes bring to art-historical discussions.

In this book we hope to make the familiar seem more intriguing and the unfamiliar more comprehensible. The picture we present necessarily includes a recognition of the ambiguities and paradoxes inherent in reconstructing past events. Chronological boundaries for each chapter are somewhat arbitrary, like all such divisions, but in general they reflect sociopolitical shifts caused by changes of governmental structures or rulers in the various cities covered. Thus the dates in the chapter titles are approximate and have to be adjusted for each of the city-states discussed.

Some readers may find that works of art they consider important—even crucial—to an understanding of the history of Renaissance art are not discussed in our text. Such "omissions," in tandem with the addition of unusual works of art, are inevitable in a book that attempts to change the very mode of presentation of the material by expanding its scope. We hope that readers will see in our selections a manifestation of the truly challenging intellectual and artistic richness of the Renaissance. The intention of this book is to provoke questions about approach and stylistic development, not to provide a new canon. We are living in a particularly vital time in historical thinking, when old prescriptive boundaries have been breached. It is critically important to participate in the adventure of these changes.

As is the case with most books of this nature, we have not footnoted the text. However, we have included a bibliography at the end, thereby recording the main source materials we have used and our profound debt to earlier scholars. This bibliography could well be treated as a guide to further reading and understanding of the art and ideas presented in the book. We have also provided a glossary of technical terms which are highlighted in the text in boldface type.

The problem of translating Italian terms into English is always an issue in books on the Renaissance. By and large we have favored English terms and English forms of names according to common usage. In the rare instances of technical terms that do not have an exact equivalent we have provided an approximate translation in the text the first time the word appears, but we then continue to use the Italian term because of its specificity. Nomenclature changed during the period under discussion, but by and large family surnames were not used. Thus artists are referred to in the text either by first name (Michelangelo and not Buonarroti), or by nickname where it was or has become the accepted form (Veronese and not Paolo Cagliari), or by surname (Vasari) if that has become customary usage. There are confusing instances in which an artists patronymic has become transformed in modern usage to a surname: thus Simone di Martino now commonly appears as Simone Martini. In these very few cases usage in the text varies, but the bibliographical references clarify how one can search for more information on the artist.

From the outset of this project Rosemary Bradley, formerly of Calmann & King, was a quietly encouraging first editor. We owe her an enormous debt of gratitude. Melanie White took over editorial responsibilities for the book after it was in process and provided firm and helpful direction at critical moments when a gargantuan project threatened to overwhelm us all. We have also been privileged to work with Lesley Ripley Greenfield, our ever-attentive editor at Calmann & King and with the ever-supportive Julia Moore at Abrams; we are grateful for their assistance and kind encouragement in realizing this project. Most particularly we wish to thank Ursula Payne who with kindly persistence, an impeccable eye for accuracy, and good humor guided us through the endless details of editing the first edition; the text is the better because of her perceptive work. For the second edition Richard Mason has guided the editorial process with a sure hand, assisted by Michael Bird and Jan Hunt, the designer. We are grateful for their help. Susan Bolsom has been the photo editor for both editions and we are deeply appreciative of her indefatigable efforts and keen eye.

Special thanks go to students at Wesleyan University and Syracuse University who read the text of the first edition critically and perceptively: Adam Borden, Jennie Diamond, Rachel Posner, Melea Press, and Lisa Rubino at Wesleyan and Sharon Brind, Alexis Drosu, Holly Hurlbun, Jennifer Mosher, and Nathan Peek at Syracuse. The following seminar students at Syracuse also helped in the revisions for the second edition of the text and deserve our gratitude: Ilya-Karina Boner, Elizabeth Butler, Rahel Elmer Reger, Julia Gardner, Caroline Hillard, Alexandra Korey, Laura Macaluso, Lia Markey, Melissa Moreton, Lisa Neal, Soonie Olson, Jenny Patten, Kimberly Santoro, Melanie Taylor, Anne Weatherly, and Julie Zappia. Monica Hahn-Koenig, Holly Hurlburt, Tricia Shapiro, and Sheena Simpson helped as researchers and their work is particularly appreciated. We also warmly acknowledge secretarial assistance from Marilyn Bergen, Linda Straub, Brenda Keating, Carol Kearney, and Tricia Irvine, who kept the project humming.

Many of our colleagues have read and commented on various aspects of this text. We are immensely grateful for their generous offers of assistance and for their criticism. Listing them by name hardly seems appropriate gratitude, but we hope that their students will see their names and realize the dedication of their teachers to their teaching and to their discipline. In particular we would like to note Steven Bule, Jill Carrington, Anthony Colantuono, Roger Crum, Anne Derbes, Phillip Earenfight, Patricia Emison, Adrian Hoch, Ellen Longsworth) Sarah McHam, Susan McKillop, Anita Moskowitz, Gabriele Neher, Jonathan Nelson, Joy Pepe, James Saslow, Richard Turner, Mary Vaccaro, and Shelley Zuraw. David Gillertnan also read portions of the text at various stages of its evolution and consistently offered trenchant, critical, and creative suggestions.

We would like to thank Caroline Bruzelius, the former director of the American Academy in Rome, and the entire staff of the Academy for their hospitality and assistance at a critical moment in the generation of this book, and Suzanne Boorsch of the Metropolitan Museum of Art for sharing her knowledge of printed images of Rome and for supplying urgently needed illustrative material. We are also appreciative of the assistance of Denise Allen and Peggy Fogelman in obtaining the images of the lost-wax process that appear in the Introduction (Fig. 27), and to Francesca Bewer for the diagram and succinct text of that process.

The staffs of numerous libraries have also been of enormous assistance in helping us to find the extraordinary range of research materials necessary for the writing of a book such as this one. Among the most supportive were Kathleen Stefanowicz and the late Steven Lebergott of the interlibrary loan office of the Olin Library of Wesleyan University, Susanne Javorski, the art reference librarian at Wesleyan, and Randy Bond at the Fine Arts Library of Syracuse University.

Of course our greatest gratitude goes to our wives, Nancy Romig Radke and Leslie Hiles Paoletti, who watched this book grow from the outset, heard more about the difficulties of putting nearly four centuries of Italian an between two covers than they ever needed to know, and still managed to encourage us in our work. While this book is dedicated to our children, it also belongs to them.

John Paoletti, Gary Radke, February 2001

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Table of Contents

IN THIS SECTION:

1.) BRIEF
2.) COMPREHENSIVE


BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Preface 10

Introduction: Art in Context 12

Part I: The Late Thirteenth and the Fourteenth Century 46

Chapter 1 The Origins of the Renaissance 48

Chapter 2 Rome: Artists, Popes, and Cardinals 56

Chapter 3 Assisi and Padua: Narrative Realism 67

Chapter 4 Florence: Traditions and Innovations 78

Chapter 5 Siena: City of the Virgin 99

Chapter 6 Naples: Art for a Royal Kingdom 122

Chapter 7 Venice: The Most Serene Republic 136

Chapter 8 Pisa and Florence: Social Upheaval 153

Chapter 9 Visconti Milan and Carrara Padua 174

Part II: The Fifteenth Century 200

Chapter 10 Florence: Commune and Guild 202

Chapter 11 Florence: The Medici and Political Propaganda 249

Chapter 12 Rome: Re-establishing Papal Power 286

Chapter 13 Venice: Affirming the Past and Present 311

Chapter 14 Courtly Art: The Gothic and Classic 333

Chapter 15 Sforza Milan: Ducal Splendor 362

Part III: The First Half of the Sixteenth Century 384

Chapter 16 Florence: The Renewed Republic 386

Chapter 17 Rome: Julius II, Leo X, and Clement VII 396

Chapter 18 Florence: Mannerism and the Medici 424

Chapter 19 Mantua, Parma, and Genoa: The Arts at Court 439

Chapter 20 Venice: Vision and Monumentality 451

Part IV: The Later Sixteenth Century 486

Chapter 21 The Rome of Paul III 488

Chapter 22 Northern Italy: Reform and Innovation 501

Chapter 23 Florence under Cosimo I 517

Chapter 24 Rome: A European Capital City 531

Genealogies 548

List of Popes 553

List of Venetian Doges 553

Time Chart 554

Glossary 556

Bibliography 558

Literary Credits, Picture Credits 566

Index 567


COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Preface 10

Introduction: Art in Context 12

Contemporary Scene: Art and Offerings 14

Patronage 16

Artists’ Workshops 17

The Image of the Artist 17

Contemporary Voice: An Artist’s Life 18

Workshop Training 20

Contracts 21

Materials and Methods 22

The Painting Studio 22

Wall Painting 22

Tempera and Oil Painting 24

Mosaic and Stained Glass 26

The Sculpture Workshop 27

Contemporary Voice: Terms of Employment 27

Bronze Sculpture 31

Drawings 32

Architecture 33

Other Workshops 34

Print Media 35

Renovations and Restorations 35

Historiography and Methodology 41

Vasari’s Three Ages 41

Contemporary Voice: Fashioning the Female Artist 42

Naming the Renaissance 43

Part I: The Late Thirteenth and the Fourteenth Century 46

Chapter 1 The Origins of the Renaissance 48

St. Francis and the Beginnings of Renaissance Art 48

Francis of Assisi 49

Contemporary Voice: Francis as Another Christ 50

The San Damiano Crucifix: Christus triumphans 50

Christus patiens 50

Defining St. Francis 52

St. Clare 53

Style and Meaning 53

Urban Contexts 55

Types of Cities 55

Chapter 2 Rome: Artists, Popes, and Cardinals 56

Rome’s Revival under Nicholas III 57

The Sancta Sanctorum 58

Nicholas IV at Santa Maria Maggiore 59

Contemporary Scene: Art and Miracles 60

Patrons from the Papal Curia 62

Pope Boniface VIII and an Imperial Language of Power 64

Creating Images for an Absent Papacy 65

Chapter 3 Assisi and Padua: Narrative Realism 67

Frescoes in San Francesco 69

Nave Frescoes 69

Contemporary Voice: St. Francis and the Christ Child 70

Padua: The Scrovegni Chapel 72

Chapter 4 Florence: Traditions and Innovations 78

St. John the Baptist and the Baptistry 80

The Palazzo della Signoria and Urban Planning 81

Mendicant Churches 83

Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella 83

Altarpieces Dedicated to the Virgin 84

Cimabue’s Altarpiece for Santa Trinita 84

Duccio’s Altarpiece for the Confraternity of the Laudesi 85

Giotto’s Ognissanti Madonna 86

Santa Croce Frescoes 86

The Bardi Chapel 87

The Peruzzi Chapel 89

The Baroncelli Chapel 90

Altarpieces for Santa Croce 93

The Santa Croce Refectory Frescoes 94

The Cathedral Complex 95

Andrea Pisano’s Baptistry Doors 96

Chapter 5 Siena: City of the Virgin 99

The Cathedral 100

The Pulpit 101

The Façade 102

Duccio’s Maestà 103

Contemporary Voice: The Procession of the Maestà 104

Altarpieces in the Transept Chapels 106

Later Sienese Altar Painting 109

The Palazzo Pubblico 111

Simone Martini’s Maestà for the Palazzo Pubblico 111

Lippo Memmi’s Maestà for San Gimignano 112

Contemporary Scene: Art and Popular Piety 112

Secular Imagery in the Scala del Consiglio 114

The Sala della Pace: “Good Government” 114

Siena’s Political System and Civic Art 118

Painting in the Palazzo Pubblico 118

Enhancements to the Campo 120

Chapter 6 Naples: Art for a Royal Kingdom 122

The Court and the Importation of Artists 122

Consolidating Angevin Rule: A Queen’s Commissions 126

Cavallini and Giotto in Naples 127

Robert of Anjou 128

The Altarpiece of St. Louis 128

Sancia of Majorca and the Church of Santa Chiara 130

Tomb Monuments and Robert the Wise 131

The Tomb of Mary of Hungary 131

The Tomb of Robert of Anjou 132

The End of the Angevin Dynasty in Naples 132

Queen Giovanna II and the Monument to King Ladislas 135

The Caracciolo Chapel 135

Chapter 7 Venice: The Most Serene Republic 136

St. Mark’s Basilica 138

Piazza San Marco 138

Images of the State and the Individual 140

Doge Andrea Dandolo 141

Enhancements to St. Mark’s 141

The Pala d’Oro 141

Contemporary Voice: The Image as Document 143

St. Mark’s Baptistry 143

The Choir Screen 144

The Façade 145

The Church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo 145

The Tomb of Doge Michele Morosini 146

The Doge’s Palace 146

Contemporary Scene: Art and Violence 147

Santo Stefano 147

Sculpture on the Doge’s Palace 148

Painting in the Doge’s Palace 150

Chapter 8 Pisa and Florence: Social Upheaval 153

The Camposanto Frescoes in Pisa 153

Santa Maria Novella in Florence 156

The Strozzi Chapel 156

The Strozzi Altarpiece 157

The Guidalotti Chapel 159

The Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas 159

The Way of Salvation 161

Social Upheaval and Civic Works in Florence 163

Contemporary Voice: The Bridge of Salvation 163

Or San Michele 166

Family Commissions 168

The Legend of the True Cross 169

Frescoes at San Miniato 170

Other Civic Imagery 171

Domestic Painting 173

Chapter 9 Visconti Milan and Carrara Padua 174

Milan: The Visconti Court 174

Azzone Visconti and the Idea of Magnificence 176

Contemporary Voice: In Praise of Magnificence 177

Azzone Visconti’s Tomb 178

Embellishment of the City 178

The Altarpiece of the Magi 180

The Equestrian Monument of Bernabò Visconti 181

The Cansignorio della Scala Monument in Verona 182

The Castello Visconteo 183

Manuscript Illumination 183

Padua: The Carrara Court 184

Contemporary Scene: Art and Gastronomy 185

The Padua Baptistry 187

Contemporary Voice: Illustrious Men 188

Patronage at the Santo 188

The St. James (San Felice) Chapel 188

St. Anthony of Padua 189

The Oratory of St. George 190

Milan: Giangaleazzo Visconti 190

The Certosa of Pavia 191

Cathedral Architecture 191

Cathedral Sculpture 194

The International Gothic Style 194

Manuscript Illumination 195

Michelino da Besozzo 196

Secular Frescoes 197

The Last Visconti and the Durability of the

International Style 198

Part II: The Fifteenth Century 200

Chapter 10 Florence: Commune and Guild 202

Sculpture for the Cathedral Complex 202

The Competition for the Second Baptistry Doors 203

Contemporary Voice: Ghiberti versus Brunelleschi 205

Buttress Sculpture 207

Façade Sculpture 210

Or San Michele 210

Brunelleschi and Florentine Civic Architecture 215

The Foundling Hospital 215

The Dome of the Cathedral 216

Contemporary Scene: Art and Childbirth 217

Contemporary Voice: In Praise of Artists 218

Family Commissions 219

The Bartolini-Salimbeni Chapel 220

The Strozzi Chapel at Santa Trinita 223

The Quaratesi Altarpiece 223

Masaccio’s Pisa Aaltarpiece 224

Altarpieces at Mid-Century 225

Masaccio: The Brancacci Chapel and Narrative Fresco Cycles 228

The Trinity and Single-Point Perspective 232

Castagno at Sant’Apollonia 234

Excursus: The Impact of Florentine Art Outside the City 235

Ghiberti and Donatello in Siena 235

Quercia in Bologna 237

Piero della Francesca in Arezzo 238

Civic Commemoration in Florence 240

Monument to Sir John Hawkwood 240

The Cantorie 242

The Tomb of Leonardo Bruni 244

The Gates of Paradise 245

Chapter 11 Florence: The Medici and Political Propaganda 249

The Medici’s Civic and Domestic Commissions 250

San Lorenzo 250

The Old Sacristy 251

San Marco 254

The Medici Palace 256

Contemporary Voice: A Job Application 256

Portrait Busts 258

The Medici Chapel 259

Other Decorations 260

Excursus: Donatello in Padua 262

The Santo Altarpiece 262

The Gattamelata Monument 263

The Medici and Donatello’s Late Work 264

Donatello’s Bronze David and Judith and Holofernes 264

The San Lorenzo Pulpits 267

The Golden Age and Lorenzo the Magnificent 268

The Tomb of Piero and Giovanni de’ Medici 269

The Mercanzia Niche at Or San Michele 269

The Devotional Image 270

Family Chapels 273

The Sassetti Chapel 273

The Strozzi Chapel 275

Portraiture 276

The Architecture of Magnificence 277

The Façade of Santa Maria Novella 277

The Strozzi Palace 278

Classical Antiquity and the Golden Age 279

Antiquarianism 282

Savonarola and Reform 284

Chapter 12 Rome: Re-establishing Papal Power286

Martin V, Eugenius IV, and Nicholas V 286

A Cautionary Fresco 287

The Papal Basilicas 287

Santa Maria Maggiore 287

St. Peter’s 288

The Vatican Palace 290

Contemporary Voice: Ruins and Dreams 291

Pius II 292

Cardinals’ Commissions 295

Pienza 296

Paul II 297

Palazzo Venezia 297

A Roman School of Painting 298

Sixtus IV: Roma Caput Mundi 299

The Papal Family 300

The Hospital of Santo Spirito 300

Roman Churches 300

Santa Maria del Popolo 300

Sant’Agostino 302

Commemorative Monuments 302

The Cancelleria 303

The Sistine Chapel 303

Innocent VIII and Alexander VI: Power and Pleasure 306

Cardinals’ Commissions 308

The Carafa Chapel 308

Contemporary Scene: Art and the Collector 309

Michelangelo’s Pietà 310

Chapter 13 Venice: Affirming the Past and Present 311

Sculpture on the Doge’s Palace 311

The Palazzo Foscari 312

The Ca’ d’Oro 313

Contemporary Voice: Finishing Touches 314

The Cappella Nova 316

The Vivarini School 317

Jacopo Bellini 317

The Cappella Nova in the Late 1440s 319

Venice: Heir of East and West 320

The Arsenal 320

Religious Architecture 320

Painting 322

The Scuole and Lay Commissions 327

Commemorative State Commissions 330

Chapter 14 Courtly Art: The Gothic and Classic 333

Ferrara: The Este Family 333

Medals for Leonello d’Este 333

Pisanello in Verona 334

Contemporary Voice: Praise for Pisanello 335

Contemporary Scene: Art and Punishment 336

Borso d’Este 337

Borso’s Bible 337

The Palazzo Schifanoia 338

The Palazzo dei Diamanti 339

Naples: A New Aragonese Dynasty 340

Donatello and Michelozzo in Naples 340

Alfonso the Magnanimous: Military and Humanist Ruler 340

The Castello Aragonese 341

An Arch for a Humanist Ruler 343

Rimini: Sigismondo Malatesta 344

Urbino 347

Portraits 347

Altarpieces 348

The Palazzo Ducale 348

Mantua: The Gonzaga Family 351

Sant’Andrea 351

The Palazzo Ducale 352

The Sala Pisanello 352

Andrea Mantegna, Court Artist 354

Prior Experience in Padua and Verona 354

The Camera Picta 356

Male and Female Decorum 359

Contemporary Voice: Fighting for Chastity 360

Chapter 15 Sforza Milan: Ducal Splendor 362

The Sforzas 362

Completing Visconti Ecclesiastical Foundations 363

The Certosa 363

The Cathedral 364

Private Commissions 365

Ludovico il Moro and a Grand Classical Style 367

Santa Maria presso San Satiro 367

Santa Maria delle Grazie 367

Leonardo da Vinci 371

The Last Supper 371

Contemporary Voice: A Man of Many Talents 372

Madonna of the Rocks 373

Leonardo at Ludovico’s Court 374

Instability and Religious Fervor in the Milanese Court 375

Leonardo at Court 376

Commemorative Commissions 377

Alternatives to Leonardo 378

Part III: The First Half of the Sixteenth Century 384

Chapter 16 Florence: The Renewed Republic 386

The Republic as Patron 386

A New Civic Hero: Michelangelo’s David 387

Sculpture at the Cathedral 388

The Imagery of State 388

The St. Anne Altarpiece 389

The Battle Paintings 390

Private Patrons 392

Portraits 392

Religious Painting 394

Chapter 17 Rome: Julius II, Leo X, and Clement VII 396

The Imperial Style under Julius II 396

A New St. Peter’s 397

The Tomb of Julius II 398

The Sistine Ceiling 401

Contemporary Voice: Michelangelo the Poet 404

Contemporary Voice: Art and Dissent 407

The Stanza della Segnatura 409

Roman Civic Imagery 411

The Stanza d’Eliodoro 412

Portraits 413

Contemporary Voice: The Courtier as Artist 414

Leo X: Papal Luxury 415

The Stanza dell’Incendio 415

The Sistine Tapestries 415

The Suburban Villa and Sybaritic Pleasure 417

Raphael and Michelangelo 421

Clement VII: The Dissolution of Papal Power 421

Chapter 18 Florence: Mannerism and the Medici 424

Emerging Transformations of the Classical Style 424

A New Social Order 426

Domestic and Villa Decoration 428

Altarpieces 431

Michelangelo and the Medici 433

The Medici Chapel 433

The Laurentian Library 436

Chapter 19 Mantua, Parma, and Genoa: The Arts at Court439

Mantua: The Pleasure Palace 439

The Loves of Jupiter 442

Parma: Elegance and Illusionism 443

Correggio at San Paolo and the Cathedral 443

Parmigianino and Self-Conscious Artifice 444

Genoa: A Princely Republic 447

Doria Portraits 447

Villa Doria 448

Genoa in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century 449

Chapter 20 Venice: Vision and Monumentality 451

Visual Poetry 452

Eroticism and Antiquity 453

Poetic Altarpieces 455

Energized Altarpieces 457

Tullio Lombardo: Classicism for Ecclesiastical Patrons 460

Venetian Artists Working for Alfonso d’Este 461

The Studio di Marmi 461

The Camerino d’Alabastro 462

Titian in Urbino 464

Refashioning the City Triumphant 466

The Zecca 466

The Library 467

The Loggetta 467

The Palazzo Corner 468

Titian: Images for the International Elite 468

The Vendramin Family 468

Charles V 469

Mythology and Sensuality 470

Colorito versus Disegno 470

Titian: The Artist as his Own Patron 472

Narrative Imagery in the Scuole 473

Celebrating the City in the Doge’s Palace 475

Patronage of Commercial and Ecclesiastical Projects 476

The Fabbriche Nuove 479

The Rialto Bridge 479

Palladio 480

San Giorgio Maggiore 480

The Redentore 481

Contemporary Voice: Plague in Venice 481

Villa Barbaro 482

The Villa La Rotonda 484

The Teatro Olimpico 485

Part IV: The Later Sixteenth Century 486

Chapter 21 The Rome of Paul III 488

Michelangelo’s Last Judgment 488

Contemporary Voice: A Word of Advice 489

The Deposition 493

Triumphalist History 493

Urbi et Orbi: The City 496

The Capitoline Hill 496

St. Peter’s 498

Private Commissions 499

The Villa Giulia 499

The Farnese Hours 500

Chapter 22 Northern Italy: Reform and Innovation 501

The Council of Trent and Decrees on the Arts 502

Reform and Censorship 503

Milan and Lombardy 503

Contemporary Voice: Veronese Before the Inquisition 504

Devotional Painting 505

Milanese Architecture 507

Bergamo, Cremona, and Bologna 509

Portraiture 510

Still-Life Painting 514

Chapter 23 Florence under Cosimo I 517

Portraits 517

The Chapel of Eleonora of Toledo 519

Church Reform and Local Politics 521

Art as a Symbol of the Advanced State 524

A Dynasty Supported by History and Myth 524

Contemporary Voice: Casting the Perseus 526

Restructuring Civic Space: The Uffizi 527

The Sala del Gran Consiglio 528

The Florentine Academy 529

Chapter 24 Rome: A European Capital City 531

New Religious Orders 531

The Gesù 531

Painting for the Gesù 533

San Stefano Rotondo 535

Sixtus V and Replanning Rome 537

Urban Monuments 539

The Obelisks 539

The Roman Columns 540

The Acqua Felice 540

Papal Basilicas 541

Santa Maria Maggiore 541

Contemporary Scene: Art, Pilgrimage, and Processions 542

The Dome of St. Peter’s 544

Women as Patrons 545

Continuity and Change 546

Genealogies 548

List of Popes 553

List of Venetian Doges 553

Time Chart 554

Glossary 556

Bibliography 558

Literary Credits, Picture Credits 566

Index 567

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Preface

For four centuries the history of art produced in Renaissance Italy has been presented as a series of biographies of individual artists. Formulations such as "Michelangelo's David," "Leonardo's Last Supper," "Palladio's Villa La Rotonda" ring true to modern ears, because they celebrate the creative individuality of these masters and their works. But in structuring histories of Renaissance art around artists, rather than according to the places in which they worked, the persons and institutions whom they served, and the societal expectations they met—the point of view taken in this text—historians have often failed to indicate that the critical interrelations of these social forces with the arts gave them a compelling visual life over time. Italian Renaissance artists were no more solitary geniuses than are most architects and commercial artists today. They understood that they might gain personal recognition and fame from their creations. They also knew that their patrons—civic leaders in the case of the David, the Duke of Milan with the Last Supper, and a wealthy churchman for the Villa La Rotonda—expected even greater renown for their patronage and their astute exploitation of the visual arts.

Our point of view—that art must be seen in terms of its patronage and the specific times and circumstances in which it was created—is hardly new to art history. Many specialized studies and a number of more geographically and chronologically limited books have used such an approach. This volume, however, provides a comprehensive, fully illustrated, pan-Italian consideration of art from the thirteenth through the sixteenth century. Wehave broadened our consideration of the diverse traditions of cities throughout Italy, rather than focusing primarily on Florence (which has too often been used to make other centers, even well-recognized ones such as Venice and Rome, seem like cultural and artistic satellites of the Tuscan capital). Expanded geographic and stylistic parameters provide a richer picture of art produced in (renaissance Italy, including works of Florentine art that have previously been accorded marginal or problematic status. We have also rejected rigid separation of the arts by media, preferring to discuss painting, sculpture, and architecture as complementary arts, recognizing that most artists worked in a variety of forms and that they and their patrons regularly thought in terms of ensembles, not isolated masterpieces.

To set our selected works of art more firmly into their original historical fabric, we have added several special features to this book. Wherever possible, captions indicate the patron as well as the artist who created the work. "Contemporary Scene" boxes give a glimpse of daily life during the Renaissance, suggesting some of the sociological "givens" that affected people's view of the world: their religious practices, how they entertained themselves, the foods they ate, and more. "Contemporary Voice" boxes provide actual period texts, drawn not just from literary figures and the theorists and historians who wrote about art but also from authors who wrote for more mundane purposes, tempering the elite bias that a focus on patronage—or, in previous (texts, on artistic genius—can sometimes bring to art-historical discussions.

In this book we hope to make the familiar seem more intriguing and the unfamiliar more comprehensible. The picture we present necessarily includes a recognition of the ambiguities and paradoxes inherent in reconstructing past events. Chronological boundaries for each chapter are somewhat arbitrary, like all such divisions, but in general they reflect sociopolitical shifts caused by changes of governmental structures or rulers in the various cities covered. Thus the dates in the chapter titles are approximate and have to be adjusted for each of the city-states discussed.

Some readers may find that works of art they consider important—even crucial—to an understanding of the history of Renaissance art are not discussed in our text. Such "omissions," in tandem with the addition of unusual works of art, are inevitable in a book that attempts to change the very mode of presentation of the material by expanding its scope. We hope that readers will see in our selections a manifestation of the truly challenging intellectual and artistic richness of the Renaissance. The intention of this book is to provoke questions about approach and stylistic development, not to provide a new canon. We are living in a particularly vital time in historical thinking, when old prescriptive boundaries have been breached. It is critically important to participate in the adventure of these changes.

As is the case with most books of this nature, we have not footnoted the text. However, we have included a bibliography at the end, thereby recording the main source materials we have used and our profound debt to earlier scholars. This bibliography could well be treated as a guide to further reading and understanding of the art and ideas presented in the book. We have also provided a glossary of technical terms which are highlighted in the text in boldface type.

The problem of translating Italian terms into English is always an issue in books on the Renaissance. By and large we have favored English terms and English forms of names according to common usage. In the rare instances of technical terms that do not have an exact equivalent we have provided an approximate translation in the text the first time the word appears, but we then continue to use the Italian term because of its specificity. Nomenclature changed during the period under discussion, but by and large family surnames were not used. Thus artists are referred to in the text either by first name (Michelangelo and not Buonarroti), or by nickname where it was or has become the accepted form (Veronese and not Paolo Cagliari), or by surname (Vasari) if that has become customary usage. There are confusing instances in which an artists patronymic has become transformed in modern usage to a surname: thus Simone di Martino now commonly appears as Simone Martini. In these very few cases usage in the text varies, but the bibliographical references clarify how one can search for more information on the artist.

From the outset of this project Rosemary Bradley, formerly of Calmann & King, was a quietly encouraging first editor. We owe her an enormous debt of gratitude. Melanie White took over editorial responsibilities for the book after it was in process and provided firm and helpful direction at critical moments when a gargantuan project threatened to overwhelm us all. We have also been privileged to work with Lesley Ripley Greenfield, our ever-attentive editor at Calmann & King and with the ever-supportive Julia Moore at Abrams; we are grateful for their assistance and kind encouragement in realizing this project. Most particularly we wish to thank Ursula Payne who with kindly persistence, an impeccable eye for accuracy, and good humor guided us through the endless details of editing the first edition; the text is the better because of her perceptive work. For the second edition Richard Mason has guided the editorial process with a sure hand, assisted by Michael Bird and Jan Hunt, the designer. We are grateful for their help. Susan Bolsom has been the photo editor for both editions and we are deeply appreciative of her indefatigable efforts and keen eye.

Special thanks go to students at Wesleyan University and Syracuse University who read the text of the first edition critically and perceptively: Adam Borden, Jennie Diamond, Rachel Posner, Melea Press, and Lisa Rubino at Wesleyan and Sharon Brind, Alexis Drosu, Holly Hurlbun, Jennifer Mosher, and Nathan Peek at Syracuse. The following seminar students at Syracuse also helped in the revisions for the second edition of the text and deserve our gratitude: Ilya-Karina Boner, Elizabeth Butler, Rahel Elmer Reger, Julia Gardner, Caroline Hillard, Alexandra Korey, Laura Macaluso, Lia Markey, Melissa Moreton, Lisa Neal, Soonie Olson, Jenny Patten, Kimberly Santoro, Melanie Taylor, Anne Weatherly, and Julie Zappia. Monica Hahn-Koenig, Holly Hurlburt, Tricia Shapiro, and Sheena Simpson helped as researchers and their work is particularly appreciated. We also warmly acknowledge secretarial assistance from Marilyn Bergen, Linda Straub, Brenda Keating, Carol Kearney, and Tricia Irvine, who kept the project humming.

Many of our colleagues have read and commented on various aspects of this text. We are immensely grateful for their generous offers of assistance and for their criticism. Listing them by name hardly seems appropriate gratitude, but we hope that their students will see their names and realize the dedication of their teachers to their teaching and to their discipline. In particular we would like to note Steven Bule, Jill Carrington, Anthony Colantuono, Roger Crum, Anne Derbes, Phillip Earenfight, Patricia Emison, Adrian Hoch, Ellen Longsworth) Sarah McHam, Susan McKillop, Anita Moskowitz, Gabriele Neher, Jonathan Nelson, Joy Pepe, James Saslow, Richard Turner, Mary Vaccaro, and Shelley Zuraw. David Gillertnan also read portions of the text at various stages of its evolution and consistently offered trenchant, critical, and creative suggestions.

We would like to thank Caroline Bruzelius, the former director of the American Academy in Rome, and the entire staff of the Academy for their hospitality and assistance at a critical moment in the generation of this book, and Suzanne Boorsch of the Metropolitan Museum of Art for sharing her knowledge of printed images of Rome and for supplying urgently needed illustrative material. We are also appreciative of the assistance of Denise Allen and Peggy Fogelman in obtaining the images of the lost-wax process that appear in the Introduction (Fig. 27), and to Francesca Bewer for the diagram and succinct text of that process.

The staffs of numerous libraries have also been of enormous assistance in helping us to find the extraordinary range of research materials necessary for the writing of a book such as this one. Among the most supportive were Kathleen Stefanowicz and the late Steven Lebergott of the interlibrary loan office of the Olin Library of Wesleyan University, Susanne Javorski, the art reference librarian at Wesleyan, and Randy Bond at the Fine Arts Library of Syracuse University.

Of course our greatest gratitude goes to our wives, Nancy Romig Radke and Leslie Hiles Paoletti, who watched this book grow from the outset, heard more about the difficulties of putting nearly four centuries of Italian an between two covers than they ever needed to know, and still managed to encourage us in our work. While this book is dedicated to our children, it also belongs to them.

John Paoletti, Gary Radke, February 2001

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