Art in the Service of Colonialism: French Art Education in Morocco, 1912-1956

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This book examines how the French transformed and dominated Moroccan society in the colonial period. The French established vocational and fine art schools, revived local methods for producing crafts, imposed modern systems of industrial production and pedagogy and reinvented old traditions. By marrying the old with the new, they revitalized arts and crafts and made them saleable commodities. Hamid Irbouh demonstrates how Moroccan artists have struggled to exorcise French influences and rediscover their authentic visual culture since decolonisation.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"In this well-conceived book based on original archival sources Hamid Irbouh investigates how French colonial administrators employed French women to inculcate colonial ideology by establishing new craft schools for notable and poor families in Moroccan cities. The French intended not only to teach modernized versions of old Moroccan crafts, but also wanted to instill new work habits and modern concepts of time into the girls and young women who attended their schools. Dr. Irbouh demonstrates how French women administrators took the lead in this effort and also shows how Moroccan women absorbed their lessons, but also resisted the colonial enterprise. His is a novel approach to colonial art history, situating Moroccan art production in large social, political and ideological contexts." --Stuart Schaar, Professor of Middle East and North African History, Brooklyn College, City University of New York
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Hamid Irbouh received his PhD from the Department of History and Theory of Art and Architecture at the State University of New York, Binghamton.
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Table of Contents

• Archive Centres and Libraries Mentioned in the Text
• Glossary
• List of Illustrations
• Introduction
• The Establishment of French Colonial Hegemony Over Morocco
• Contemporary Moroccan Scholarship on Moroccan Art Production
• French Colonial Art Education in Morocco
• Book Outline
• Aspirations
• Part One: Classifications and Associations
• Framing Morocco's Crafts
• French Colonial Analysis of Moroccan Crafts
• Lyautey's Native Policy and Flexible Approach
• Precolonial Moroccan Guilds
• Master Craftsmen, Apprentices, Craft Learning, and Surveillance
• "High" and "Low" Crafts
• Diffusing Colonial Order
• The Protectorate's Initial Attempt at Reforming the Moroccan Guilds
• George Hardy's Gentle Way of Control
• The Grand Vizier and the Moroccan Cultural Vitality
• Creating Authentic Replicas of Moroccan Artifacts
• Colonial Assistance
• Part Two: Design and Process of Colonial Education
• Colonial Mass Education
• Theoretical Framework of Colonial Mass Education
• Training a Service Labor Class in the Moroccan Protectorate
• Vocational Schools for Men and the Infiltration of Morocco's Traditional Industry
• A Labor Force Loyal to the Protectorate: The Marrakesh Case
• Adapting Education to Industry in the Pilot Workshop in Fez
• Educating a New Bureaucracy
• A Moroccan Alternative
• Women's Vocational Schools: The French Organize the Feminine Milieu
• The Covert Purpose of Women's Vocational Schools
• The Class Base of Craft Education
• Women's Craft Training in Pre-protectorate Morocco
• Subtle Infiltration
• The Practical Utility
• A Dialectical Prism of Colonialism and the Rabat School
• The "Maison" and Dar 'Adiyal: Two Schools in Fez
• Part Three: Originality, Drawing, and Colonial Exploitation
• Vocational Training and Patriotism in France
• French Definition of Arts and Crafts in Europe
• "Raphael versus the Cube"
• The Means to Visual Training
• The Formation of Patriotic Skilled Workers
• Drawing as an Apparatus of Exploitation
• Cultivating the Moroccans' Inclination for Craft
• The Formation of the Teaching Personnel
• Museums, Exhibitions, and the Rise of Morocco' Craft onto the International Scene
• The Protectorate Vocational Education Revisited
• The Open Workshops and the Casablanca School of Fine Arts
• Simone Gruner Cultivates the Natural Talents of Moroccan Children
• Jacqueline Brodskis Assimilates Moroccans to Western Art
• The Casablanca School of Fine Arts
• By Way of Conclusion: The Burden of Cultural Decolonization
• The Populists
• The Nativists
• The Bipictorialists
• Endnotes
• Illustrations
• Bibliography
• Primary Sources
• Secondary Sources
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