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-- The most student-friendly, contextual, and inclusive art history survey text on the market.

For single term courses in Art History or Art Appreciation taught from a historical perspective with coverage of non-Western material.

Art: A Brief History provides a combination of formal analysis and contextual art history designed to engage a diverse student population. Co-authors Marilyn Stokstad and Michael Cothren–both scholars as well as teachers–share a common vision that survey courses should be filled with as much enjoyment as erudition and should foster an enthusiastic, as well as an educated, public for the visual arts. The new Fifth Edition includes links to online resources in MyArtsLab to further engage students and enrich their learning experience.

Teaching and Learning Experience

Personalize Learning- The new MyArtsLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.

Improve Critical Thinking- The new Learn About It and Think About It features prompts students to think critically and analyze the chapter material.

Engage Students- Updated scholarship, MyArtsLab, and the readability of the text provide a wonderful engaging student experience.

Explore Research- The authors constantly strive to deliver the latest research in the field of Art History, and the utilization of the Closer Look integrates this research with specific images and works of art.

Support Instructors- Supported by the best instructor resources on the market, including MyArtsLab, ClassPrep for digital images, and Teaching with MyArtsLab PowerPoints make Art: A Brief History an attractive choice for instructors.

Note: MyArtsLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyArtsLab, please visit: or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyArtsLab (at no additional cost): VP ISBN-10: 0205237339/ VP ISBN-13: 9780205237333

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205237333
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 12/12/2011
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 640
  • Sales rank: 605,869
  • Product dimensions: 9.00 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Marilyn Stokstad, teacher, art historian, and museum curator, has been a leader in her field for decades and has served as president of the College Art Association and the International Center of Medieval Art. In 2002, she was awarded the lifetime achievement award from the National Women’s Caucus for Art. In 1997, she was awarded the Governor’s Arts Award as Kansas Art Educator of the Year and an honorary degree of doctor of humane letters by Carleton College. She is Judith Harris Murphy Distinguished Professor Emerita at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. She has also served in various leadership capacities at the University’s Spencer Museum of Art and is Consultative Curator of Medieval Art at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Missouri

Michael W. Cothren is Professor of Art History at Swarthmore College, where he has also served as Art Department Chair, Coordinator of Medieval Studies, and Divisional Chair of the Humanities. Since arriving at Swarthmore in 1978, he has taught specialized courses on Medieval, Roman, and Islamic art and architecture, as well as seminars on theory and method, but he most enjoys teaching the survey to Swarthmore beginners. His research and publications focus on French Gothic art and architecture, most recently in a book on the stained glass of Beauvais Cathedral entitled Picturing the Celestial City. Michael is consultative curator of medieval stained glass at the Glencairn Museum in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania. He has served on the board of the International Center of Medieval Art and as President both of the American Committee of the International Corpus Vitrearum and of his local school board. When not teaching or engaged in art historical research, you can finding him hiking in the red rocks around Sedona, Arizona.

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Table of Contents







Chapter 1: Prehistoric Art in Europe ¿

Chapter 2: Art of the Ancient Near East¿

Chapter 3: Art of Ancient Egypt

Chapter 4: Early Asian Art

Chapter 5: Art of Ancient Greece¿

Chapter 6: Etruscan and Roman¿Art 

Chapter 7: Jewish, Early Christian, and Byzantine Art 

Chapter 8: Islamic Art

Chapter 9: Later Asian¿Art 

Chapter 10: Early Medieval and Romanesque¿Art 

Chapter 11: Gothic Art 

Chapter 12: Early Renaissance Art 

Chapter 13: Art of the High Renaissance and Reformation 

Chapter 14: Seventeenth-Century Art in Europe

Chapter 15: Art of the Americas 

Chapter 16: African Art 

Chapter 17: European and American Art, 1715–1840

Chapter 18: European and American Art, 1840–1910

Chapter 19: Modern Art in Europe and the Americas, 1900–1945  

Chapter 20: Art Since 1945 




Preface¿¿ ix

What’s New¿¿ x

Faculty and Student Resources¿¿ xi

Acknowledgments and Gratitude¿¿ xii

Starter Kit¿¿ xiv

Introduction¿¿ 1


1 Prehistoric Art in Europe  18

Looking Forward¿¿ 19

The Upper Paleolithic Art (c. 42,000–8,000 bce)¿¿ 20

Artifacts or Works of Art?¿¿ 20

Shelter or Architecture?¿¿ 22

Cave Painting¿¿ 22

Cave Sculptures¿¿ 26

The Neolithic Period (c. 6500–3400/2300 bce)¿¿ 26

Çatalhöyük¿¿ 26

Ceramics¿¿ 27

Megalithic Architecture¿¿ 28

Looking Back¿¿ 31

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ A House in Çatalhöyük¿¿ 27

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Post-and-Lintel and Corbel Construction¿¿ 29

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Power of Naming¿¿ 22

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Meaning(s) of Prehistoric Paintings¿¿ 23

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Neolithic Man and Woman¿¿ 28



2 Art of the Ancient Near East  32

Looking Forward¿¿ 33

Sumer¿¿ 35

Akkad, Ur, and Lagash¿¿ 39

Babylon¿¿ 40

Assyria¿¿ 41

Neo-Babylonia¿¿ 43

Persia¿¿ 44

Looking Back¿¿ 47

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Animal Fables and Epic Themes¿¿ 38

¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Art as Spoils of War—Protection or Theft?¿¿ 35

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Ishtar Gate and Nebuchadnezzar’s II’s Palace¿¿ 46



3 Art of Ancient Egypt  48

Looking Forward¿¿ 49

Early Dynastic and Old Kingdom Egypt (c. 2950–2150 bce)¿¿ 58

Middle Kingdom (c. 1975–1640 bce)¿¿ 58

New Kingdom (c. 1539–1075 bce)¿¿ 67

Late Egyptian Art¿¿ 66

Looking Back¿¿ 67

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ The Palette of Narmer¿¿ 51

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Mastaba to Pyramid¿¿ 53


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Mummies¿¿ 65

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Egyptian Symbols¿¿ 58

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Tomb of Ramose¿¿ 63



4 Early Asian Art  68

Looking Forward¿¿ 69

The Indian Subcontinent¿¿ 70

The Indus Valley Civilization¿¿ 70

The Vedic Period¿¿ 71

The Rise of Buddhism¿¿ 71

Gandhara and Mathura Styles¿¿ 74

Gupta Period¿¿ 76

Southeast Asia¿¿ 78

China¿¿ 79

The Bronze Age¿¿ 79

Chinese Empires: Qin, Han, and Tang¿¿ 80

Korea¿¿ 84

Japan¿¿ 87

The Kofun Period¿¿ 87

The Asuka Period¿¿ 89

Looking Back¿¿ 91

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Rubbing of a Stone Relief¿¿ 83

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Stupas¿¿ 73

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Buddhism¿¿ 72

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Buddhist Symbols¿¿ 75

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Hinduism¿¿ 77

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Confucianism¿¿ 81

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Silk Route and the Making of Silk¿¿ 82

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Calligraphy¿¿ 86



5 Art of Ancient Greece  92 

Looking Forward¿¿ 93

The Cycladic Islands¿¿ 95

Minoan Crete¿¿ 95

Mycenaean (Late Bronze Age) Civilization¿¿ 99

The Emergence of Greek Civilization¿¿ 102

The Geometric Style¿¿ 102

The Archaic Period¿¿ 102

The Early Classical Period¿¿ 109

The “High” Classical Period¿¿ 112

The Parthenon¿¿ 112

Other Buildings of the Athenian Acropolis¿¿ 117

Late Classical Art of the Fourth Century bce¿¿ 118

Hellenistic Art¿¿ 120

Looking Back¿¿ 127

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Krater with the Death of Sarpedon¿¿ 109

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Greek Temple¿¿ 104

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Greek Theaters¿¿ 122

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Mythology and History¿¿ 99

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Color in Greek Sculpture¿¿ 106

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Classic and Classical¿¿ 112

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Canon of Polykleitos¿¿ 116

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Women Artists In Ancient Greece¿¿ 121

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Celts¿¿ 125



6 Etruscan and Roman¿Art  128 

Looking Forward¿¿ 129

The Etruscans¿¿ 130

The Romans¿¿ 133

The Republican Period¿¿ 134

The Age of Augustus¿¿ 138

The Roman House and Its Decoration¿¿ 139

The Empire¿¿ 143

Imperial Art and Architecture¿¿ 143

Portraits in Sculpture and Painting¿¿ 150

The Late Empire¿¿ 152

Looking Back¿¿ 157

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Gemma Augustea¿¿ 139

¿¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Arch and Vault¿¿ 137

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Roman Architectural Orders¿¿ 145


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Roman Mosaics¿¿ 142

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Roman Portraiture¿¿ 135



7 Jewish, Early Christian, and Byzantine Art  158 

Looking Forward¿¿ 159

Early Jewish Art¿¿ 162

Early Christianity¿¿ 163

Early Byzantine Art (476–726)¿¿ 169

The Golden Age of Justinian¿¿ 169

Icons and Iconoclasm¿¿ 176

Middle Byzantine Art (843–1204)¿¿ 179

Late Byzantine Art¿¿ 180

Looking Back¿¿ 183

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ The Mosaic Floor of the Beth Alpha Synagogue¿¿ 161

¿¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Longitudinal-Plan and Central-Plan Churches¿¿ 166

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Pendentives and Squinches¿¿ 174

¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Dura-Europos¿¿ 163

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Life of Jesus¿¿ 164

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Good Shepherd¿¿ 168

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Naming Christian Churches: Designation
¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ + Dedication + Location¿¿ 172

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Iconoclasm¿¿ 177



8 Islamic Art  184 

Looking Forward¿¿ 185

Art During the Early Caliphates¿¿ 186

Architecture¿¿ 186

Calligraphy¿¿ 191

Later Islamic Art¿¿¿ 193

The Saljuqs in Persia¿¿ 193

The Nasrids in Spain¿¿ 194

Luxury Arts¿¿ 197

Books¿¿ 206

The Ottoman Empire¿¿ 200

Modern Islam¿¿ 202

Looking Back¿¿ 203

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ A Mamluk Glass Oil Lamp¿¿ 197


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Carpet Making¿¿ 198

¿Art and Its Context

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Islam and the Prophet Muhammad¿¿ 188



9 Later Asian¿Art  204 

Looking Forward¿¿ 205

The South Asian Subcontinent¿¿ 206

The Mughal Empire¿¿ 208

Rajput Painting and the Luxury Arts¿¿ 210

Cambodia¿¿ 213

China¿¿ 214

Korea¿¿ 220

Japan¿¿ 222

Looking Back¿¿ 231

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Scene from The Tale of Genji¿¿ 225


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Indian Paintings on Paper¿¿ 210

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Formats of Chinese Painting¿¿ 216

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Panel from an Ivory Box¿¿ 212

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Writing, Language, and Culture in Japan¿¿ 223



10 Early Medieval and Romanesque¿Art  232 

Looking Forward¿¿ 233

Early Medieval Art in the British Isles¿¿ 235

Scandinavian Art¿¿ 237

Carolingian Art¿¿ 238

Spanish Art¿¿ 243

Ottonian Art¿¿ 244

Romanesque Art¿¿ 247

Architecture¿¿ 247

Architectural Sculpture and Painting¿¿ 250

Manuscripts, Textiles, and Woodcarving¿¿ 256

Looking Back¿¿ 259

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Bishop Odo Blessing the Feast¿¿ 255

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Romanesque Church Portal¿¿ 251

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Medieval Scriptorium¿¿ 236

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Hildegard of Bingen¿¿ 257



11 Gothic Art  260 

Looking Forward¿¿ 261

Gothic Art in France¿¿ 263

Gothic Art in England¿¿ 277

Gothic Art in the Germanic Lands¿¿ 280

Late Medieval Art in Italy¿¿ 281

Sculpture¿¿ 283

Painting in Siena and Florence¿¿ 284

Looking Back¿¿ 291

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Effects of Good Government in the City

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ and in the Country¿¿ 282

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Rib Vaulting¿¿ 266

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Gothic Church¿¿ 268


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Stained-Glass Windows¿¿ 265

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Cennini on Panel Painting¿¿ 289

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Buon Fresco¿¿ 290

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Notre-Dame de Paris¿¿ 270



12 Early Renaissance Art  292 

Looking Forward¿¿ 293

Northern Renaissance Art¿¿ 294

The Imbourg Brothers¿¿ 295

Painting in Flanders¿¿ 297

Second-Generation Painters¿¿ 301

Tapestries¿¿ 303

The Graphic Arts¿¿ 303

Italian Renaissance Art¿¿ 306

Architecture¿¿ 306

Sculpture¿¿ 311

Painting¿¿ 315

Looking Back¿¿ 323

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ The Battle of San Romano¿¿ 319


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Oil Painting¿¿ 298

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Woodcuts and Engravings¿¿ 306

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Renaissance Perspective¿¿ 314

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Women Artists in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance¿¿ 296

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Competition Reliefs¿¿ 290



13 Art of the High Renaissance and Reformation  324 

Looking Forward¿¿ 325

Italian Art of the High Renaissance¿¿ 326

Venice and the Veneto¿¿ 341

Mannerism¿¿ 348

French Art¿¿ 353

German Art¿¿ 354

Painting and Prints¿¿ 366

The Reformation and the Arts¿¿ 369

Netherlandish and Spanish Art¿¿ 361

Looking Back¿¿ 365

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ The French Ambassadors¿¿ 360

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ St. Peter’s Basilica¿¿ 340

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Vitruvian Man¿¿ 327

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Women Patrons of the Arts¿¿ 343

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Veronese is Called Before the Inquisition¿¿ 346



14 Seventeenth-Century Art in Europe  366 

Looking Forward¿¿ 367

Rome¿¿ 368

Spain¿¿ 380

Flanders¿¿ 383

The Dutch Republic¿¿ 387

France¿¿ 396

Looking Back¿¿ 401

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Allegory of Sight¿¿ 386


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Etching and Drypoint¿¿ 389

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Science and the Changing Worldview¿¿ 395

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Grading the Old Masters¿¿ 398



15 Art of the Americas  402 

Looking Forward¿¿ 403

Mesoamerica¿¿ 405

The Olmecs¿¿ 405

Teotihuacan¿¿ 406

The Maya¿¿ 407

The Aztecs¿¿ 409

Central America¿¿ 412

South America: The Central Andes¿¿ 412

The Moche Culture¿¿ 413

The Inca Empire¿¿ 415

The Aftermath of the Spanish Conquest¿¿ 416

North America¿¿ 416

Early Cultures of the East¿¿ 418

The Southwest¿¿ 420

The Eastern Woodlands and the Great Plains¿¿ 422

Looking Back¿¿ 427

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Aztec Calendar Stone¿¿ 411

¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Inca Masonry¿¿ 416


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Basketry¿¿ 422

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Hamatsa Masks¿¿ 425



16 African Art  428 

Looking Forward¿¿ 429

Early African Art¿¿ 430

Nok¿¿ 431

Ife and Benin¿¿ 431

Jenné and Great Zimbabwe¿¿ 454

African Art in the Modern Era: Living Traditions
¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ and New Trends¿¿ 436

Art and Domestic Life¿¿ 436

Art and the Spirit World¿¿ 437

Art and Power¿¿ 439

The Art of Imitation¿¿ 442

Art and Death¿¿ 444

Looking Back¿¿ 445

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ A Palace Door¿¿ 440


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Lost-Wax Casting¿¿ 432

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Myth of “Primitive” Art¿¿ 434

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Mande Pots¿¿ 437

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Kuba Funerary Mask¿¿ 443



17 European and American Art, 1715–1840  446 

Looking Forward¿¿ 447

Rococo¿¿ 448

Moralizing Narrative Painting¿¿ 450

Portraiture¿¿ 453

Neoclassicism and Romanticism¿¿ 457

Neoclassical Painting in France¿¿ 459

Neoclassical Architecture in England¿¿ 462

Romantic Painting and Printmaking in France and Spain¿¿ 464

Romantic Landscape Painting in England, America, and Germany¿¿ 469

Looking Back¿¿ 473

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Georgian Silver¿¿ 463


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Lithography¿¿ 466

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ “Am I Not a Man and a Brother?”¿¿ 452

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Art Academies in the Eighteenth Century¿¿ 452



18 European and American Art, 1840–1910  474 

Looking Forward¿¿ 475

Architecture¿¿ 477

Enduring Neoclassicism in Academic Art¿¿ 481

Reactions against the Academy¿¿ 481

Art Nouveau¿¿ 484

Photography¿¿ 485

Realism¿¿ 488

Early French Realist Painters¿¿ 488

“The Painter of Modern Life”¿¿ 490

A Continuing American Tradition¿¿ 492

Impressionism¿¿ 495

Post-Impressionism¿¿ 500

Late Nineteenth-Century French Sculpture¿¿ 507

Looking Back¿¿ 509

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Mahana no atua (Day of the God)¿¿ 501


¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Photographic Process¿¿ 486

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Orientalism¿¿ 480

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Japonisme¿¿ 503



19 Modern Art in Europe and the Americas, 1900–1945   510

Looking Forward¿¿ 511

Early Modernism in Europe¿¿ 513

Les Fauves¿¿ 513

Die Brücke and Expressionism¿¿ 514

Der Blaue Reiter¿¿ 515

Cubism¿¿ 516

Responses to Cubism¿¿ 519

Dada¿¿ 522

Modern Art Comes to the United States¿¿ 525

European Art between the Wars¿¿ 528

Constructivism¿¿ 528

de Stijl¿¿ 529

Architectural Purism¿¿ 531

The Bauhaus¿¿ 532

Surrealism¿¿ 515

Sculpture¿¿ 538

North American Art between the Wars¿¿ 539

The United States¿¿ 539

The Harlem Renaissance¿¿ 541

Mexico¿¿ 543

Canada¿¿ 545

Architecture¿¿ 545

Looking Back¿¿ 549

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Portrait of a German Officer¿¿ 526

¿¿Elements of Architecture

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The International Style¿¿ 532

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ The Skyscraper¿¿ 546

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Suppression of the Avant-Garde in Germany¿¿ 534

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Guernica¿¿ 537



20 Art Since 1945  550 

Looking Forward¿¿ 551

Abstract Expressionism¿¿ 552

Assemblage¿¿ 558

Pop Art¿¿ 561

Minimalism and Process Art¿¿ 565

Conceptual and Performance Art¿¿ 567

Earthworks and Site-Specific Art¿¿ 568

Feminist Art¿¿ 569

The Persistence and Global Impact of Modernism¿¿ 573

Postmodernism¿¿ 575

Neo-Expressionism¿¿ 575

Social Commentary and Moral Activism¿¿ 576

Identity, Race, and Ethnicity¿¿ 577

Installation: Electronic and Video Art¿¿ 580

New Ideas in Traditional Materials¿¿ 584

Postwar Architecture¿¿ 587

Public Memory and Art: The Memorial¿¿ 589

Looking Back¿¿ 591

A CLOSER LOOK¿¿¿ Man’s Love Story¿¿ 574

¿¿Art and Its Contexts

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Greenberg and the Idea of the Mainstream¿¿ 554

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Homage to New York¿¿ 561

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ “High” and “Low” Culture in the Myth of Modernism¿¿ 562

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Appropriation and the “Death of the Author”¿¿ 565

¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Critical Theory¿¿ 581



Contemporary World Map¿¿ 604

Glossary¿¿ 605

Bibliography¿¿ 612

Index¿¿ 621

Credits¿¿ 634

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