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Overview


The Art of Seeing explores traditional and contemporary art and artistic media focusing on art as seen from the artist's point of view. The book introduces students to artistic techniques and introductory aesthetic principles. It provides clear, concise presentation, superb illustrations, and strong emphasis on the elements and media.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
New edition of a text which lays the foundation for understanding the aesthetic aspects of a work of art by presenting an intellectual framework; analysis of visual elements and organizing principles; the details of materials and techniques, both two-dimensional and three- dimensional; and historical styles in western art. Abundantly illustrated. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205748341
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/16/2010
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 560
  • Sales rank: 276,111
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

PART 1: Learning to See 11

1 Understanding Art 12

WHAT IS ART? 13

THE CREATIVE IMPULSE 13

Artists on Art: Joseph Raffael on Creativity 15

TYPES OF ART 16

Two- and Three-Dimensional Art 16

Representational and Nonrepresentational Art 17

Fine and Applied Arts 21

Artists on Art: Georgia O’Keeffe on Abstraction 22

Public and Private Art 26

Art Issues: Censorship of Offensive Art 30

CONTENT 32

Sociopolitical Content 33

Power and Propaganda 35

Spiritual Purposes 38

Inner Experiences 42

Beauty 45

CRITICAL OPINION 46

Art Issues: Race and Gender Criticism 50

LASTING GREATNESS IN ART 53

2 Visual Elements 56

LINE 57

Seeing Line 57

The World Seen: Islamic Calligraphy 60

Implied Line 63

Descriptive Line 66

Expressive Qualities of Line 68

Directional Line 69

SHAPE AND FORM 69

Degrees of Three-Dimensionality 69

Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Form 75

Artists on Art: Henry Moore on Form and Space 80

Two-Dimensional Illusion of Form 82

Shapes 84

Artists on Art: Arshile Gorky on Elements Conveying Life’s Intensity 87

SPACE 91

Three-Dimensional Art in Space 91

Two-Dimensional Space 94

Scale 105

Spatial Illusion 108

TEXTURE 110

Actual Texture 112

Simulated Texture 113

VALUE AND LIGHT 116

Local and Interpretive Values 117

Lighting 120

Reflections 124

Artists on Art: Leonardo da Vinci on Chiaroscuro 126

Light as a Medium 128

COLOR 132

A Vocabulary of Color 132

Natural and Applied Color 136

Local, Atmospheric, and Interpretive Color 139

Emotional Effects of Color 140

Warm and Cool Colors 143

Advancing and Receding Colors 145

Color Combinations 146

Interaction of Color 149

Limited and Open Palette 152

Artists on Art: Josef Albers on Seeing Colors 153

TIME 156

Actual Movement 156

Illusion of Movement 159

The Captured Moment 159

Change Through Time 159

Artists on Art: Auguste Rodin on The Illusion of Movement 160

3 Organizing Principles of Design 164

REPETITION 165

VARIETY 169

RHYTHM 175

BALANCE 177

COMPOSITIONAL UNITY 180

EMPHASIS 185

ECONOMY 187

PROPORTION 189

RELATIONSHIP TO THE ENVIRONMENT 191

Artists on Art: Wassily Kandinsky on Underlying Harmony 194

PART 2: Two-Dimensional Media and Methods 197

4 Drawing 198

APPROACHES TO DRAWING 198

DRY MEDIA 201

Graphite Pencil 201

Silverpoint 202

Charcoal 203

Chalk 204

Pastel 207

Crayon 209

LIQUID MEDIA 210

Pen and Ink 210

The World Seen: Chinese Landscape Paintings 211

Brush and Ink 213

5 Painting 214

APPROACHES TO PAINTING 215

PAINT MEDIA 218

Encaustic 218

Fresco 219

Tempera 223

Oil 224

Art Issues: Cleaning and Restoring Paintings 226

Watercolor 231

Gouache 232

The World Seen: Tibetan Sand Paintings 234

Synthetics 236

Collage 239

Mosaic 240

MIXED MEDIA 243

6 Printmaking 244

APPROACHES TO PRINTMAKING 246

PRINTMAKING PROCESSES 247

Relief 247

Artists on Art: Stephen Alcorn on The Art of the Color Linocut 250

Intaglio 252

Planographic: Lithography 259

Stencil 262

Photocopy and Fax Art 262

MIXED PRINT MEDIA 264

7 Graphic Design 267

THE GRAPHIC DESIGNER AND VISUAL IDEAS 268

Artists on Art: Peter Good on The Art of Graphic Design 270

TYPOGRAPHY 272

ILLUSTRATION 274

8 Photography and

Filmmaking 278

PHOTOGRAPHY 279

Artists on Art: Edward Weston on Photography as a Way of Seeing 289

Digital Photography 291

Creative Use of Digital Imaging 293

FILM 295

Art Issues: Mixing Art and Politics: The Films of Leni Riefenstahl 302

TELEVISION AND VIDEO 304

9 Digital Art 308

THE COMPUTER AS A DRAWING MEDIUM 309

THE COMPUTER AS A PAINTING MEDIUM 310

Artists on Art: Janet Cummings Good Compares Computer to Other Media 312

DIGITAL ART IN CYBERSPACE 314

COMPUTERS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL ART 315

DIGITAL VIDEO 315

Art Issues: Art Websites 316

VIRTUAL REALITY 320

THE COMPUTER AS A UNIQUE ART MEDIUM 321

Interactive Digital Art 322

PART 3: Three-Dimensional Media and Methods 325

10 Sculpture 326

PLANNING SCULPTURES 327

CARVING 329

Artists on Art: Michelangelo Buonarroti on Marble-Quarrying 331

The World Seen: Benin Ivory Carvings 332

MODELING 335

CASTING 337

Artists on Art: Benvenuto Cellini on A Near-Disastrous Casting 339

ASSEMBLING 340

EARTHWORKS 342

Art Issues: Preserving Ephemeral Materials 344

INSTALLATIONS, PERFORMANCES, AND MULTIMEDIA 348

11 Craft Media 350

CLAY 352

The World Seen: Chinese Porcelains 355

Artists on Art: Paula Winokur on Working in Clay 356

METAL 358

The World Seen: Precious Metalwork from Tsarist Russia 359

WOOD 360

Artists on Art: George Nakashima on A Feeling for Wood 362

GLASS 364

FIBERS 369

The World Seen: Persian Carpets 371

12 Product and Clothing Design 374

INDUSTRIAL DESIGN 375

CLOTHING DESIGN 379

The World Seen: Saris of India 384

13 Architecture 386

ARCHITECTS’ UNIQUE CONCERNS 387

FUNCTION 389

STRUCTURE 394

The World Seen: Moorish Arches and Domes 401

SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE ARCHITECTURE 408

14 Designed Settings 410

INTERIOR DESIGN 411

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN 414

The World Seen: Japanese Stone Gardens 418

AESTHETICS IN THE PERFORMING ARTS 420

PART 4: Art in Time 427

15 Historical Styles in Western Art 428

ART MOVEMENTS 429

THE BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN ART 429

Prehistoric 429

Aegean 435

Mesopotamian 435

Art Issues: Looting of Art Treasures 436

Egyptian 439

ART OF ANCIENT CULTURES 440

Greek 440

Roman 442

Early Christian and Byzantine 442

MEDIEVAL ART 444

Early Medieval 444

Romanesque 448

Gothic 448

Late Gothic 450

RENAISSANCE ART 450

Early Renaissance in Italy 451

Art Issues: The Camera Obscura: A Trade Secret? 452

High Renaissance in Italy 454

Northern Renaissance 458

Art Issues: Protecting Famous Artworks 460

Mannerism 463

BAROQUE ART 464

Southern Baroque 464

Northern Baroque 468

Rococo 468

EIGHTEENTH- AND EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY ART 468

Neoclassicism 469

Romanticism 471

LATER NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART 472

Realism 472

Impressionism 475

Post-Impressionism 475

Artists on Art: Paul Gauguin on Cross-Cultural Borrowings 476

TWENTIETH-CENTURY ART 479

Expressionism 481

Fauvism 481

Cubism 483

Futurism 483

Abstract and Nonobjective Art 483

Dada 484

Surrealism 486

Traditional Realism 486

Abstract Expressionism 486

Post-Painterly Abstraction 487

Pop Art 490

Minimalism 490

Technological Art 491

Conceptual Art 492

Earthworks 493

Performance Art 494

Installations 494

New Realism 496

The Craft Object 496

Neoexpressionism 499

Post-modernism 501

Widening of the Mainstream 503

Artists on Art: Deborah Muirhead on Art as Ancestral Exploration 504

Art Issues: Art as Investment 508

16 Understanding Art on All Levels 512

PICASSO’S GUERNICA 513

THE TEMPLES OF ANGKOR 518

MICHELANGELO’S SISTINE CHAPEL CEILING 522

FRANK GEHRY’S GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM IN BILBAO 528

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Preface

We are very excited to present this fifth edition of The Art of Seeing, for more than ever before, it brings readers closer to an informed understanding of the fine and applied arts of the world. Many new features now extend the scope of this understanding.

New Features of this Edition

One major new feature is a series of 10 boxes, "The World Seen." Each examines an art form that has been highly developed in a particular time and place, such as the brush and ink paintings of Sung China, the precious metalwork of Tsarist Russia, the ivory work of the kingdom of Benin, and the gold-embroidered saris still produced in contemporary India. The social and cultural factors that led to these heights are examined along with the exceptional skillfulness of the arts.

Another new feature is the addition of discursive material to many of the captions. This new material augments the text discussions by giving related information about the content and context of the work. Many captions now include interesting quotations from the artists about what they were attempting to do, such as Op Artist Bridget Riley's explanation, "For me nature is not landscapes, but the dynamism of visual forces—an event rather than an appearance," thus deepening understanding of the work at hand.

Yet another new feature is 15 illustrated chapter opening vignettes. Each displays a work that is in some way emblematic of the entire topic to be discussed. These give a taste of what is to follow and an introduction to looking at that aspect of art.

Some 68 new works of art have been introduced in this edition, from famous historical works such as Monet's Waterlilies paintings tothe state-of-the-art computer simulation of Dinosaur and Frank Gehry's groundbreaking Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. As before, the new works are taken from varied cultures and historical periods, and include many pieces by women, from historical artists such as Berthe Morisot to significant contemporary artists such as Alice Aycock, Ann Hamilton, and Renee Stout.

The special feature boxes on Art Issues have been updated, and two new boxes of this type added: "Mixing Art and Politics: The Films of Leni Riefenstahl," and "Are there Limits to the Restorer's Art?" Both in the text and in these special boxes, we have attempted to explore many areas of controversy on the contemporary art scene.

Further enriching ways of understanding art, we have added to Chapter 1 a new section on various models for art criticism—formalist, expressivist, and instrumentalist. Throughout the text, new material on content and context has been added to the more formalist investigations.

As before, we try to give insights into art from the artist's point of view. Artists' own words about their work are a treasure trove for the student of art appreciation. We have therefore developed two new feature boxes in which artists speak at length about some facet of their work related to the subject under discussion. Some of these are developed from our personal communications with the artists, some from historical documents.

The Nature of this Book

As before, we have taken considerable effort in The Art of Seeing to make art come to life. The language we use is vigorous and down-to-earth, with numerous quotations from the artists themselves to help explain, in their own words, what they were trying to do. Unfamiliar words are carefully defined when they are first used and also in an extensive illustrated glossary at the end of the book. Pronunciation aids have been added to words in the glossary which may be unfamiliar to students. There is also a guide to artists' names that are difficult to pronounce.

Art in The Art of Seeing is a stimulating, exciting visual gallery. The illustrations for each concept are clearly related to the text and carefully described. There are some 609 illustrations, 300 of them in color, many reproduced at full-page size. They are taken from all the visual arts, from painting and sculpture to clothing and industrial design. Use of such a global variety of illustrations from both fine and applied arts, old and new, allows us to broaden tastes in art and to demonstrate the underlying principles, elements, and issues in art, no matter what form it takes.

In Chapter 15, which traces the development of Western art, the discussion is enhanced by maps and timelines. The six maps show the regions where major trends in Western art developed and indicate key artistic centers, with insets of important buildings and monuments. Each map is accompanied by a timeline giving a global historical context to the evolution of Western art, up to the beginning of the twenty-first century.

Its Organization

Part 1 of The Art of Seeing lays the foundation for understanding the aesthetic aspects of a work of art. In Chapter 1, we develop an initial vocabulary and an intellectual framework for considering artworks: the creative impulse, the varying forms and content of its manifestation, critical opinion of the results, and, with time, recognition of the greatness of some works. Chapter 2 is devoted to extensive analysis of the visual elements with which the artist works: line, shapes, form, space, texture, light, color, and time. Chapter 3 covers the subtle organizing principles by which these elements are used in a work of art.

The next two parts of the book approach art through the materials and techniques used by the artists. By revealing the difficulties of each method, we hope to enhance appreciation of the artists' accomplishments in the face of the intractabilities of their media. Part 2 covers two-dimensional techniques and media: drawing, painting, printmaking, graphic design, photography, photocopy, fax, film, television, video, and computer graphics. Part 3 covers three-dimensional media: sculpture, crafts, industrial design, clothing design, architecture, interior design, environmental design, and the performing arts.

Part 4 approaches art as it exists in time. We first offer a concise approach to historical styles in Western art. Some 48 major movements, from prehistoric to contemporary, are covered, with an illustrated timeline on pages 430 and 431 as an aid to understanding how the distinctly different aesthetic movements are related in time. In addition, six maps show close-ups of particular periods so that one can see where the major artists of the time were working, in the context of major world events.

The final chapter is a unique, in-depth examination of specific works of art, including their evolution in time. It approximates the actual experience of encountering a work of art, drawing on all levels of appreciation developed in the book, in order to analyze and respond to four masterworks.

Acknowledgements

Many people have helped us to revise and update The Art of Seeing, especially Maria Lewis, Frank Ballard, David Smalley, Sal Scalora, Sharon Booma, Janet Cummings Good, and Michelle Brand. Each edition has been extensively reviewed, but our reviewers for this fifth edition have been particularly helpful with specific and general comments which guided our revisions. We would like to express our special gratitude to Herbert R. Hartel Jr., John Jay College, City University of New York, and, Ted Kerzie, California State University, Bakersfield. As always, Bud Therien of Prentice Hall and now Kimberly Chastain have been enthusiastic and supportive, and the brilliant and dedicated staff of Calmann and King – especially Melanie White, Elisabeth Ingles, Kate Tuckett, Damian Thompson and Bridget Tily – have worked hard to deal with the intricacies of all the changes in this edition. Annette Zelanski has been as always generous with her help and loving support. The second author also wishes to thank His Holiness Baba Virsa Singh for his blessings and inspiration.

We feel that these improvements will be very helpful to all those who seek an educated, sharpened sense of art appreciation. Our own appreciation grows each time we approach this book.

Paul Zelanski
Mary Pat Fisher

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Introduction

We are very pleased to be able to offer this new sixth edition of The Art of Seeing, for its features will bring readers even closer than before to an informed understanding of the fine and applied arts of the world. The scope of this understanding has been extended in many ways.

NEW FEATURES OF THIS EDITION

Color is such a critical element of design that the use of color illustrations has been greatly increased in this edition, with 66 new color images. We have particularly emphasized the reproduction of paintings in color and have added important painters who did not appear in previous editions, such as Bellini and Delacroix. The new artworks range from multi-media installations and Daniel Libeskind's model for a poignantly symbolic post-9/11 World Trade Center to wooden sculpture by the thirteenth-century Japanese master, Unkei.

The multicultural nature of the book has been enhanced with new material from contemporary Vietnamese, Indian, Chinese, Native American, and African artists. Women artists continue to be well represented throughout the book, particularly in contemporary pieces such as the provocative installation and performance work of Marina Abramovic.

Digital art has become an integral part of the contemporary art scene, so its coverage has been expanded and updated throughout the book as well as in the chapter on digital art. At the same time, consideration of historical movements has also been enhanced with additions such as a new section on Assyrian art.

The Art of Seeing has been completely redesigned for greater readability and clarity. Each chapter now begins with a helpful list of "Key Concepts" to help readersmentally organize the material that follows. Boxes in Chapter 15 summarizing major historical developments in Western art along with significant events of the times have been completely reorganized, with references to pieces of art previously illustrated in the book to explain particular topics, so that these works may also be better understood within their historical contexts.

Special feature boxes were introduced to the fifth edition entitled "The World Seen." Each examines an art form that has been highly developed in a particular time and place, such as the brush and ink paintings of Sung China, the precious metalwork of Tsarist Russia, the ivory work of the kingdom of Benin, and the traditional gold-embroidered saris that have now entered the realm of high fashion in India. The social and cultural factors that led to these heights are examined along with the exceptional skillfulness of the artists. In the sixth edition, another extraordinary art wonder of the world has been added: "The Hidden Temples of Angkor" in Cambodia. These "The World Seen" boxes are distinguished from the running text by their green-tinted headings.

The special feature boxes on "Art Issues" have also been updated and expanded, with the addition of boxes on "Looting of Art Treasures," prompted by thefts from the Baghdad Museum but also delving into other similar controversies, plus boxes on "Preserving Ephemeral Materials" and "The Camera Obscura: A Trade Secret?" Both in the text and in these special boxes we have attempted to explore many areas of controversy in the art world. These "Art Issues" boxes are distinguished from the running text by their brown-tinted headings.

THE NATURE OF THIS BOOK

As always, we have taken considerable effort in The Art of Seeing to make art come to life. The language we use is vigorous and down-to-earth, with many quotations from the artists themselves to help explain, in their own words, what they were trying to do. There are also numerous "Artists on Art" boxes throughout the book, distinguished by blue-tinted headings, featuring more lengthy passages in which major artists speak about their work in general, giving students valuable insights into art from the artists' point of view. Artists' own words about their work are a treasure trove for the student of art appreciation. Some of these are developed from our personal communications with the artists, some from historical documents. These quotations have been tightened in this edition to keep the focus relevant to issues being explored in the running text.

Carefully-chosen artworks are illustrated and described at the beginning of each chapter. These vignettes display works that are in some way emblematic of the entire topic to be discussed. These give a taste of what is to follow and an introduction to looking at that aspect of art.

Many illustrations are accompanied by discursive captions which augment the text discussions by giving related information about the content and context of the work. Some include interesting quotations from the artists about what they were attempting to do, thus deepening understanding of the work at hand.

There are many pedagogical aids in The Art of Seeing. In addition to the new "Key Concepts" lists at the beginning of each chapter, unfamiliar words are carefully defined where they are first used and those which are again defined in an extensive illustrated glossary at the end of the book are printed in boldface. Pronunciation aids are provided for words in the glossary that may be unfamiliar to students. There is also a guide in the back to the artists' names that are difficult to pronounce.

Art in The Art of Seeing is a stimulating, exciting visual gallery. The illustrations for each concept are clearly related to the text and carefully described. There are some 595 illustrations, 354 of them in color, many reproduced at full-page size. They are taken from all the visual arts, from painting and sculpture to clothing and industrial design. Use of such a global variety of illustrations from both fine and applied arts, old and new, allows us to broaden tastes in art and to demonstrate the underlying principles, elements, and issues in art, no matter what form it takes.

In Chapter 15, which traces the development of Western art, the discussion is enhanced by maps and timelines. The six maps show the regions where major trends in Western art developed and indicate key artistic centers, with insets of important buildings and monuments. Each map is accompanied by a timeline giving a global historical context to the evolution of Western art, up to the beginning of the twenty-first century.

ITS ORGANIZATION

Part 1 of The Art of Seeing lays the foundation for understanding the aesthetic aspects of a work of art. In Chapter 1, we develop an initial vocabulary and an intellectual framework for considering artworks: the creative impulse, the varying forms and content of its manifestation, critical opinion of the results, and, with time, recognition of the greatness of some works. Chapter 2 is devoted to extensive analysis of the visual elements with which the artist works: line, shapes, form, space, texture, light, color, and time. Chapter 3 covers the subtle organizing principles by which these elements are used in a work of art.

The next two parts of the book approach art through the materials and techniques used by the artists. By revealing the difficulties of each method, we hope to enhance appreciation of the artists' accomplishments in the face of the intractabilities of their media. Part 2 covers two-dimensional techniques and media: drawing, painting, printmaking, graphic design, photography, photo-copy, fax, film, television, video, and computer graphics. Part 3 covers three-dimensional media: sculpture, crags, industrial design, clothing design, architecture, interior design, environmental design, and the performing arts.

Part 4 approaches art as it exists in time. We first offer a concise approach to historical styles in Western art. Some 48 major movements, from prehistoric to contemporary, are covered, with an illustrated timeline on pages 430 and 431 as an aid to understanding how the distinctly different aesthetic movements are related in time. In addition, six maps show close-ups of particular periods so that one can see where the major artists of the time were working, in the context of major world events.

The final chapter is a unique, in-depth examination of specific works of art, including their evolution in time. It approximates the actual experience of encountering a work of art, drawing on all levels of appreciation developed in the book, in order to analyze and respond to four masterworks.

Read More Show Less

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