Art Past Art Present / Edition 6

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Overview

Authoritative and substantive–yet accessibleArt Past, Art Present, 6th edition looks at the historical and cultural contexts of art works and architecture around the world from prehistoric times to the 20th century.

The authors recognized the need for an easy-to-use format that is accessible for both teachers and students. Each topic in Art Past, Art Present is organized into two- and four-page units and provides a clear and concise treatment of a select number of artworks, making it easier for instructors to focus on what is important and for students to learn.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Aims to provide a concise, integrated treatment of a limited number of works of art from around the world. Works are discussed within a historical framework, in chronological order, accompanied on virtually every page by quality color reproductions. The first section discusses the process of experiencing art. Chapters that follow begin with prehistoric art and ancient art followed by the period between 200 to 1400; then the 15th century, followed by every century through the 20th. Suitable for the introductory university level course. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132357166
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/8/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 672
  • Sales rank: 341,206
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

David G. Wilkins is Professor Emeritus of art History and architecture at the University of Pittsburgh.  Bernard Schultz is professor of art History at West Virginia University.  Katheryn M. Linduff is a professor of art history and architecture at the University of Pittsburg.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

Why Art Past/Art Present?

Art Past/Art Present is based on the idea that works of art can communicate to us through time and history. On a purely visual level they may engage us, but further study will reveal that they constantly remind us of the diversity and communality of human experience. To understand the visual language of art and to be receptive to its communication, however, requires active participation. How can we begin to establish a dialogue between ourselves and works of art? How can we achieve an understanding of past and present art from other societies, historic and current? And, in an age teeming with information, how do we move from information to knowledge and understanding? Art Past/Art Present has been designed to help us begin to answer these questions. The book opens with a section called "Experiencing Art" (pp. 17) that establishes some of the language and techniques useful for analyzing art and for understanding art and artists within a historical context.

What is the basic approach of Art Past/Art Present?

In creating Art Past/Art Present, we accepted the underlying assumptions that art results from the human experience of life and that art is itself fundamentally expressive. We wanted to offer to the interested reader a clear, concise, and integrated treatment of a limited number of works from around the world.

Why is history so important in understanding works of art?

In Art Past/Art Present, the works are discussed within a historical framework. This emphasizes the circumstances under which they came into being and helps us to analyze how they wereviewed and how they functioned at that time; this approach is known as contextualism. Art should be studied in concert with history, politics, religion, geography, society, and culture in general, including music and literature, in order to more fully understand the scope and diversity of our human history. Chapters 2 through 10 of Art Past/Art Present each open with an overview of developments in history and art for each particular time period: prehistoric, ancient, 200 to 1400, fifteenth century, sixteenth century, seventeenth century, eighteenth century, nineteenth century, and twentieth century. A special section at the end of each overview discusses the role and status of artists during this period; when possible, self-portraits of artists are illustrated in this section. Following the overviews for each period, there are two- and four-page units that focus on a key work. These key works establish a chronology for Art Past/Art Present.

Why such a distinct chronological approach?

If you thumb through Art Past/Art Present looking at the top right-hand corner of the pages, you'll see a series of boxes with dates that are chronological in sequence. (n our minds there is historical accuracy in this chronology for it means that the works and events are presented roughly as they happened; it can only be informative to be reminded, for example, that Donatello, Crhiberti, and Van Eyck (pp. 250-259) were all working at about the same time, or that the rockcut Hindu temple at Ellora (pp. 172-173) was being carved at the same time that the Muslims were erecting the huge mosque in Cordoba (pp. 174-77). This interweaving of European, Asian, and American developments offers important insights into contemporary developments around the globe. At the same time, the organization of Art Past/Art Present in two- and four-page units means that the teacher or reader can focus on each unit independently.

What is the point of the boxes in the upper right corner of the pages?

The box lists historical events and cultural developments from the period in order to build context for the works of art being discussed. While there is no direct connection between the fact that the earliest Buddhist architecture in Japan (pp. 168-71) was built in the seventh century, during the same period when Muhammad began preaching openly, or that Shakespeare's Hamlet was written at about the same time that Caravaggio's Entombment of Christ (fig. 7-14) was painted, such chronological connections help us build a more complex and complete sense of the development of human accomplishment and historical events around the globe.

What kind of important information is found in the captions to the illustrations?

The main point of the captions is to provide some of the basic facts that identify the work of art:

Name of artist if known: While many early works are anonymous, in later periods we know many artists not only by name but also as personalities. An artist's birth and death dates are given when their name is first mentioned in the text; nationality is given in the index.

Title: Titles only became necessary when people began listing works or displaying them, and chroniclers, collectors, and art historians have had to invent titles for many earlier works; you may sometimes notice that the title of a work of art in one book is different from that given in another. Some historic or popular titles are wrong, as is the case with Rembrandt's Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocg (fig. 7-27), which is now popularly but incorrectly known as The Night Watch.

Date: The date of creation is always a useful piece of information, but many early dates are uncertain or questionable. When a date is uncertain, we have used c. (from "circa," the Latin term for "about") before the date. We don't know the exact date for Leonardo's Portrait of a Woman (now known as the Mona Lisa, see fig. 6-21), but we think it was painted sometime between 1503 and 1505, hence the date given in the caption is c. 1503-05.

Materials: This is an important category because artists are often restricted in the kinds of materials that are available. Each material offers its own potential and restrictions, and understanding the role of the materials (the medium) in the artist's creative experience is often helpful.

Size: Size is given in feet and inches, height before width. This is another crucial category, because an understanding of the actual size of a work can help us to better understand the impact of that work when seen in the original. That Michelangelo's David is 13'5" tall is crucial for understanding the impact of this figure; by including a human figure in our illustration, we provide visual evidence for the impact of the sculpture's scale and presence.

Original and present location: Many works in the past were created by the artist for a specific setting, but few survive as originally placed. This loss of context means that we often need to try to recreate some sense of the original setting. The survival of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling (pp. 300303) and Soami's Zen Buddhist Dry Garden (fig. 6-79) in their original setting demonstrates how important setting can be in understanding a work of art. Present location tells us where we can go to see a work; below some captions, in small print, is further information about location and copyright.

Patron: In most earlier periods works of art were commissioned from the artist by a patron. The patron could be an individual, a family, a social group, a ruler, a government, and so forth. Knowing who needed and who paid for the work can often add insight into our understanding of the function and context for a work.

What should be read first, the captions or the text?

The factual information in the captions is mainly useful for identification purposes, but longer captions allow us to include additional information and discussion about that specific work. We would recommend that the captions be read first, followed by the text, which generally focuses on the broader cultural and historical ideas that are helpful in understanding the work of art.

Why is it important to list the patron in the captions?

Most of the works of art created in the past were made at the command or request of a patron: a person or group who commissioned the work and subsequently paid for it. This system is so different from current practices, in which artists create what they want to and then hope to find a buyer (the one important exception is architecture), that it seemed important to stress the roles of patrons not only as the persons who provided the money, but also the persons who needed the work and who probably gave specific information, requirements, and restrictions to the artists.

Why are some words in the text printed in boldface?

These boldfaced terms emphasize some of the new and perhaps unfamiliar terms that are helpful in understanding works of art; boldfaced terms are defined in the glossary on pp. 598-605, where each term is defined and where reference will be made to a specific work of art that illustrates or demonstrates the term.

Why are some passages in the text printed in blue?

These highlighted passages are either historical documents that are roughly contemporary with the creation of the work or quotations from artists themselves. We would emphasize that the words of those who lived when these works were created have particular authority and offer important insights for us today. This is contextualism at its best, because it allows us to read what was being said about the work at the time of its creation.

Themes

A new feature of this fourth edition is a series of nine double-page spreads devoted to art historical themes such as The Nude/The Body, Representing Nature, and The Artist as a Revolutionary. Each of these thematic discussions presents a group of works that can be more fully understood when seen in the context of other works representing the same theme. These spreads demonstrate some of the common themes that can be deduced when we look at artistic developments over history and around the globe. As a group, the works demonstrate how a comparison and contrast between works from different periods can illuminate how art has changed over time.

Maps

Twenty-one detailed maps are intended to help you determine the location of works of art and architecture discussed in the book.

Technique Boxes

Technique boxes have been placed in the text chronologically, at the moment when the particular technique originated or when it was most important for artistic developments. Clear diagrams accompany descriptions of, among others, Chinese Piece-Mold Bronze Casting, Proportions of Gothic Cathedrals, and Printmaking.

Art Past/Art Present Boxes

These boxes have been added chronologically at points where it seemed appropriate to discuss the relationship between the art of the time and the modern world. Examples include The Impact of the Ancient Greek Orders and Chinese Aesthetic Theory.

BC or BCE, AD or CE?

The dating system used throughout this book is the Western system, which is based on the year of the birth of Christ as a dividing point. Many other cultures, including China, Israel, and the Muslim world, use a system based on historical events that are important to them; for business purposes, however, these cultures often use the dates common in the West. While the traditional designations used in Western culture for the periods before and after the birth of Christ have been ac "Before Christ" and AD "Anno Domini," "the year of the Lord," in this book we have adapted the new designations for these periods: ace "Before the Common Era" and CE "Common Era:"

Why include a bibliography?

We see Art Past/Art Present as only your first introduction to the larger and more complex world of the art that has been created over the centuries and around the world, not to mention the new art that is being created in our own times. The bibliography on pp. 606-608 lists books in English that will lead you further into this world. Happy Reading!

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Table of Contents

Getting Started xii

1. Experiencing Art 1

Experiencing Art 2

How to Experience Art 3

Viewing Art 4

Understanding Style 4

Art, Time, and the Cycles of Life 4

Analyzing Three Works 6

Analyzing Art 8

Analyzing Architecture 8

Analyzing Sculpture 12

Analyzing Ritual Art 14

Analyzing Installation Art 14

Analyzing Painting and Related Media 15

The Artist in History 18

2. prehistoric Art 21

Introduction to Prehistoric Art 22

The Paleolithic Period 22

The Discovery of Paleolithic Painting 23

Paleolithic Art 23

The Neolithic Period 25

Neolithic Art and Architecture 25

Prehistoric Art and the Prehistoric Artist 28

points of contact Prehistoric Figurines

of Women 29

theme Ritual and Art 30

3. ancient Art 33

Introduction to Ancient Art 34

History 35

Art of Ancient Societies 36

art past/art present The Concept of the

The Ancient Artist 37

Classical in the West 36

points of contact Greek Artists/Scythian

Patrons 37

theme The Presence of the Artist 38

Sumerian Art 40

Ancient Egyptian Art 44

History 44

Religion 46

Art of Ancient Egypt 46

The Egyptian Artist 47

Ancient Egyptian Art: The Palette of

Narmer 48

The Egyptian Pyramids 50

The Egyptian Temple 52

technique Post-and-Lintel Construction 54

technique How to Read Architectural

Diagrams 55

Egyptian Tomb Paintings and Painted

Reliefs 56

technique Figure—Ground Relationships 57

The Indus Valley Civilization 58

Aegean Art: Minoan and Mycenaean 60

Ancient China: The Shang Dynasty 64

technique Chinese Piece-Mold

Bronze Casting 65

Assyrian and Early Persian Art 66

Mesoamerica: The Olmec 68

Etruscan Art 70

Ancient Greek Art 72

History 72

Intellectual and Scientific Activities 74

Religion 75

Ancient Greek Art 75

The Ancient Greek Artist 75

Greek Vase Painting 76

The Development of Greek Sculpture 78

technique Greek Lost-Wax

Bronze Casting 81

technique Contrapposto in Sculpture 83

technique The Classical Orders 84

art past/art present The Impact of the

Ancient Greek Orders 85

Greek Doric Architecture 86

technique Greek Temple Construction 87

The Parthenon, Athens 88

4. later ancient Art,

400 bce to 200 ce 93

Introduction to Later Ancient Art 94

points of contact The Silk Road 95

theme Engineering 96

Nomadic Art in Siberia: Pazyryk 98

The Qin Empire in China 102

Hellenistic Art 104

History 104

Art of the Hellenistic Period 104

Hellenistic Painting 104

Hellenistic Sculpture in Pergamon 106

The Han Dynasty in China 108

Early Buddhist Art 110

Dongson Culture in Vietnam 112

The Art of the Roman Republic 114

History 115

Republican Architectural Developments 115

The Roman House and Villa 116

The Art of the Roman Empire 118

History 118

The City of Rome 119

Roman Imperial Art 121

Technology, Organization, and Engineering 122

Roman Religion and the Mystery Religions 123

The End of Rome’s Empire 124

The Roman Artist 124

Roman Frescoes and Illusionism 126

technique Fresco Painting 128

technique Illusionism 129

Roman Architecture:

The Flavian Amphitheater 130

technique Roman Engineering: The Arch, The

Vault, and Concrete 132

Roman Architecture: The Pantheon,

Rome 136

Mesoamerican Art: Teotihuacán 138

5. Art From 200 to 1000 143

Introduction to Art from 200 to 1400 144

art past/art present Naming the Middle

Ages in Europe 144

History 146

Art and the Christian Church 147

A Denial of Naturalism 147

The Scroll and Book 147

The Artist 148

points of contact Muslims in China 149

theme Religious Architecture 150

Jewish Art:

The Synagogue at Dura Europos 152

Early Christian Art 154

History 154

Art 155

Early Christian Architecture 156

Buddhist Architecture and Painting at

Ajanta, India 158

The Shinto Shrine at Ise, Japan 160

Byzantine Art 162

History 162

The Icon and Iconoclasm 163

The Byzantine Artist 163

Byzantine Architecture: Hagia Sophia 164

Byzantine Art: San Vitale, Ravenna 166

technique Mosaic 169

Anglo-Saxon Metalwork and Hiberno-

Saxon Illumination 170

The Chinese Imperial City of Chang’An 172

Buddhist Art at Horyuji 176

technique Dougong-style Bracketing 179

Hindu Art at Ellora 180

Islamic Art at Córdoba 182

Carolingian and Ottonian Art 186

The Monastery in the West 188

Buddhist Art in Indonesia 190

Chinese Art: Landscape Painting 192

art past/art present Chinese Aesthetic

Theory 195

6. Art from 1000 to 1400 197

Introduction to Art from 1000 to 1400 198

History 199

points of contact Amber Necklaces in

Burials in Eastern Asia 201

theme Narrative Art 202

Romanesque Art in Europe 204

History 205

Art and the Pilgrim 205

The Bayeux “Tapestry” 206

The Romanesque Artist in Europe 206

Romanesque Architecture at Conques 208

Romanesque Sculpture 210

Moai Ancestor Figures, Polynesia 212

Angkor Wat: Cult of the God-King 214

The Japanese Narrative Scroll 216

Gothic Art 220

Abbot Suger 221

History 221

Art 221

The Franciscans 223

The Gothic Artist 223

The Gothic Cathedral: Chartres 224

technique Proportions of Gothic Cathedrals,

1160—1230 224

technique Gothic Engineering 228

Gothic Sculpture 230

Gothic Stained Glass 232

technique Stained-Glass Technique 233

The Great Mosque at Jenne 234

The Chinese Capital City in Beijing:

The Forbidden City 236

Early Italian Painting 238

Giotto, The Arena Chapel Frescoes 240

technique Tempera and Fresco 242

The Royal Art of African Kingdoms 244

7. Fifteenth-Century Art 247

Introduction to Fifteenth-Century Art 248

Fifteenth-Century Worldwide Developments

250

The Idea of a Renaissance 252

Naming the Styles 252

European History 252

Italian Renaissance Humanism and Art Theory

253

European Intellectual Activity 254

Changing Patterns of Patronage in Europe 254

The Fifteenth-Century Artist in Europe 257

POINTS OF CONTACT The Travels of

Marco Polo 257

theme Portraiture 258

Early Renaissance Sculpture

in Florence 260

technique Carving in Wood 261

Flemish Painting:

The Limbourg Brothers 262

Flemish Painting: Robert Campin 264

Italian Renaissance Painting: Masaccio 266

Scientific Perspective 268

Flemish Painting:

Hubert and Jan van Eyck 270

Flemish Painting: Jan van Eyck 272

technique The Development of Oil Painting in

Flanders 274

Italian Renaissance Architecture:

Filippo Brunelleschi 276

Machu Picchu:

The Peruvian Mountain Retreat 278

The Italian Renaissance Palace 280

Portraiture 282

Italian Renaissance Painting:

Andrea Mantegna 286

technique Foreshortening 287

Italian Renaissance Painting: Sandro

Botticelli 288

Italian Renaissance Painting:

Leonardo da Vinci 290

Italian Renaissance Painting: Leonardo’s

Last Supper 292

Italian Renaissance Sculpture:

Michelangelo’s Pietà in St. Peter’s 294

8. Sixteenth-Century Art 297

Introduction to Sixteenth-Century Art 298

History 299

Intellectual and Scientific Developments 300

Religious Reform and Art during the Sixteenth

Century 301

The Sixteenth-Century Artist 304

points of contact Chinese Porcelain

in Europe 305

Theme The Nude/The Body 306

Italian Renaissance Sculpture:

Michelangelo 308

technique Stone Sculpture 309

Italian High Renaissance Portraiture 310

German Printmaking: Albrecht Dürer 312

technique Printmaking: Engraving

and Woodcut 314

New St. Peter’s, Rome 316

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling 318

art past/art present Vasari and Modern

Scholarship 321

Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura 322

High Renaissance Painting in Venice 324

Hieronymus Bosch, “Garden of Earthly

Delights” Triptych 326

German Painting: Matthias Grünewald,

Isenheim Altarpiece 328

Titian’s Altarpieces 330

technique Venetian Painting 332

Later Michelangelo and the Development

of Mannerism 334

Early European Landscape Painting 336

Sixteenth-Century Painting 338

Islamic Art of the Ottomans 340

Veronese and the Impact of the

Counter-Reformation 342

The Art of Zen Buddhism in Japan 344

9. Seventeenth-Century Art 347

Introduction to Seventeenth-Century Art 348

History 348

Intellectual and Scientific Activity 350

The Styles of Seventeenth-Century European

Art 351

Seventeenth-Century European Art 351

The Seventeenth-Century Artist in Europe 352

points of contact “Seeing” the New

World 355

theme Relating to Nature 356

Seventeenth-Century Architecture in

Japan 358

Caravaggio and His Influence 360

Baroque Genre Painting 362

Peter Paul Rubens 364

Bernini’s Works for St. Peter’s 366

The Dutch Baroque Group Portrait 368

Mughal Art of India: The Taj Mahal 370

Baroque Architecture:

Francesco Borromini 372

Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa 374

technique The Art of Drawing:

Rembrandt 376

technique Printmaking: Etching and

Drypoint 378

Spanish Painting: Diego Velázquez 380

Baroque Classicism: Nicolas Poussin 382

Rembrandt: Late Paintings 384

Dutch Still-Life Painting 386

The Palace at Versailles 388

Japanese Screens and Architecture 390

European Landscape Painting 392

10. Eighteenth-Century Art 395

Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Art 396

History 397

Intellectual and Scientific Activity 399

Eighteenth-Century Art 400

The Eighteenth-Century Artist 401

points of contact Chinoiserie 405

theme Representing Women 406

Eighteenth-Century Painting in Europe 408

Eighteenth-Century Art in Korea 412

Rococo Architecture and Sculpture 414

Eighteenth-Century Portraiture 416

Neoclassical Architecture 418

Neoclassical Painting and Sculpture 420

11. Nineteenth-Century Art 425

Introduction to Nineteenth-Century Art 426

History 427

The Industrial Revolution around the World 429

European Intellectual and Scientific Activities 430

Art 431

art past/art present Looking Beyond the

Art: Romanticism 431

The Impact of French Painting on World Art 433

The Styles of Nineteenth-Century Art in

the West 434

The Nineteenth-Century Artist 436

points of contact British Architects in

India 437

theme The Artist as a Revolutionary 438

The Continuation of Neoclassicism 440

Francisco Goya 442

Romanticism 444

Romantic Landscape Painting 446

Japanese Woodblock Prints 448

technique Japanese Woodblock

Technique 449

Honoré Daumier and the Political Print 452

technique Lithography 453

Romantic Revival Architecture 454

American Romantic Painting 456

Revolutionary Art vs. Academic Art 458

New Materials and Engineering in

Architecture 460

technique New Materials in Architecture 463

Late Nineteenth-Century Revival

Architecture 464

Édouard Manet 466

Early Photography and Photographic

Technique 468

Late Nineteenth-Century Sculpture 470

Impressionism 472

technique Impressionism 474

Edgar Degas, Berthe Morisot, and

Mary Cassatt 476

American Realism: Thomas Eakins and

Henry Tanner 478

Auguste Rodin and Camille Claudel 480

Winslow Homer 482

technique Watercolor and Gouache 483

Post-Impressionism: Gauguin and Seurat 484

Post-Impressionism: Vincent Van Gogh 486

art past/art present The Value of Art:

Van Gogh 488

Post-Impressionism: Paul Cézanne 490

The Beginnings of the Skyscraper 492

Edvard Munch 494

12. Art from 1900 to 1949 497

Introduction to Art from 1900 to 1949 498

History 498

Intellectual and Scientific Activity 500

Art from 1900 to 1949 501

The Artist 504

theme The Home and the Palace 506

Fauvism 508

African Art and Ritual 510

Photography 512

Cubism and its Influence 514

technique Collage and Assemblage 519

Native American Art 520

art past/art present Women in

Pueblo Society 523

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House 524

technique The Cantilever 525

Native American Ceremonial Art from the

Northwest Coast 526

Abstraction in Sculpture 528

Malevich and the Russian Avant-Garde 530

German Expressionism: Die Brücke and

Der Blaue Reiter 532

Fantasy 534

Dada 536

De Stijl and the Bauhaus 540

Diego Rivera and Mexican Mural Painting 544

Surrealism 548

Modernism in American Painting 552

Pablo Picasso, Guernica 556

Sculpture of the 1930s and 1940s 558

International Style Architecture 562

13. Art from 1950 to 1999 565

The 1950s 566

The 1960s 576

The 1970s 580

The 1980s 586

The 1990s 596

14. Art in the New Millennium 607

Art in the New Millennium 608

World Map 622

Glossary 623

Bibliography 631

Index 634

Picture Credits 651

Text Credits 655

Acknowledgements 655

Maps

Prehistoric Europe and Africa 24

The Ancient Near East 41

Ancient Egypt 44

Ancient Greece 73

Ancient Asia 111

Ancient Italy 114

Mesoamerica 138

The Near East 153

Asia 161

Medieval Europe 163

Japan 219

14th-century Europe 223

Africa 245

15th-century Europe 253

16th-century Europe 300

17th-century Europe 349

18th-century Europe 397

19th-century Europe 428

19th-century United States and Canada 454

20th-century Europe 499

20th-century United States 501

Sub-Saharan West Africa 511

World 622

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Preface

PREFACE

Why Art Past/Art Present?

Art Past/Art Present is based on the idea that works of art can communicate to us through time and history. On a purely visual level they may engage us, but further study will reveal that they constantly remind us of the diversity and communality of human experience. To understand the visual language of art and to be receptive to its communication, however, requires active participation. How can we begin to establish a dialogue between ourselves and works of art? How can we achieve an understanding of past and present art from other societies, historic and current? And, in an age teeming with information, how do we move from information to knowledge and understanding? Art Past/Art Present has been designed to help us begin to answer these questions. The book opens with a section called "Experiencing Art" (pp. 17) that establishes some of the language and techniques useful for analyzing art and for understanding art and artists within a historical context.

What is the basic approach of Art Past/Art Present?

In creating Art Past/Art Present, we accepted the underlying assumptions that art results from the human experience of life and that art is itself fundamentally expressive. We wanted to offer to the interested reader a clear, concise, and integrated treatment of a limited number of works from around the world.

Why is history so important in understanding works of art?

In Art Past/Art Present, the works are discussed within a historical framework. This emphasizes the circumstances under which they came into being and helps us to analyze how they were viewedand how they functioned at that time; this approach is known as contextualism. Art should be studied in concert with history, politics, religion, geography, society, and culture in general, including music and literature, in order to more fully understand the scope and diversity of our human history. Chapters 2 through 10 of Art Past/Art Present each open with an overview of developments in history and art for each particular time period: prehistoric, ancient, 200 to 1400, fifteenth century, sixteenth century, seventeenth century, eighteenth century, nineteenth century, and twentieth century. A special section at the end of each overview discusses the role and status of artists during this period; when possible, self-portraits of artists are illustrated in this section. Following the overviews for each period, there are two- and four-page units that focus on a key work. These key works establish a chronology for Art Past/Art Present.

Why such a distinct chronological approach?

If you thumb through Art Past/Art Present looking at the top right-hand corner of the pages, you'll see a series of boxes with dates that are chronological in sequence. (n our minds there is historical accuracy in this chronology for it means that the works and events are presented roughly as they happened; it can only be informative to be reminded, for example, that Donatello, Crhiberti, and Van Eyck (pp. 250-259) were all working at about the same time, or that the rockcut Hindu temple at Ellora (pp. 172-173) was being carved at the same time that the Muslims were erecting the huge mosque in Cordoba (pp. 174-77). This interweaving of European, Asian, and American developments offers important insights into contemporary developments around the globe. At the same time, the organization of Art Past/Art Present in two- and four-page units means that the teacher or reader can focus on each unit independently.

What is the point of the boxes in the upper right corner of the pages?

The box lists historical events and cultural developments from the period in order to build context for the works of art being discussed. While there is no direct connection between the fact that the earliest Buddhist architecture in Japan (pp. 168-71) was built in the seventh century, during the same period when Muhammad began preaching openly, or that Shakespeare's Hamlet was written at about the same time that Caravaggio's Entombment of Christ (fig. 7-14) was painted, such chronological connections help us build a more complex and complete sense of the development of human accomplishment and historical events around the globe.

What kind of important information is found in the captions to the illustrations?

The main point of the captions is to provide some of the basic facts that identify the work of art:

Name of artist if known: While many early works are anonymous, in later periods we know many artists not only by name but also as personalities. An artist's birth and death dates are given when their name is first mentioned in the text; nationality is given in the index.

Title: Titles only became necessary when people began listing works or displaying them, and chroniclers, collectors, and art historians have had to invent titles for many earlier works; you may sometimes notice that the title of a work of art in one book is different from that given in another. Some historic or popular titles are wrong, as is the case with Rembrandt's Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocg (fig. 7-27), which is now popularly but incorrectly known as The Night Watch.

Date: The date of creation is always a useful piece of information, but many early dates are uncertain or questionable. When a date is uncertain, we have used c. (from "circa," the Latin term for "about") before the date. We don't know the exact date for Leonardo's Portrait of a Woman (now known as the Mona Lisa, see fig. 6-21), but we think it was painted sometime between 1503 and 1505, hence the date given in the caption is c. 1503-05.

Materials: This is an important category because artists are often restricted in the kinds of materials that are available. Each material offers its own potential and restrictions, and understanding the role of the materials (the medium) in the artist's creative experience is often helpful.

Size: Size is given in feet and inches, height before width. This is another crucial category, because an understanding of the actual size of a work can help us to better understand the impact of that work when seen in the original. That Michelangelo's David is 13'5" tall is crucial for understanding the impact of this figure; by including a human figure in our illustration, we provide visual evidence for the impact of the sculpture's scale and presence.

Original and present location: Many works in the past were created by the artist for a specific setting, but few survive as originally placed. This loss of context means that we often need to try to recreate some sense of the original setting. The survival of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling (pp. 300303) and Soami's Zen Buddhist Dry Garden (fig. 6-79) in their original setting demonstrates how important setting can be in understanding a work of art. Present location tells us where we can go to see a work; below some captions, in small print, is further information about location and copyright.

Patron: In most earlier periods works of art were commissioned from the artist by a patron. The patron could be an individual, a family, a social group, a ruler, a government, and so forth. Knowing who needed and who paid for the work can often add insight into our understanding of the function and context for a work.

What should be read first, the captions or the text?

The factual information in the captions is mainly useful for identification purposes, but longer captions allow us to include additional information and discussion about that specific work. We would recommend that the captions be read first, followed by the text, which generally focuses on the broader cultural and historical ideas that are helpful in understanding the work of art.

Why is it important to list the patron in the captions?

Most of the works of art created in the past were made at the command or request of a patron: a person or group who commissioned the work and subsequently paid for it. This system is so different from current practices, in which artists create what they want to and then hope to find a buyer (the one important exception is architecture), that it seemed important to stress the roles of patrons not only as the persons who provided the money, but also the persons who needed the work and who probably gave specific information, requirements, and restrictions to the artists.

Why are some words in the text printed in boldface?

These boldfaced terms emphasize some of the new and perhaps unfamiliar terms that are helpful in understanding works of art; boldfaced terms are defined in the glossary on pp. 598-605, where each term is defined and where reference will be made to a specific work of art that illustrates or demonstrates the term.

Why are some passages in the text printed in blue?

These highlighted passages are either historical documents that are roughly contemporary with the creation of the work or quotations from artists themselves. We would emphasize that the words of those who lived when these works were created have particular authority and offer important insights for us today. This is contextualism at its best, because it allows us to read what was being said about the work at the time of its creation.

Themes

A new feature of this fourth edition is a series of nine double-page spreads devoted to art historical themes such as The Nude/The Body, Representing Nature, and The Artist as a Revolutionary. Each of these thematic discussions presents a group of works that can be more fully understood when seen in the context of other works representing the same theme. These spreads demonstrate some of the common themes that can be deduced when we look at artistic developments over history and around the globe. As a group, the works demonstrate how a comparison and contrast between works from different periods can illuminate how art has changed over time.

Maps

Twenty-one detailed maps are intended to help you determine the location of works of art and architecture discussed in the book.

Technique Boxes

Technique boxes have been placed in the text chronologically, at the moment when the particular technique originated or when it was most important for artistic developments. Clear diagrams accompany descriptions of, among others, Chinese Piece-Mold Bronze Casting, Proportions of Gothic Cathedrals, and Printmaking.

Art Past/Art Present Boxes

These boxes have been added chronologically at points where it seemed appropriate to discuss the relationship between the art of the time and the modern world. Examples include The Impact of the Ancient Greek Orders and Chinese Aesthetic Theory.

BC or BCE, AD or CE?

The dating system used throughout this book is the Western system, which is based on the year of the birth of Christ as a dividing point. Many other cultures, including China, Israel, and the Muslim world, use a system based on historical events that are important to them; for business purposes, however, these cultures often use the dates common in the West. While the traditional designations used in Western culture for the periods before and after the birth of Christ have been ac "Before Christ" and AD "Anno Domini," "the year of the Lord," in this book we have adapted the new designations for these periods: ace "Before the Common Era" and CE "Common Era:"

Why include a bibliography?

We see Art Past/Art Present as only your first introduction to the larger and more complex world of the art that has been created over the centuries and around the world, not to mention the new art that is being created in our own times. The bibliography on pp. 606-608 lists books in English that will lead you further into this world. Happy Reading!

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