The Arts and Crafts Computer : Using Your Computer as an Artist's Tool

Overview

The Arts and Crafts Computer shows you how to use your personal computer, scanner, digital camera and color printer as artist tools to create beautiful graphics and artful objects for your home, school and work. You'll learn how to:

  • Understand the basics of digital image-editing, typesetting and graphic design.
  • Gather the right tools, both digital and traditional.
  • Use the ...
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Overview

The Arts and Crafts Computer shows you how to use your personal computer, scanner, digital camera and color printer as artist tools to create beautiful graphics and artful objects for your home, school and work. You'll learn how to:

  • Understand the basics of digital image-editing, typesetting and graphic design.
  • Gather the right tools, both digital and traditional.
  • Use the new inkjet printing media including cloth, decals, stickers, magnets, transparencies and more.
  • Work with art materials safely, avoid computer-related stress and find environmentally-friendly materials.
  • Create unique greeting cards and envelopes, artist books, games, toys, home decorations and gifts.
If you're a crafter looking for computer ideas or a designer or teacher looking for hands-on projects The Arts and Crafts Computer is for you!
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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
The Barnes & Noble Review
Many artists and crafters who are fully at home with their computers increasingly miss "art that you can hold in your hand." Others are only just now gingerly tiptoeing into the digital river. Still other folks have long been computer literate, but have only recently become inspired to try the visual arts. In The Arts & Crafts Computer, Janet Ashford has written a wonderful book for all of them.

You can, Ashford says, "have the best of both worlds: digital tools for creating and printing graphic images, combined with the tactile, three-dimensional and handmade qualities of the traditional arts and paper crafts." And this full-color book shows you how.

Ashford tells you the best way to scan a stuffed animal, how to make your computer-printed greeting cards richer and less "computery," and how to combine digital type, scanned images, and found paper to build one-of-a-kind accordion books. You'll learn how to make your own bumper stickers, discover Dover's great CD-ROM of '30s fruit crate labels, and make the most of that cool inkjet iron-on transfer paper.

We've just scratched the surface. This eclectic, fun book completely erases the artificial distinctions between "traditional" and "digital" -- and it's about time! (Bill Camarda)

Bill Camarda is a consultant, writer, and web/multimedia content developer with nearly 20 years' experience in helping technology companies deploy and market advanced software, computing, and networking products and services. He served for nearly ten years as vice president of a New Jersey┬ľbased marketing company, where he supervised a wide range of graphics and web design projects. His 15 books include Special Edition Using Word 2000 and Upgrading & Fixing Networks For Dummies┬«, Second Edition.

Library Journal
Someone once said, "To err is human, but to really foul things up requires a computer." Whether computers will dehumanize art or free up our creative impulses remains to be seen, but these two books are worthy additions to the discussion. Illustrator Ashford's career was completely changed by the computer. The result was six books on computer graphics, including Start with a Scan: A Guide to Transforming Scanned Photos and Objects into High-Quality Art, written with John Odam. In this follow-up, she enters the arts-and-crafts world. She begins with an excellent chapter on understanding digital tools (bitmaps, PostScript, software for graphics, resolution, etc.), then adds sections on working with photos and scans, using type and design, and gathering the art supplies needed for projects. The second half of the book takes computer-generated art and applies it to the making of cards, small books, and other decorative projects. The book as a whole is packed with historic facts (on typefaces, the development of color greeting cards, and the politics of paper) and usable information (on computer safety and the varieties of binding methods). While Ashford has created images solely within the machine, Pollard and Little seek to use computer-generated images only as reference tools for traditional art media. The authors present over 40 demonstrations that show how to use image-editing software to improve one's drawings and paintings. Each of the 30 artists included uses the computer to develop photographs or sketches into fully developed ideas. They combine photos, apply textures, crop, and edit, and they vary perspective, color, and scale as they create studies. After working out compositional problems, each study is used as the basis for artwork in watercolor, pastel, acrylics, or oils. Each of these books can be used with a variety of available graphic programs, with either a Mac or PC/Windows. Both are solid additions to this rapidly morphing field. Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201734829
  • Publisher: Peachpit Press
  • Publication date: 7/13/2001
  • Pages: 144
  • Product dimensions: 9.02 (w) x 10.06 (h) x 0.46 (d)

Meet the Author

Janet Ashford is a free-lance writer, artist and musician who has written seven books on computer graphics, including Start with a Scan: A Guide to Transforming Scanned Photos and Objects into High-Quality Art (Peachpit Press, 2000). She has worked in graphic design and desktop publishing since 1986 and has written regular how-to articles for many computer and design magazines. She lives in Mendocino, California.

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Read an Excerpt

Excerpt from

Understanding Digital Tools

Page layout programs

A page layout program is used to create publications-from a flyer to a multipage magazine or book-by making it possible to combine type and graphics and to manipulate the size and position of these elements. Page layout Programs are based on PostScript and use smooth-printing PostScript fonts. But bitmaps created in an image-editing program-such as scanned photoscan be imported for use as illustrations.

PageMaker was the first PostScript page layout program, followed by QuarkXPress, which now is the biggest seller. Adobe acquired PageMaker and also produces a new program, InDesign, designed to compete with Quark.

Some word-processing programs, such as Word and Word Perfect, can also import graphics and create PostScript type and can be used to design pages, but not with as much freedom and ease as in a page layout program.

Hand-drawing with a computer

Once you have a computer and a graphics program, how do you actually draw or paint? There are two ways to draw on a computer-with a mouse or with a stylus.

USING THE MOUSE

"Drawing with a mouse is like drawing with a bar of soap," says John Odam, my co-author on Start with a Scan (Peachpit Press, 2000). The mouse was developed primarily for interaction with icons and while it's possible to draw with it-I do it every day-it's clumsy. If you plan to do a lot of drawing and painting on-screen, you may want to invest in a tablet and stylus.

USING A DIGITIZING TABLET AND STYLUS

A pressure-sensitive plastic tablet, shaped like a rectangular mouse pad, is connected to the computer. You hold a stylus shaped like a pen, and as you draw with it on the tablet, your onscreen tool moves accordingly. The stylus makes it possible to draw more smoothly and to take advantage of your conventional drawing skills. In addition, the tablet is sensitive to the amount of pressure you put on the stylus. The harder you press, the thicker and darker your on-screen mark will be (provided you are using an application that's designed to take advantage of this feature). The natural-media brushes in Painter, for example, work especially well with a pressure-sensitive tablet and stylus, making it almost like drawing and painting with traditional media.

Understanding Resolution

Resolution is a measure of any system's ability to display fine detail, whether it be in a computer or in the human eye. In computer graphics, resolution refers to the number of small units-dots or pixels-making up an image. The more units per inch, the finer the image will be and the more accurate it will look.

Types of resolution

Resolution means different things when applied to monitors, digital images and printers. Taking time now to understand each kind of resolution will help prevent confusion later on and help you get the best results with scanning and printing.

MONITOR RESOLUTION

Attached to a computer is a TV-like monitor on which images are displayed. The resolution of a monitor is determined by how many pixels per inch (ppi) are displayed on the screen. Monitor resolution on a PC is generally 96 ppi and on a Mac is generally 72 ppi. (Apple chose 72 ppi because type is traditionally measured in "points," with 72 points to an inch.) These resolutions are fairly low, compared with the 150 ppi to 300 ppi usually used for scanned images, but the quality of an on-screen image depends not only on the number of pixels per inch but on the "bit depth" of each pixel; that is, how many bits of information are assigned to each one. An 8-bit monitor can assign one of 256 different colors or shades of gray to each pixel, but a 24-bit monitor can choose from among 16.7 million. So a scanned photo will look better on a 24bit than on an 8-bit monitor because its colors are more truly represented, even though the number of pixels is the same.

IMAGE RESOLUTION

Image resolution (expressed in ppi) measures the number of pixels per inch. The more pixels, the higher the resolution and the more detailed the image will be. Image resolution is usually higher than monitor resolution, but no matter how high the resolution of an image, it will still be displayed on your monitor at either 72 ppi (on a MAC) or 96 ppi (on a PC). You will not see full detail until it's printed by a high-resolution printer.

PRINTER RESOLUTION

Printer resolution-expressed as dpi or dots per inch-measures the number of dots of ink the printer lays down on the paper. As you may already know, graphic images are printed by converting their colors or gray tones into a grid of dots. You can see these dots by looking at a printed photo (in a magazine, for example) with a printer's loupe or a magnifying glass. Printer resolution is often higher than image resolution because it can take several printer "dots" to represent one image "pixel."

Areas of confusion

Resolution can be confusing. The terms dpi and ppi are often used interchangeably, even though they have different meanings. Pixels are the smallest units in a digital image, whereas dots are the smallest units in a printed image. Also, a dot is not always the same size as a pixel. So when a 240 ppi image, for example, is printed at 720 dpi on a color inkjet printer, the printer creates very small dots (at a rate of 720 per inch) to accurately represent all the color information in each pixel (which in a 24-bit image could be any one of over 16.7 million colors).

WHAT IS LINESCREEN?

Another variable that effects resolution is "linescreen" or lines per inch (lpi). Linescreen (also called "frequency") is a printing-industry term that refers to the number of lines of dots (both vertical and horizontal) per inch in a halftone screen. A halftone screen is a pattern of dots used to represent the smooth tones of an image. The screen is used to make a printing plate, which prints the small dots on paper where they blend to create a smooth-looking image.

In commercial printing, linescreens range from the coarse 85 lpi used for newspapers (which can be seen without magnification) to the fine 200 lpi used for high-quality color art books. (A linescreen of 133 lpi is considered to be the resolution of the normal human eye.) As computers have come to be used for making halftone screens, a rule of thumb has evolved: Image resolution (in ppi) should equal two tunes the linescreen (lpi) of the printer. (For example, this book was printed with a linescreen of 133 lpi, so I used an image resolution of 266 ppi for most of the artwork.) But the projects described in this book are made using personal printers rather than printing presses. So do we still need to be concerned with linescreen? Yes, because personal printers also create halftone screens at particular linescreen frequencies. For laser printers we should follow the rule and make the image resolution be twice the linescreen. But there's a different formula for inkjet printers, because of the way their dots tend to spread on paper. Follow the guidelines in the sidebar on the right. For more information and guidelines for commercial printing see TheNon-Designer's Scan and Print Book by Sandee Cohen and Robin Williams (Peachpit Press, 2000). ...

Bringing Images Into the Computer

just as real acoustical instruments sound richer and more natural than electronically synthesized sounds, so the art created outside of a computer-either by photography or by drawing and painting-is often richer and more interesting than art created electronically. Bringing these "outside" images into the computer is key to computer graphics sophistication and is done by scanning or using a digital camera.

Using a desktop scanner

A scanner can take a digital "picture" of anything that's placed on its flat glass surface. Flatbed scanners range in price from $100 to $2,000 and some provide adapters for scanning slides. Most come with software for specifying resolution and size and usually include a "plug-in" for scanning directly into an image-editing program, such as Photoshop. Reliable scanners are manufactured by many wellknown companies, including Hewlett-Packard, UMAX, Epson, Microtek and Agfa. Check computer magazines such as Macworld and PCWorld for quality ratings and check the Internet for the lowest prices.

HOW SCANNERS WORK

When you click "scan" in your scanning software, the scanner positions its scanning unit and then moves it slowly across the image-area, under the glass, while lamps containing red, green and blue light shine on whatever original you have placed face down on the glass. The light is reflected onto mirrors which direct it through a lens to a CCD (charge-coupled device) sensor. The sensor translates the light into digital impulses that create a bitmapped image in which the colors in the original are defined by amounts of red, green and blue light, creating what's called an RGB image (see "Understanding Color Models" on pages 22-23).

BASICS OF SCANNING

Scanning modes. Most desktop scanners provide at least three scanning modes. Black-and-white mode is used for scanning simple black-and-white line art or text. Grayscale mode is used for black-and-white photos (which contain shades of gray) and also for black-and-white drawings that have fine detail and shading. Color mode is used for color photos and art work.

Bit depth. Each mode has its own "bit depth," which refers to the amount of information stored in each pixel in the image. For example, the bit depth of blackand-white mode is 1 bit, which means that each pixel in a black-and-white image can be either black or white. Grayscale mode produces an 8-bit image, so each pixel can be any one of 256 shades of gray, ranging from white to black. Color scanning with a bit depth of 24 bits will produce a range of 16.7 million possible colors per pixel, making it possible to reproduce photographs with great accuracy. Scanning resolution. Some desktop scanners can capture images at resolutions up to 600 ppi and above, but resolutions this high are usually not needed when printing is done on an inkjet or laser printer. To determine the best resolution for your purpose, see "Guidelines for Resolution" on page 17. ...

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Table of Contents not finalized at time of printing.)

GETTING STARTED.

1. Gathering Art Supplies.


Drawing and Painting. Appreciating Paper. Using Adhesives. Basic Craft Tools.

2. Understanding Digital Tools.


Choosing a Computer. Understanding Bitmaps and PostScript. Choosing Software for Graphics. Understanding Resolution. Working with Scanners and Cameras. Using Personal Printers.

COMPUTER WORK.

3. Working with Digital Images.


Computer Drawing and Painting. Scanning Photos, Art and Objects. Basics of Image Editing. Altering and Enhancing Images. Combining Images.

4. Using Type and Design.


Basics of Computer Typography. Using Type as a Graphic Element. Basics of Computer Layout and Design. Creating a Business Identity. Designing Small Printed Pieces. Designing Packaging.

CRAFT WORK.

5. Designing Cards and Artist Books.


Creating Decorative Greeting Cards. Making and Using Envelopes. Accordion and Pamphlet Books. Bookbinding Methods. Decorating Ready-made Books.

6. Creating Games and Amusements.


Custom Board Games and Activities. Making Toys and Other Amusements. Creating Special Dolls. Costumes and Fantasies. Folded Paper Objects. Decorating Ready-Made Items.

7. Making Gifts and Decorations.


memorabilia for Family and Friends. Designing for Clothing and Fabric. Creating Home Crafts. Making Household Labels. Decorations for Parties and Holidays.

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Introduction

Introduction

A FEW YEARS AGO I was asked to write an article about illustrators who began their careers with traditional art materials and later switched to computer graphics. None regretted the change, but most missed working with their hands. They felt a need for touch in their art and tried to keep working with traditional media in their spare time.

I feel the same way. I started out drawing and painting with "real" pencils and brushes, before the days of the personal computer. But I also did writing and publishing, so the first time I saw PageMaker running on a Mac Plus in 19136, I knew it would transform the way I worked. When Illustrator, FreeHand and Photoshop came along I was really hooked. It became possible to write, edit, design and illustrate an entire publication on the computer! These powerful tools changed my life and made it possible for me to earn a living at home, doing work I enjoy. I started writing "how-to" articles for magazines and eventually wrote six books on computer graphics. The most recent, written with John Odam, is Start with a Scan: A Guide to Transforming Scanned Photos and objects into High-Quality Art, Second Edition, published by Peachpit Press in 2000. Based on what I learned from illustrators over the years, it includes information on how to turn a scan of almost anything into an attractive illustration. The many tips and techniques make Start with a Scan a great supplement to The Arts and Crafts Computer. But after fifteen years of intense computer work, I feel the pull hack to traditional art materials. I want to draw with pencils, paint with watercolors, cut with scissors and paste with glue. That's how the idea for this book was born. I was especially inspired by the first class I took in hook arts, taught by artist Genie Shenk at the Athenaeum Library of Music and Art in La Jolla, California. I greatly enjoyed the folding and stitching involved with hookbinding. But I also realized that my Computer-combined with my scanner, laser printer and inkjet printer-were the perfect tools for creating some of the art I wanted for my projects and for printing multiple copies of it. So I set out to create The Arts and Crafts Computer to show readers how to have the hest of both worlds-digital tools for creating and printing graphic images, combined with the tactile, threedimensional and handmade qualities of the traditional arts and paper crafts.

When I began, I was thinking primarily of projects involving paper. But as my research progressed I realized that the market had exploded with new media for inkjet printers. It's now possible to print on cloth, plastic, transparencies, magnets, fine arts papers and stickers. Computer printed art can be attached to wood, metal, plastic, glass and cloth. The possibilities for arts and crafts appear to be limitless.

In writing this book, I've had three groups of readers in mind: computer users who want to get back to crafting; crafters who want to learn more about computers; and students, teachers and parents who want to know more about both.

  • Professional graphic designers have been immersed in the digital world since 1985. As the Internet continues to grow and much design is seen only on-screen, the desire for art you can hold in your hand gets stronger, doesn't it? I hope you'll find lots of excuses to try the projects in this book and liberate the scissors and glue from the back of your drawer. Many of the ideas in this book will work well to create promotional gifts and displays for yourself and your clients.
  • Many people enjoy doing handcrafts as a hobby or for a living. More and more of you are coming to realize that a personal computer, along with a scanner and printer, can help take your work to a new level. If you've hesitated about buying a computer, or if you have one but feel awkward using it, I hope this book will help you feel more at ease in the digital world. I am not a computer science major. I am self-taught and have built up my computer skills gradually over the years. Believe me, if you can sew a dress from a pattern or build a birdhouse from plans, you can learn to be a proficient user of computer graphics software. If you need more guidance, take a class or ask your children or grandchildren to help you.
  • Eager students, from kindergarten through college, love getting their hands or computers. My own three children taught themselves to use my Macintosh and are fearless in pushing its limits. Kids, here's a whole hook full of skills and projects yon can use to make fun stuff and change the world. Parents and teachers, why not offer a special elective or workshop in compute arts and crafts? Arts projects teach compute skills in an enjoyable way and help children express their interests and creativity. Here is your text book.

I HOPE THIS BOOK WILL INSPIRE all my readers to be creative-to gather your materials, rally your skills, think about the task at hand and then let the solutions swirl through your brain. What a pleasure it is to feel creative ideas emerge and then be able to execute them. A psychologist coined the term "flow" to express the peak experience that occurs when we are working on a problem that requires just the right amount of mental effort. When problems are too simple, we're bored. When they're too hard, we're overwhelmed. But when the amount of patience, skill, ingenuity, perseverance and work required is just right, then we're "in the flow." I hope The Art: and Crafts Computer will be not too little and not too much, but just right for you.

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