Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties / Edition 2

Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties / Edition 2

by Thomas G. Gunning
     
 

ISBN-10: 0205332552

ISBN-13: 9780205332557

Pub. Date: 08/28/2001

Publisher: Pearson

Often students who struggle with reading and writing are told what they can't do, not what they can. This book, while focusing on the positive, provides thorough coverage of procedures for assessing and instructing struggling readers of all ages-from primary grades to adulthood. In keeping with current theory, this book emphasizes prevention and early intervention.

Overview

Often students who struggle with reading and writing are told what they can't do, not what they can. This book, while focusing on the positive, provides thorough coverage of procedures for assessing and instructing struggling readers of all ages-from primary grades to adulthood. In keeping with current theory, this book emphasizes prevention and early intervention. It is based on the premise that student performance is variable and that assessment and instruction are planned and modified to meet the needs and levels of students. Jargon-free, it is written in a clear style and is packed with examples from real classrooms and clinics. Teachers and literacy instructors/clinicians.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205332557
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
08/28/2001
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
640
Product dimensions:
7.26(w) x 9.42(h) x 1.13(d)
Age Range:
5 - 13 Years

Table of Contents

Each chapter begins with “Using What You Know,” “Anticipation Guide,” and ends with “Summary” and “Application Activities.” Most chapters end with “Minicase Study.”

Preface.

1. Introduction to Literacy Difficulties.
Reading Difficulty Defined.
Incidence of Reading Problems.
Persistence of Severe Problems.
The Problem with Using Labels.
A Systems Approach.
The Nature of Corrective Instruction.
Principles of Corrective Instruction.
Sources of Help for Low-Achieving Readers.
The Role of Standards.
The Whys of Reading Problems.

2. Factors Involved in Reading and Writing Difficulty.
Interacting Factors in Reading and Writing Difficulty.
Cognitive Factors.
Visual Processing Deficits.
Language Factors.
Orthographic Processing.
Social and Emotional Factors.
Physical Causes.
Educational Factors.
Social and Cultural Factors.
Family Factors.
Economic Factors.

3. Principles of Effective Assessment.
Dynamic Assessment.
Authentic Assessment.
Tests.
Evaluating Assessment Devices.
Functional Level Assessment.
High Stakes Tests.
Reporting to Parents.

4. Placing Students: The Informal Reading Inventory and Related Measures.
The Informal Reading Inventory.
Miscue Analysis.
Running Records.
Planning Instruction Based on IRI, Miscue Analysis, or Running Records Results.
IRI-Based Tests.

5. Assessment of Reading and Writing Processes.
Reading Processes:Decoding.
Reading Processes: Comprehension.
Assessing Study Skills.
Vocabulary Knowledge.
Assessment of Writing.
Spelling.
Handwriting.

6. Assessment of Cognitive, School and Home Factors.
Assessment of Capacity.
Role of Intelligence Tests.
Tests of Listening.
Tests of Language.
Assessment of Memory.
Associative Word Learning.
Word Finding.
Assessing the Instructional Situation.
Case History.
Reading Expectancy.
Students' Views.
Summarizing the Data.
Professional Reports.
Assessment: An Ongoing Process.
A Multidisciplinary Approach.

7. Emergent Literacy.
Changing Concepts of Emergent Literacy and Intervention.
Developing Literacy Concepts.
Students' Writing.
Phonological Concepts and Reading.
Integrating Phonological Awareness and Word Analysis.
Letter Knowledge.
Early Intervention Programs.

8. Teaching Phonics, High Frequency Words, and Fluency.
Phonics and the Poor Reader.
Stages in Learning to Read Words.
Principles of Teaching Phonics.
The Context of Phonics: Consonants.
Approaches to Teaching Consonants.
Other Consonant Elements.
Sequence of Teaching Consonants.
Reinforcement Activities for Consonant Correspondences.
The Content of Phonics: Vowels.
The Role of Dialect in Teaching Phonics.
Sequence of Teaching Vowels.
Application through Reading.
Additional Reinforcement for Vowel Patterns.
Word Analysis Strategies.
Using Prompts to Foster the Use of Balanced Decoding Strategies.
Scope and Sequence of Analogy Words and Patterns.
Other Word-Analysis Programs.
Means to an End.
High-Frequency Words.
How High-Frequency Words Are Learned.
High Payoff of High-Frequency Words.
Direct Teaching Approach.
Indirect Teaching Techniques.
Building Fluency.
Additional Practice Activities for High-Frequency Words.

9. Syllabic, Morphemic, and Contextual Analysis and Dictionary Strategies.
Syllabic Analysis.
Approaches to Teaching Syllabic Analysis.
Morphemic Analysis.
Teaching Morphemic Elements.
Contextual Analysis.
Using the Dictionary.
Using Think-Alouds.

10. Building Vocabulary.
Low-Achieving Readers and Vocabulary.
Stages of Word Learning.
Word Knowledge and Comprehension.
Incidental versus Systematic Instruction.
Principles of Vocabulary Instruction.
Techniques for Teaching Words.
Computer Assisted Instruction.
Techniques for Remembering Words.
A Full Program of Vocabulary Development.

11. Comprehension.
Theories of Comprehension.
Causes of Comprehension Difficulty.
Comprehension Strategies.
Importance of Using Appropriate Materials.
Beyond Strategies.
Approaches to Teaching Strategies.
Questions.
Lesson Plans That Foster Comprehension.
Other Techniques for Building Comprehension.
Using a Variety of Teaching Techniques.

12. Reading to Learn.
The Quiet Crisis.
Remembering and Learning.
Framework for Teaching Content-Area Reading.
Text Structure.
Instructional Techniques for Fostering Learning from Text.
Outstanding Collaborative Approaches.
Content Enhancement Routines.
Content Knowledge.
Textbooks in the Content Areas.
Teaching Literature.
Reading to Learn and Remember.
Knowing Oneself as a Learner.
Aids to Studying.
Organizational Study Strategies.
Study Habits.
Preparing for Tests.
A Balanced Program.

13. Building Writing Strategies.
Extent of Writing Problems.
The Writing Process.
Changing Nature of the Writing Process.
Guided Writing.
Strategic Writing Workshop.
The Role of Rubrics.
Writing Programs for Low-Achieving Readers and Writers.
Relating Reading and Writing.
Motivating Reluctant Writers.
Spelling.
Handwriting.
Assessment of Writing.

14. Working with Students Who Have Severe Reading Problems, Teens and Adults, and Students Who Are Still Acquiring English.
The Need for Specialized Techniques.
VAKT Tracing Technique.
Orton-Gillingham Approach.
Other Orton Based Approaches.
Adapted Word Building.
A Total Program.
Working with Older Problem Readers: Teens and Adults.
Working with Bilingual Learners.

15. Materials, Voluntary Reading, and Technology.
Making the Match.
Sources of Information about the Readability of Books.
Sources of High-Interest/Low-Readability Materials.
Voluntary Reading.
Technology for the Reading/ Writing Program.

16. Organization of Early Intervention and Corrective Programs.
The Changing Face of Remediation.
Components of a Corrective Program.
Working with the Administration.
Professional Development.
Volunteer Tutors.
Evaluation.

Appendix A: Informal Assessment Measures.

Appendix B: High-Interest, Low-Readability Books.

Appendix C: Sample Assessment Report.

Appendix D: Primary Readability Formula.

References.

Index.

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