Assessing and Guiding Young Children's Development and Learning / Edition 5

Assessing and Guiding Young Children's Development and Learning / Edition 5

by Oralie McAfee, Deborah J. Leong

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ISBN-10: 0137041276

ISBN-13: 9780137041275

Pub. Date: 02/12/2010

Publisher: Pearson

The purpose of this book is to demonstrate how to do authentic classroom-based assessment, and then how to interpret and use that information to plan curriculum responsive to and supportive of children’s learning. The fifth edition of Assessing and Guiding Young Children’s Development and Learning has been revised and updated to reflect the


The purpose of this book is to demonstrate how to do authentic classroom-based assessment, and then how to interpret and use that information to plan curriculum responsive to and supportive of children’s learning. The fifth edition of Assessing and Guiding Young Children’s Development and Learning has been revised and updated to reflect the rapidly developing concepts of appropriate assessment, expected educational outcomes, the way young children develop and learn, and the early childhood teacher’s assessment responsibilities.


  • Current Expectations of Teachers
  • Legal, Ethical, and Professional Responsibilities
  • Assessing the Assessments - explains what teachers need to know to fulfill their roles in education today
  • Assessment and Analysis Guides
  • Red Flags - a list of "red flags" that alert teachers to patterns of concerning behavior
  • Reflection, Study, and Discussion Prompts
  • Summaries and Suggested Readings
  • Glossary

New to this edition:

  • New sections on emerging concepts and functions of Formative and Summative Assessment
  • New information and guidance for teachers working with English-language learners
  • New section on scaffolding
  • Updated legal requirements for assessment
  • Updated references, readings, and glossary

Product Details

Publication date:
Pearson Custom Education Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
8.40(w) x 10.70(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Part IProfessionalism in Assessment
Chapter 1Assessment in Early Childhood: A Work in Progress1
Factors Contributing to Current Changes in Assessment2
Changing Concepts of the Primary Purpose of Assessment3
Changing Concepts of How Children Develop and Learn3
Changing Nature of School and Center Populations3
Changing Educational Outcomes, Curricula, and Instructional Strategies4
Mandated Testing and Assessment5
Limitations and Inadequacies of Standardized Testing5
Expectations of Teachers6
Professional Organizations6
Working with Other Professionals6
Professional Initiative and Responsibility8
For Self-Reflection9
For Further Study and Discussion9
Suggested Readings9
Chapter 2Legal, Ethical, and Professional Responsibilities in Assessment11
Know and Abide by Basic Rights, Laws, and Court Rulings12
The Right to Equal Protection under the Law12
The Right to Due Process13
The Right to Privacy13
Major Legislation14
Be Sensitive to Individual Differences15
Children with Special Needs16
Children at Risk16
Children Who Need Challenge16
Inclusive Education16
Be Sensitive to Social and Cultural Differences18
Cultural Differences That May Influence Assessment19
Implications for Assessment20
Be Fair and Impartial22
Be as Objective as Possible22
Ensure the Accuracy and Trustworthiness of Assessment Information24
Use Assessment Results in Appropriate Ways27
Know the Limitations of Each Method of Assessment, and Guard against Overreliance on Any One27
Use Assessment Results for the Intended Purposes27
Know and Abide by State, School District, and Center Policies27
For Self-Reflection29
For Further Study and Discussion29
Suggested Readings30
Part IIAssessing and Teaching
Chapter 3Why, What, and When to Assess31
Assessment Decisions32
Why Assess?33
To Determine Children's Status and Progress33
To Provide Information for Classroom Planning and Decision Making34
To Identify Children Who Might Benefit from Special Help34
To Collect and Document Information for Reporting and Communication35
What to Assess?35
Major Child Growth and Development Domains35
Expected Outcomes of the Program for Individual Children36
Unique Patterns of Development, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interests38
Problems or Concerns about a Particular Child or Group39
Practical Considerations40
When to Assess?41
Before School Starts41
Assess Day by Day42
Assess Periodically43
Assess before and after a Concentrated Emphasis43
Assess to Get Information about a Specific Problem or Concern44
Some Final Thoughts45
For Self-Reflection46
For Further Study and Discussion46
Suggested Readings47
Chapter 4Documenting: Collecting Information48
Multiple Windows49
Sources of Information50
The Child as a Source of Information50
Parents and Other Adults as a Source of Information51
Records as a Source of Information51
Methods of Collecting Information52
Observe Children Systematically52
Elicit Responses from Children53
Collect Work Products from Classroom Activities58
Elicit Information from Parents60
Contexts for Assessment64
Characteristics of the Context64
Examples of Contexts for Assessment66
Choosing the Appropriate Assessment Window67
Identify the Behavior to Be Assessed67
Use Authentic Assessment Measures or Windows68
Maximize the Chances of Seeing a Behavior68
Use Multiple Assessment Measures or Windows68
For Self-Reflection69
For Further Study and Discussion69
Suggested Readings70
Chapter 5Documenting: Recording Information71
Description and Examples of Recording Procedures72
Procedures That Describe72
Procedures That Count or Tally79
Procedures That Rate or Rank86
Other Procedures89
Selecting a Recording Procedure90
Purpose of the Assessment90
What Is Being Assessed90
Amount of Detail Needed90
Practical Considerations91
For Self-Reflection94
For Further Study and Discussion94
Suggested Readings94
Chapter 6Compiling and Summarizing Information95
Description and Definition96
Basic Approaches to Portfolio Building97
Selection of Content98
Organization of Content100
Relationship of Portfolios to Other Types of Assessment103
Increasing the Information in Each Portfolio Item103
Group and Individual Profiles110
Description and Definition of Group Profiles111
Purposes of Group Profiles111
Selecting and Organizing Content of Group Profiles114
Description and Definition of Individual Profiles115
Purposes of Individual Profiles115
Selecting and Organizing Content of Individual Profiles116
For Self-Reflection118
For Further Study and Discussion118
Suggested Readings118
Chapter 7Interpreting Assessment Information120
Ensure the Authenticity and Trustworthiness of the Data121
To Determine Progress, Compare Performance at Two or More Points in Time121
Work from Compilations and Summaries121
Look for Patterns, Including Patterns of Errors, Rather Than Isolated Instances121
Consider a Child's or a Group's Unique and Individual Patterns of Development, Temperament, Interests, and Dispositions122
Identify Areas of Concern122
Interpret and Understand the Meaning of Assessment Findings122
Generate Multiple Hypotheses about Possible Meanings, but Hold Them Tentatively123
Analyze Performance as a Band or Interval within Which a Child Is Functioning123
Consider the Influence of the Total Sociocultural Context on Children's Actions125
Compare Evidence to Developmental or Curriculum Expectations125
Analyze Information for Clues to Learning Processes and Strategies130
For Self-Reflection136
For Further Study and Discussion136
Suggested Readings137
Chapter 8Using Assessment Information138
Planning Strategies139
Plan and Organize the Intended Changes139
Refer to Assessment Information as You Plan140
Allow Time for Reflection140
Plan Ways to Meet Children's Assessed Needs140
Deliberately Incorporate the Wealth of Information, Resources, and Strategies Available to Support Young Children's Learning140
Plan for and with Other People in the Classroom141
Balance What You Might Like to Do with What Is Possible141
Individual and Group Strategies141
For One or Two Children142
For Several Children143
Mixed-Age Classes143
For the Entire Group144
Curriculum and Classroom Modification Strategies145
Allocate Time and Space in Different Ways to Achieve Different Results145
Select and Arrange Materials in Response to Assessment Results145
Use Any Apparent Sequence146
Look at the Need for Possible Change in Procedures147
Rethink and Restructure to Meet Children "Where They Are"147
Examples of Using Assessment Information to Guide Instruction147
Large Muscle/Gross Motor Development150
Small Muscle/Fine Motor Development150
Memory Strategies151
For Self-Reflection153
For Further Study and Discussion153
Suggested Readings154
Chapter 9Organizing for Assessment155
Integrating Assessment and Teaching155
General Guidelines156
Developing a Plan158
Considerations in Planning for Assessment158
Sample Assessment Plans160
Using the Plan163
Organizing Files and Forms164
Notebooks, Files, and Portfolios164
Still and Video Cameras, Audiotape Recorders, and Computers175
Other Aids177
For Self-Reflection180
For Further Study and Discussion180
Suggested Readings181
Part IIIThe Classroom and Beyond
Chapter 10Standardized Tests: What Early Childhood Teachers Should Know182
The Difference between an Assessment That Has Standardized Procedures and a Standardized Test183
Definition of a Standardized Test183
Limitations and Inadequacies of Standardized Testing184
Technical and Educational Inadequacies184
Overuse and Misuse185
Unsuitability for the Population185
Undue Influence on Education185
Types of Standardized Tests186
Standardized Achievement Tests186
Standardized Aptitude Tests187
Standardized Screening and Diagnostic Tests187
Standardized Testing in Early Childhood Classrooms Today188
The Early Childhood Teacher's Role in Standardized Testing188
How to Find Out If a Standardized Test Is Reliable and Valid189
How to Administer a Standardized Test192
How to Explain Different Types of Test Scores193
How to Interpret Standardized Test Results196
Finding Out More about Standardized Tests197
For Self-Reflection198
For Further Study and Discussion198
Suggested Readings199
Chapter 11Communicating and Collaborating Using Assessment Processes and Results200
Communicating with Children201
Communicating with Parents201
Before Reporting201
Ways to Report203
Communicating and Collaborating with Other Professionals211
Communication within the School or Center211
Communication with Other Schools and Centers212
Communication and Collaboration in Specialized Services212
Communicating with Funding and Regulatory Agencies, Governing Boards, and Citizen Groups217
Professional and Personal Development and Learning217
Professional Development and Learning217
Personal Development and Learning218
For Self-Reflection219
For Further Study and Discussion219
Suggested Readings219
Appendix AAssessment and Analysis Guides220
Appendix BDevelopmental Red Flags for Children Ages 3 to 5243
Name Index271
Subject Index275

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