Assessment & Instruction of Reading and Writing Difficulties: An Interactive Approach / Edition 4

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One of the most respected and well-known texts in the field, now in its fourth edition, Assessment & Instruction of Reading and Writing Difficulties continues to focus on reading and writing ability/disability from an interactive perspective, while still emphasizing the importance of understanding and addressing learner’s difficulties in relation to the instructional context.

Extensive, in-depth, and up-to-date treatment of current research and best practices make this text a 'must-have' addition to any teacher's library. The first section provides readers with a strong, comprehensive knowledge of reading/writing research and an introduction to an assessment-instruction process that is thoroughly examined in the second, third, and fourth sections of the text. In addition, chapters on word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension-composition, and “high-utility strategies” address the major components of literacy development.

What’s new in the fourth edition?

  • Detailed focus on assessment for an interactive approach to evaluating reading and writing difficulties
  • Increased attention is given to legislative changes and recent mandates, including Response to Intervention (RTI) (Chapters 1-6)
  • A new case study in Chapter 3 examines the problems a struggling adolescent reader encounters and the process for that student
  • A new case study of an English language learner is woven throughout the text highlighting assessment-instruction challenges related to vocabulary, prior knowledge, and comprehension
  • Substantial emphasis on language and literacy connections including phonological and orthographic aspects of reading and writing (both decoding and spelling) (Chapter 7)
  • Considerable attention is given to vocabulary, comprehension and composing, as well as decoding and fluency (Chapter 8).
  • Major ideas related to the Response to Intervention (RTI) are linked to the classroom (Chapter 11)

Assessment & Instruction of Reading and Writing Difficulties Continues to Earn Praise:

“This text balances both reading and writing in terms of instruction. It provides a wealth of examples of various checklists, assessment rubrics, etc. It places emphasis on writing, which often is not found in other texts.”

-Priscilla Manarino-Leggett, Fayetteville State University

“I like how this text outlines a theoretical framework for teaching reading and then uses the structure of The Assessment Instruction Process as the frame for the rest of the book.”

-David Gordon, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

“Overall I believe this is a very valuable and worthwhile text for my students!”

-Suzanne M. Rose, Slippery Rock University

“The content of this text is definitely a strength; the authors’ emphasis on the context of instruction and the strong literacy relationship between writing and reading is well-founded and philosophically the theory I hope my students will embrace as future educators.”

-Meredith Bird Miller, New England College

“This text is quite comprehensive and I know that I could pull it out and use it for a reference for just about any issue that I need to look up quickly.”

-Anne M. Slanina, PhD., Slippery Rock University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205523412
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 3/4/2008
  • Series: Pearson Custom Education Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 832
  • Product dimensions: 7.70 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Table of Contents

SECTION ONE Theory into Practice 1

1 Perspectives on Reading and Writing Ability 3

Understanding Reading and Writing 4

Historical Perspectives on Reading and Writing 4

Cognitive Information-Processing Perspectives on Reading and Writing 5

Social Perspectives on Reading and Writing 7

An Interactive Perspective on Reading and Writing 9

Understanding the Legal and Political Aspects of Reading and Writing 11

Educational Reform, Reading, and Literacy 11

Legal and Social Roots of Special Education 13

Special Education Identification 15

Students with Disabilities 16

Implications for Practice 18

Integration/Inclusion 20

Chapter Summary 21

2 An Interactive View of Reading and Writing 23

Understanding the Elements of Skilled Performance 23

Comprehension 25

Composition 26

Vocabulary Development 27

Word Identification and Spelling 28

Rate and Fluency 33

Grammar, Usage, and the Mechanics of Writing 34

Understanding Contextual Factors That Influence Performance 36

Settings 36

Instructional Practices 37

Instructional Resources 39

Assessment Practice 41

Understanding Learner Factors That Influence Performance 42

Prior Content Knowledge 42

Knowledge about Reading and Writing 44

Attitudes and Motivation 47

Correlates of Reading and Writing Performance 49

Chapter Summary 54

3 Reading and Writing Disability and the Assessment-

Instruction Process 56

Steps in the Assessment-Instruction Process 56

Understanding an Interactive View of Reading and Writing

Ability and Disability 56

A Theoretically Sound View of Ability and Disability 57

An Instructionally Significant View of Ability and Disability 58

Understanding the Assessment-Instruction Process 59

Implementing the Assessment-Instruction Process 60

Steps in the Assessment-Instruction Process 63

Chapter Summary 75

SECTION TWO Getting Started and Evaluating the Context 77

4 Getting Started with Assessment 79

Understanding Assessment 79

Contexts for Assessment 79

Guidelines for Assessment 81

The Diagnostic Portfolio and the Thumbnail Sketch 84

Sources of Information 86

Tools and Strategies for Getting Started 91

Interviews 91

Observation 105

Work Samples 112

Getting Started on the Diagnostic Portfolio 113

The Cases of Tha’m and Kyle 113

Chapter Summary 120

Assessing Instructional Resources 217

Evaluating Text and Commercial Materials 217

Evaluating Tutoring Programs 234

Evaluating Computer Software and Information/Communication Technology 235

Diagnostic Portfolio: The Instructional Context 240

Diagnostic Portfolio: The Cases of Tha’m and Kyle 240

Tha’m 240

Kyle 243

Chapter Summary 245

SECTION THREE Evaluating the Learner 247

7 The Foundations of Literacy 249

Understanding the Foundations of Literacy 249

Background 249

The Language Foundations of Literacy 250

Learning to Talk 250

The Contextual/Experiential Foundations of Literacy 261

How Language Is Learned 261

Contextual Differences in Learning Language and Literacy 262

The Development of Written Language 271

Strategies and Tools for Assessing the Foundations of Literacy 274

Assessment of Early Language and Literacy 274

Diagnostic Portfolio and the Foundations of Literacy 275

Observing Spontaneous Use of Knowledge and Skill 278

Structured Interviews and Observations 288

Structured Writing Assessments 297

Using Stories to Assess Emergent Abilities 299

Diagnostic Portfolio and Evidence of Emergent Literacy: The Case of Kyle 302

Chapter Summary 305

8 Informal Classroom-Based Assessment 307

Understanding Informal Classroom-Based Assessment 308

Strategies and Tools for Teacher-Initiated Assessment 311

Evaluating Word Recognition and Decoding 311

Evaluating Oral Reading Fluency 320

Evaluating Vocabulary 323

Evaluating Comprehension 328

Writing 356

Student Self-Evaluation 361

Diagnostic Portfolio: Evidence from the Classroom 362

Tha’m 362

Kyle 363

Chapter Summary 363

9 Structured Inventories and Assessments 365

Understanding Structured Inventories and Assessments 365

Strategies and Tools for Structured Assessments 367

Informal Reading Inventories 367

Contemporary IRIs: A Look at What’s New 385

Retellings of IRI Selections 392

Miscue Analysis 396

Oral Reading Fluency 403

Tests of Word Recognition, Phonics, and Spelling 409

Spelling Inventories 417

Evaluating Writing Samples 421

A Classroom System: Benchmark Book Events 422

Diagnostic Portfolio: Evidence from Structured Inventories 430

Tha’m 430

Kyle 432

Chapter Summary 435

Annotated Bibliography of IRIs 436

10 Formal Assessment 438

Understanding Formal Assessment 438

Concerns 439

General Test Characteristics 440

Important Statistical Concepts 442

Validity 444

Reliability 449

Test Interpretations 452

Test Scores 455

Test Fairness 459

Guidelines for Evaluating Standardized Tests 463

Formal Assessment Tools 463

Screening and Survey Tests 465

Group Screening and Survey Tests 466

Diagnostic Tests 474

Tests of General Cognitive and Verbal Abilities 490

Early Literacy Assessment 492

Chapter Summary 496

Tests Cited 499

SECTION FOUR Interactions: Assessment as Inquiry 501

11 Interactive Decision Making 503

Understanding Step 4: Evaluating the Match Between Learner and Context 504

Understanding Step 5: Reflection, Decision Making, and Planning 505

Understanding Step 6: Diagnostic Teaching 506

Definition and Purposes 507

Diagnostic Teaching Procedures 509

Implementing Steps 4, 5, and 6 of the Assessment-Instruction Process 515

Thumbnail Sketch 515

The Case Study of Tha’m 515

The Case Study of Kyle 525

The Case Study of Yasmin 527

Diagnostic Portfolios: Making Diagnostic Teaching Work 534

Target Selections for Diagnostic Teaching 534

A Collection of Diagnostic Teaching Selections 535

Chapter Summary 537

SECTION FIVE Instruction 539

12 Getting Started in Instruction 541

Key Characteristics of the Instructional Program 542

Goals and Objectives 542

Establishing a Literate Environment 542

Organizational Patterns 545

Materials 546

Getting Started with a Lesson Framework and High-Utility Strategies 547

A Lesson Framework 548

Familiar Reading: Focus on Fluency 549

Guided Reading 553

Dictated Stories as an Alternative to Guided Reading 558

Guided Writing 562

Word Study: Focusing on Word Recognition and Vocabulary 563

Sustained Reading and Writing: Focusing on Practice, Application, and Disposition 566

Getting More Focused on Specific Students 573

Lesson Planning 573

Example: Getting Started with Tha’m 576

Background and Setting 576

Selecting High-Utility Strategies 576

Selecting Materials 577

Planning for Tha’m 577

Chapter Summary 580

13 Adapting Instruction to Focus on Word Recognition,

Fluency, and Spelling 582

Understanding Word Recognition, Fluency, and Spelling Instruction 583

The Nature of Word Identification, Fluency, and Spelling 583

Issues 585

Guidelines for Instruction Focused on Word Recognition, Fluency, and Spelling 593

Instructional Techniques Focused on Word Recognition and Analysis 597

Instructional Strategies and Tools: Students with No Print Skills 597

Instructional Strategies and Tools: Students with Some Print Skills 603

Instructional Strategies and Tools: Print Skills for More Advanced Readers 608

Instructional Techniques Focused on Spelling 612

Instructional Focus at Various Developmental Spelling Levels 612

Instructional Strategies and Tools for Spelling 614

A Final Note 615

Chapter Summary 615

14 Adapting Instruction to Focus on Vocabulary 617

Understanding Vocabulary Instruction 618

Issues 618

Goals 619

Guidelines 620

Summary 622

Strategies for Vocabulary Instruction 622

A General Framework for Independent Vocabulary Learning 622

Supporting Techniques 625

Strategies for Teaching Specific Vocabulary 630

General Vocabulary Development 636

Teaching General Vocabulary 636

Chapter Summary 640

15 Adapting Instruction to Focus on Comprehension,

Composition, and Studying 642

Focusing Instruction on Comprehension, Composition, and Studying 643

The Nature of Instruction in Comprehension and Composition 643

Becoming Strategic 645

Deepening Understanding through Discussion and Writing 649

Guidelines for Instruction Focused on Comprehension and Composition 651

Instructional Techniques Focused on Comprehension and Composition 655

Providing Explicit Instruction 655

Providing Support 666

Developing Independence 681

Studying: A Specialized Case of Reading and Writing 685

Explicit Instruction 685

Supported Studying 685

Teaching Students to Study 689

Needed: A Functional, Integrated Approach to Study Skills Instruction 693

Reading , Writing, and Studying across the Curriculum 694

Chapter Summary 695

SECTION SIX Professional Roles and Responsibilities 697

16 Professional Roles and Responsibilities 699

The Role(s) of the English Language Arts Professional 700

Reporting to Others 700

General Guidelines 701

Reporting via Diagnostic Summaries with Multiple Assessments 702

Report Writing: Different Types for Different Purposes 706

Procedures for Writing Diagnostic Case Reports 708

Progress Reports 720

Conferences 722

Ethical Responsibilities 724

Chapter Summary 726

Appendix A Sample Case Report: Seth 728

Appendix B Confidential Diagnostic Report 737

References 749

Index 788

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