Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe / Edition 7

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Overview

For one-semester Introduction to Astronomy courses.

With Astronomy: A Beginner’s Guide, Seventh Edition, the briefer version of their two seminal textbooks, trusted authors Eric Chaisson and Steve McMillan continue to emphasize three major themes: the process of science, the size and scale of the universe, and the evolution of the cosmos. In the Seventh Edition, Chaisson and McMillan ignite your interest with increased coverage of the most exciting, current discoveries in astronomy and create a bridge to scientific understanding with student-friendly art and better learning tools.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
This introductory textbook by Chaisson (Tufts U.) and McMillan (Drexel U.) has some of the best explanations of light and matter I've seen in a textbook for non-science majors<-->particularly good are the sections on spectral analysis. The third edition incorporates new information about recent discoveries: e.g., the reported detection of neutrino oscillations and its relevance to the solar neutrino problem; new H-R diagram based on data on nearby stars; and discussion of recent spacecraft missions to Mars and the mission to asteroid Eros. Chapters follow the earth-out approach: from the Earth and its moon to galaxies and cosmology. The CD-ROM includes an electronic version of the text and 56 videos with voiceovers. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321815354
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 9/28/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 576
  • Sales rank: 88,628
  • Product dimensions: 9.50 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Eric Chaisson. Eric holds a doctorate in astrophysics from Harvard University, where he spent ten years on the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. For five years, Eric was a Senior Scientist and Director of Educational Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute and Adjunct Professor of Physics at Johns Hopkins University. He then joined Tufts University, where he is now Professor of Physics, Professor of Education, and Director of the Wright Center for Innovative Science Education. He has written nine books on astronomy, which have received such literary awards as the Phi Beta Kappa Prize, two American Institute of Physics Awards, and Harvard's Smith-Weld Prize for Literary Merit. He has published more than 100 scientific papers in professional journals, and has also received Harvard's Bok Prize for original contributions to astrophysics.

Steve McMillan. Steve holds a bachelor's and master's degree in Mathematics from Cambridge University and a doctorate in Astronomy from Harvard University. He held post-doctoral positions at the University of Illinois and Northwestern University, where he continued his research in theoretical astrophysics, star clusters, and numerical modeling. Steve is currently Distinguished Professor of Physics at Drexel University and a frequent visiting researcher at Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study and the University of Tokyo. He has published more than 50 scientific papers in professional journals.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

Astronomy continues to enjoy a golden age of exploration and discovery. Fueled by new technologies and novel theoretical insights, the study of the cosmos has never been more exciting. We are pleased to have the opportunity to present in this book a representative sample of the known facts, evolving ideas, and frontier discoveries in astronomy today.

Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe has been written for students who have taken no previous college science courses and who will likely not major in physics or astronomy. It is intended primarily for use in a one-semester, non-technical astronomy course. We present a broad view of astronomy, straightforwardly descriptive and without complex mathematics. The absence of sophisticated mathematics, however, in no way prevents discussion of important concepts. Rather, we rely on qualitative reasoning as well as analogies with objects and phenomena familiar to the student to explain the complexities of the subject without oversimplification. We have tried to communicate the excitement that we feel about astronomy and to awaken students to the marvelous universe around us.

We are very gratified that the first two editions of this text have been so well received by many in the astronomy education community. In using those earlier texts, many of you—teachers and students alike—have given us helpful feedback and constructive criticisms. From these, we have learned to communicate better both the fundamentals and the excitement of astronomy. Many improvements inspired by your comments, as well as numerous innovations and popular new features from our companionhardback text Astronomy Today, have been incorporated into this new edition.

Organization and Approach

As in the first two editions, our organization follows the popular and effective "Earth-out" progression. We have found that most students, especially those with little scientific background, are much more comfortable studying the relatively familiar solar system before tackling stars and galaxies. Thus, Earth is the first object we discuss in detail. With Earth and Moon as our initial planetary models, we move through the solar system. Integral to our coverage of the solar system is a discussion of its formation. This line of investigation leads directly into a study of the Sun.

With the Sun as our model star, we broaden the scope of our discussion to include stars in general—their properties, their evolutionary histories, and their varied fates. This journey naturally leads us to coverage of the Milky Way Galaxy, which in turn serves as an introduction to our treatment of other galaxies, both normal and active. Finally, we reach the subject of cosmology and the large-scale structure and dynamics of the universe as a whole. Throughout, we strive to emphasize the dynamic nature of the cosmos—virtually every major topic, from planets to quasars, includes a discussion of how those objects formed and how they evolve.

We continue to place much of the needed physics in the early chapters—an approach derived from years of experience teaching thousands of students. Additional physical principles are developed as needed later, both in the text narrative and in the boxed More Precisely features (described on p. xiv). We feel strongly that this is the most economical and efficient means of presentation. However, we acknowledge that not all instructors feel the same way. Accordingly, we have made the treatment of physics, as well as the more quantitative discussions, as modular as possible, so that these topics can be deferred to later stages of an astronomy course if desired. Instructors presenting this material in a 1-quarter course, who wish to (or have time to) cover only the essentials of the solar system before proceeding on to the study of stars and the rest of the universe, may want to teach only Chapter 4, and then move directly to Chapter 9 (the Sun).

New and Revised Material

Astronomy is a rapidly evolving field, and the three years since the publication of the second edition of Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe have seen many new discoveries covering the entire spectrum of astronomical research. Almost every chapter in the third edition has been substantially updated with new and late-breaking information. Several chapters have also seen significant internal reorganization in order to streamline the overall presentation. Among the many changes are:

  • Addition of more quantitative material and worked examples to both the text and More Precisely boxes throughout the book.
  • Updates to material on ground-based adaptive optics and interferometry, the present status of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and new coverage of the Chandra Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (Chapter 3).
  • Discussion of the NEAR mission to asteroid Eros (Chapter 4).
  • Expanded discussion of the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud (Chapters 4 and 8).
  • Further updates on the search for extrasolar planets (Chapter 4).
  • Expanded discussion of tidal forces (Chapter 5).
  • Updates on lunar exploration by Clementine and Lunar Prospector (Chapter 5).
  • Updated discussion of recent spacecraft missions to Mars—Pathfinder, Sojourner, Polar Lander, and Global Surveyor (Chapter 6).
  • Continuing coverage of the Galileo mission to Jupiter and its main findings regarding that planet's Galilean satellites (Chapters 7 and 8).
  • The reported detection of neutrino oscillations, and its relevance to the solar neutrino problem (Chapter 9).
  • New H-R diagram based on Hipparcos data on nearby stars (Chapter 10).
  • Expanded material on the search for brown dwarfs (Chapter 11).
  • New composite H-R diagram for the oldest globular clusters (Chapter 12).
  • Greatly expanded discussion of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (Chapter 13).
  • Update on the LIGO project (Chapter 13).
  • Expanded coverage of conditions near the Galactic center (Chapter 14).
  • Updated Hubble's constant of 65 km/s/Mpc used consistently throughout the text (Chapter 15).
  • New imagery and discussion of galaxy collisions (Chapter 15).
  • Updated observations of quasar host galaxies (Chapter 16).
  • Incorporation of larger-scale (Las Campanas) redshift surveys into the text discussion of the cosmological principle (Chapter 17).
  • Extensive discussion of the "accelerating universe," the cosmological constant, and their possible ramifications for the structure and large-scale geometry of the cosmos (Chapter 17).

The Illustration Program

Visualization plays an important role in both the teaching and the practice of astronomy, and we continue to place strong emphasis on this aspect of our book. We have tried to combine aesthetic beauty with scientific accuracy in the artist's conceptions that adorn the text, and we have sought to present the best and latest imagery of a wide range of cosmic objects. Each illustration has been carefully crafted to enhance student learning; each is pedagogically sound and tightly tied to nearby discussion of important scientific facts and ideas.

Full-Spectrum Coverage and Spectrum Icons. Increasingly, astronomers are exploiting the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum to gather information about the cosmos. Throughout this book, images taken at radio, infrared, ultraviolet, X ray, or gamma ray wavelengths are used to supplement visible-light images. As it is sometimes difficult (even for a professional) to tell at a glance which images are visible-light photographs and which are false-color images created with other wavelengths, each photo in the text is provided with an icon that identifies the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation used to capture the image.

Other Pedagogical Features

As with many other parts of our text, adopting instructors have helped guide us toward what is most helpful for effective student learning. With their assistance, we have revised both our in-chapter and end-of-chapter pedagogical apparatus to increase its utility to students.

Learning Goals. Studies indicate that beginning students often have trouble prioritizing textual material. For this reason, a few (typically 5 or 6) well-defined Learning Goals are provided at the start of each chapter. These help students to structure their reading of the chapter and then test their mastery of key facts and concepts. The Goals are numbered and cross-referenced to key sections in the body of each chapter. This in-text highlighting of the most important aspects of the chapter also helps students to review. The Goals are organized and phrased in such a way as to make them objectively testable, affording students a means of gauging their own progress.

Compound Art. It is rare that a single image, be it a photograph or an artist's conception, can capture all aspects of a complex subject. Wherever possible, multiple-part figures are used in an attempt to convey the greatest amount of information in the most vivid way:

  • Visible images are often presented along with their counterparts captured at other wavelengths.
  • Interpretive line drawings are often superimposed on or juxtaposed with real astronomical photographs, helping students to really "see" what the photographs reveal.
  • Breakouts—often multiple ones—are used to zoom in from wide-field shots to close-ups, so that detailed images can be understood in their larger context.

Explanatory Captions. Students often review a chapter by "looking at the pictures." For this reason, the captions in this book are often a bit longer and more detailed than those in other texts.

H-R Diagrams and Acetate Overlays. All of the book's H-R diagrams are drawn in a uniform format, using real data. In addition, a unique set of transparent acetate overlays dramatically demonstrate to students how the H-R diagram helps us to organize our information about the stars and track their evolutionary histories.

Key Terms. Like all subjects, astronomy has its own specialized vocabulary. To aid student learning, the most important astronomical terms are boldfaced at their first appearance in the text. Each boldfaced Key Term is also incorporated in the appropriate chapter summary, together with the page number where it was defined. In addition, a full alphabetical glossary, defining each Key Term and locating its first use in the text, appears at the end of the book.

Interludes explore a variety of interesting supplementary topics, such as The Hubble Space Telescope, Life on Mars?, A Cometary Impact, Supernova I 987A, Colliding Galaxies, The Cosmological Constant, and What Killed the Dinosaurs?

More Precisely boxes provide more quantitative treatments of subjects discussed qualitatively in the text. Removing these more challenging topics from the main flow of the narrative and placing them within a separate modular element of the chapter design (so that they can be covered in class, assigned as supplementary material, or simply left as optional reading for those students who find them of interest) will allow instructors greater flexibility in setting the level of their coverage.

Concept Checks. New to this edition, we have incorporated into each chapter a number of "Concept Checks"—key questions that require the reader to reconsider some of the material just presented or attempt to place it into a broader context.

Cross-Links. In astronomy, as in many scientific disciplines, almost every topic seems to have some bearing on almost every other. In particular, the connection between the specifically astronomical material and the physical principles set forth early in the text is crucial. It is important that students,kwhen they encounter, say, Hubble's Law in Chapter 16, recall what they learned about spectral lines and the Doppler shift in Chapter 2. Similarly, the discussions of the masses of binary star components (Chapter 10) and of galactic rotation (Chapter 14) both depend on the discussion of Kepler's and Newton's laws in Chapter 1. Throughout, discussions of new astronomical objects and concepts rely heavily on comparison with topics introduced earlier in the text.

It is important to remind students of these links so that they can recall the principles on which later discussions rest and, if necessary, review them. To this end, we have inserted "cross-links" throughout the text—symbols that mark key intellectual bridges between material in different chapters. The links, denoted by the infinity symbol together with a section reference (and a hyperlink on the accompanying CD-ROM), signal to students that the topic under discussion is related in some significant way to ideas developed earlier, and direct them to material that they might wish to review before proceeding.

Chapter Summaries. The Chapter Summaries, a primary review tool for the student, have been expanded and improved for the second edition. All Key Terms introduced in each chapter are listed again, in context and in boldface, in these Summaries, along with page references to the text discussion.

Questions, Problems, and Projects. Many elements of the end-of-chapter material have seen substantial reorganization:

  • Each chapter now incorporates 30 Self-Test Questions, equally divided between "true/false" and "fill-in-the-blank" formats, designed to allow students to assess their understanding of the chapter material. Answers to all these questions appear at the end of the book. Each chapter also has 15 Review and Discussion Questions, which may be used for in-class review or for assignment. As with the Self-Test Questions, the material needed to answer Review Questions may be found within the chapter. The Discussion Questions explore particular topics more deeply, often asking for opinions, not just facts. As with all discussions, these questions usually have no single "correct" answer.
  • The end of chapter material includes a number of Problems, based on the chapter contents and entailing some numerical calculation. In this edition we have increased the number of problems to 10, have significantly broadened their range of difficulty, and in many cases have tied their contents directly to quantitative statements made (but not worked out in detail) in the text. The solutions to the problems are not contained verbatim within the chapter, but the information necessary to solve them has been presented in the text. Answers appear at the end of the book.
  • Each chapter ends with a few (2-4) Projects meant to get the student out of the classroom and looking at the sky, although some entail research in libraries or other extracurricular activities.

CD-ROM

The free CD for Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide 3/e is included at the end of the text and contains a fully hyperlinked electronic version of the text to help the reader quickly find related information and assist in review. It also contains integrated animations and videos to bring text figures to life, and links to our companion website, which is organized by text chapter and updated monthly. The CD for this edition has been redesigned for easier and clearer navigation, and to include larger, higher-resolution videos with voice-overs. We are excited about the innovative use of media to complement the text and look forward to your response to it.

The CD-ROM material can be used on both Macintosh and PC computers using any standard browser (such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Explorer). For those students who do not already have a browser, Netscape Navigator 4.08 is included on the CD. A script to facilitate use of the CD under UNIX is available at ftp://ftp.prenhall.com/pub/esm/physics.s-085/chaissonbg/

Web Site

For both teachers and students, we have created a companion website specifically for Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide 3/e at ...

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Table of Contents

Prologue: Charting the Heavens 1
1 The Copernican Revolution: The Birth of Modern Science 13
2 Light and Matter: The Inner Workings of the Cosmos 43
3 Telescopes: The Tools of Astronomy 73
4 The Solar System: Interplanetary Matter and the Birth of the Planets 103
5 Earth and Its Moon: Our Cosmic Backyard 137
6 The Terrestrial Planets: A Study in Contrasts 169
7 The Jovian Planets: Giants of the Solar System 199
8 Moons, Rings, and Pluto: Small Worlds Among Giants 227
9 The Sun: Our Parent Star 255
10 Measuring the Stars: Giants, Dwarfs, and the Main Sequence 279
11 The Interstellar Medium: Birthplace of Stars 307
12 Stellar Evolution: The Lives and Deaths of Stars 335
13 Neutron Stars and Black Holes: Strange States of Matter 365
14 The Milky Way Galaxy: A Grand Design 391
15 Normal Galaxies: The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe 419
16 Active Galaxies and Quasars: Limits of the Observable Universe 449
17 Cosmology: The Big Bang and the Fate of the Universe 477
18 Life in the Universe: Are We Alone? 505
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Preface

PREFACE

Astronomy continues to enjoy a golden age of exploration and discovery. Fueled by new technologies and novel theoretical insights, the study of the cosmos has never been more exciting. We are pleased to have the opportunity to present in this book a representative sample of the known facts, evolving ideas, and frontier discoveries in astronomy today.

Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe has been written for students who have taken no previous college science courses and who will likely not major in physics or astronomy. It is intended primarily for use in a one-semester, non-technical astronomy course. We present a broad view of astronomy, straightforwardly descriptive and without complex mathematics. The absence of sophisticated mathematics, however, in no way prevents discussion of important concepts. Rather, we rely on qualitative reasoning as well as analogies with objects and phenomena familiar to the student to explain the complexities of the subject without oversimplification. We have tried to communicate the excitement that we feel about astronomy and to awaken students to the marvelous universe around us.

We are very gratified that the first two editions of this text have been so well received by many in the astronomy education community. In using those earlier texts, many of you—teachers and students alike—have given us helpful feedback and constructive criticisms. From these, we have learned to communicate better both the fundamentals and the excitement of astronomy. Many improvements inspired by your comments, as well as numerous innovations and popular new features from our companion hardback textAstronomy Today, have been incorporated into this new edition.

Organization and Approach

As in the first two editions, our organization follows the popular and effective "Earth-out" progression. We have found that most students, especially those with little scientific background, are much more comfortable studying the relatively familiar solar system before tackling stars and galaxies. Thus, Earth is the first object we discuss in detail. With Earth and Moon as our initial planetary models, we move through the solar system. Integral to our coverage of the solar system is a discussion of its formation. This line of investigation leads directly into a study of the Sun.

With the Sun as our model star, we broaden the scope of our discussion to include stars in general—their properties, their evolutionary histories, and their varied fates. This journey naturally leads us to coverage of the Milky Way Galaxy, which in turn serves as an introduction to our treatment of other galaxies, both normal and active. Finally, we reach the subject of cosmology and the large-scale structure and dynamics of the universe as a whole. Throughout, we strive to emphasize the dynamic nature of the cosmos—virtually every major topic, from planets to quasars, includes a discussion of how those objects formed and how they evolve.

We continue to place much of the needed physics in the early chapters—an approach derived from years of experience teaching thousands of students. Additional physical principles are developed as needed later, both in the text narrative and in the boxed More Precisely features (described on p. xiv). We feel strongly that this is the most economical and efficient means of presentation. However, we acknowledge that not all instructors feel the same way. Accordingly, we have made the treatment of physics, as well as the more quantitative discussions, as modular as possible, so that these topics can be deferred to later stages of an astronomy course if desired. Instructors presenting this material in a 1-quarter course, who wish to (or have time to) cover only the essentials of the solar system before proceeding on to the study of stars and the rest of the universe, may want to teach only Chapter 4, and then move directly to Chapter 9 (the Sun).

New and Revised Material

Astronomy is a rapidly evolving field, and the three years since the publication of the second edition of Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe have seen many new discoveries covering the entire spectrum of astronomical research. Almost every chapter in the third edition has been substantially updated with new and late-breaking information. Several chapters have also seen significant internal reorganization in order to streamline the overall presentation. Among the many changes are:

  • Addition of more quantitative material and worked examples to both the text and More Precisely boxes throughout the book.
  • Updates to material on ground-based adaptive optics and interferometry, the present status of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and new coverage of the Chandra Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (Chapter 3).
  • Discussion of the NEAR mission to asteroid Eros (Chapter 4).
  • Expanded discussion of the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud (Chapters 4 and 8).
  • Further updates on the search for extrasolar planets (Chapter 4).
  • Expanded discussion of tidal forces (Chapter 5).
  • Updates on lunar exploration by Clementine and Lunar Prospector (Chapter 5).
  • Updated discussion of recent spacecraft missions to Mars—Pathfinder, Sojourner, Polar Lander, and Global Surveyor (Chapter 6).
  • Continuing coverage of the Galileo mission to Jupiter and its main findings regarding that planet's Galilean satellites (Chapters 7 and 8).
  • The reported detection of neutrino oscillations, and its relevance to the solar neutrino problem (Chapter 9).
  • New H-R diagram based on Hipparcos data on nearby stars (Chapter 10).
  • Expanded material on the search for brown dwarfs (Chapter 11).
  • New composite H-R diagram for the oldest globular clusters (Chapter 12).
  • Greatly expanded discussion of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (Chapter 13).
  • Update on the LIGO project (Chapter 13).
  • Expanded coverage of conditions near the Galactic center (Chapter 14).
  • Updated Hubble's constant of 65 km/s/Mpc used consistently throughout the text (Chapter 15).
  • New imagery and discussion of galaxy collisions (Chapter 15).
  • Updated observations of quasar host galaxies (Chapter 16).
  • Incorporation of larger-scale (Las Campanas) redshift surveys into the text discussion of the cosmological principle (Chapter 17).
  • Extensive discussion of the "accelerating universe," the cosmological constant, and their possible ramifications for the structure and large-scale geometry of the cosmos (Chapter 17).

The Illustration Program

Visualization plays an important role in both the teaching and the practice of astronomy, and we continue to place strong emphasis on this aspect of our book. We have tried to combine aesthetic beauty with scientific accuracy in the artist's conceptions that adorn the text, and we have sought to present the best and latest imagery of a wide range of cosmic objects. Each illustration has been carefully crafted to enhance student learning; each is pedagogically sound and tightly tied to nearby discussion of important scientific facts and ideas.

Full-Spectrum Coverage and Spectrum Icons. Increasingly, astronomers are exploiting the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum to gather information about the cosmos. Throughout this book, images taken at radio, infrared, ultraviolet, X ray, or gamma ray wavelengths are used to supplement visible-light images. As it is sometimes difficult (even for a professional) to tell at a glance which images are visible-light photographs and which are false-color images created with other wavelengths, each photo in the text is provided with an icon that identifies the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation used to capture the image.

Other Pedagogical Features

As with many other parts of our text, adopting instructors have helped guide us toward what is most helpful for effective student learning. With their assistance, we have revised both our in-chapter and end-of-chapter pedagogical apparatus to increase its utility to students.

Learning Goals. Studies indicate that beginning students often have trouble prioritizing textual material. For this reason, a few (typically 5 or 6) well-defined Learning Goals are provided at the start of each chapter. These help students to structure their reading of the chapter and then test their mastery of key facts and concepts. The Goals are numbered and cross-referenced to key sections in the body of each chapter. This in-text highlighting of the most important aspects of the chapter also helps students to review. The Goals are organized and phrased in such a way as to make them objectively testable, affording students a means of gauging their own progress.

Compound Art. It is rare that a single image, be it a photograph or an artist's conception, can capture all aspects of a complex subject. Wherever possible, multiple-part figures are used in an attempt to convey the greatest amount of information in the most vivid way:

  • Visible images are often presented along with their counterparts captured at other wavelengths.
  • Interpretive line drawings are often superimposed on or juxtaposed with real astronomical photographs, helping students to really "see" what the photographs reveal.
  • Breakouts—often multiple ones—are used to zoom in from wide-field shots to close-ups, so that detailed images can be understood in their larger context.

Explanatory Captions. Students often review a chapter by "looking at the pictures." For this reason, the captions in this book are often a bit longer and more detailed than those in other texts.

H-R Diagrams and Acetate Overlays. All of the book's H-R diagrams are drawn in a uniform format, using real data. In addition, a unique set of transparent acetate overlays dramatically demonstrate to students how the H-R diagram helps us to organize our information about the stars and track their evolutionary histories.

Key Terms. Like all subjects, astronomy has its own specialized vocabulary. To aid student learning, the most important astronomical terms are boldfaced at their first appearance in the text. Each boldfaced Key Term is also incorporated in the appropriate chapter summary, together with the page number where it was defined. In addition, a full alphabetical glossary, defining each Key Term and locating its first use in the text, appears at the end of the book.

Interludes explore a variety of interesting supplementary topics, such as The Hubble Space Telescope, Life on Mars?, A Cometary Impact, Supernova I 987A, Colliding Galaxies, The Cosmological Constant, and What Killed the Dinosaurs?

More Precisely boxes provide more quantitative treatments of subjects discussed qualitatively in the text. Removing these more challenging topics from the main flow of the narrative and placing them within a separate modular element of the chapter design (so that they can be covered in class, assigned as supplementary material, or simply left as optional reading for those students who find them of interest) will allow instructors greater flexibility in setting the level of their coverage.

Concept Checks. New to this edition, we have incorporated into each chapter a number of "Concept Checks"—key questions that require the reader to reconsider some of the material just presented or attempt to place it into a broader context.

Cross-Links. In astronomy, as in many scientific disciplines, almost every topic seems to have some bearing on almost every other. In particular, the connection between the specifically astronomical material and the physical principles set forth early in the text is crucial. It is important that students,kwhen they encounter, say, Hubble's Law in Chapter 16, recall what they learned about spectral lines and the Doppler shift in Chapter 2. Similarly, the discussions of the masses of binary star components (Chapter 10) and of galactic rotation (Chapter 14) both depend on the discussion of Kepler's and Newton's laws in Chapter 1. Throughout, discussions of new astronomical objects and concepts rely heavily on comparison with topics introduced earlier in the text.

It is important to remind students of these links so that they can recall the principles on which later discussions rest and, if necessary, review them. To this end, we have inserted "cross-links" throughout the text—symbols that mark key intellectual bridges between material in different chapters. The links, denoted by the infinity symbol together with a section reference (and a hyperlink on the accompanying CD-ROM), signal to students that the topic under discussion is related in some significant way to ideas developed earlier, and direct them to material that they might wish to review before proceeding.

Chapter Summaries. The Chapter Summaries, a primary review tool for the student, have been expanded and improved for the second edition. All Key Terms introduced in each chapter are listed again, in context and in boldface, in these Summaries, along with page references to the text discussion.

Questions, Problems, and Projects. Many elements of the end-of-chapter material have seen substantial reorganization:

  • Each chapter now incorporates 30 Self-Test Questions, equally divided between "true/false" and "fill-in-the-blank" formats, designed to allow students to assess their understanding of the chapter material. Answers to all these questions appear at the end of the book. Each chapter also has 15 Review and Discussion Questions, which may be used for in-class review or for assignment. As with the Self-Test Questions, the material needed to answer Review Questions may be found within the chapter. The Discussion Questions explore particular topics more deeply, often asking for opinions, not just facts. As with all discussions, these questions usually have no single "correct" answer.
  • The end of chapter material includes a number of Problems, based on the chapter contents and entailing some numerical calculation. In this edition we have increased the number of problems to 10, have significantly broadened their range of difficulty, and in many cases have tied their contents directly to quantitative statements made (but not worked out in detail) in the text. The solutions to the problems are not contained verbatim within the chapter, but the information necessary to solve them has been presented in the text. Answers appear at the end of the book.
  • Each chapter ends with a few (2-4) Projects meant to get the student out of the classroom and looking at the sky, although some entail research in libraries or other extracurricular activities.

CD-ROM

The free CD for Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide 3/e is included at the end of the text and contains a fully hyperlinked electronic version of the text to help the reader quickly find related information and assist in review. It also contains integrated animations and videos to bring text figures to life, and links to our companion website, which is organized by text chapter and updated monthly. The CD for this edition has been redesigned for easier and clearer navigation, and to include larger, higher-resolution videos with voice-overs. We are excited about the innovative use of media to complement the text and look forward to your response to it.

The CD-ROM material can be used on both Macintosh and PC computers using any standard browser (such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Explorer). For those students who do not already have a browser, Netscape Navigator 4.08 is included on the CD. A script to facilitate use of the CD under UNIX is available at ftp://ftp.prenhall.com/pub/esm/physics.s-085/chaissonbg/

Web Site

For both teachers and students, we have created a companion website specifically for Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide 3/e at http://www.prenhall.com/chaisson/bg

This powerful resource organizes material from a variety of sources on the web on a chapter-by-chapter basis, is updated monthly, and provides interactive online exercises for each chapter.

Each chapter of the website for Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide 3/e has the following four categories of materials:

  • Online Exercises—interactive questions for students to answer on-line; scoring and feedback are provided immediately. The new edition features a significantly increased number of true/false and multiple choice questions.
  • Online Archives—annotated images, videos, animations, and free downloadable software
  • Online Destinations—annotated links to relevant websites that are regularly updated for currency and functionality
  • Multimedia Study Guide—twenty-five questions per chapter that focus on both quantitative and conceptual understanding; many chapters also include graphical labeling exercises

Supplementary Material

This edition is accompanied by an outstanding set of instructional aids.

Comets. This is an annual update kit for Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide, 3/e containing videos, slides, and New York Times articles. The VHS tape in the Fall 2000 Comets kit includes 27 custom animations prepared by the Wright Center for Science Visualization to accompany Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide to the Universe 3/e and Astronomy Today, 3/e 2000 Media Edition. It also contains many other videos of new discoveries and animations from various sources: seven videos from the Space Telescope Science Institute including an imaginary look at a Saturn-like extrasolar planet; seven from the jet Propulsion Laboratories, including a computer simulated fly-over of the Martian north pole; and four from the Applied Physics Laboratory including an image sequence of one rotation of the asteroid Eros. The slides, videos, and animations can be shown in class; the collection of New York Times articles, called Themes of the Times, is published twice yearly and is available free in quantity for your students using either text. A newsletter in the Comets kit provides descriptions of each video and slide. In addition, all slides, videos, and Times articles are cross-referenced to the appropriate chapters in both Chaisson/McMillan texts. (ISBN: 0-13-089233-5)

Instructor's Manual, by Leo Connolly (California State University at San Bernardino). This manual provides an overview of each chapter; pedagogical tips, useful analogies, and suggestions for classroom demonstrations; answers to the end-of-chapter review and discussion questions and problems; and a list of selected readings. (ISBN: 0-13089212-2)

Presentation Manager CD. This flexible, easy-to-use tool contains a wealth of photographs, line art, animations, and videos to use in class lectures. With the Presentation Manager system, instructors can easily search, access, and organize the materials according to their lecture outlines and add their own visuals arid lecture notes. The Presentation Manager CD contains all of the art and tables from Astronomy: A Beginner's Guide 3/e, as well as all animations and videos from the CD that ships with the student text. In addition, the Presentation Manager incorporates over 80 slides from the past four editions of Comets. Available on one dual-platform CD (Macintosh/Windows) ISBN: 0-13-089216-5

Acetates and Slides. A set of nearly 150 images from the text are available as a package of color acetates or 35-mm slides and are available free to qualified adopters. (Slide set) ISBN: 0-13-089211-4; (Transparency pack) ISBN: 0-13-0892009

Test Item File. An extensive file of test questions, newly compiled for the third edition is offered free upon adoption. Available in both printed and electronic formats (Macintosh or IBM-compatible formats). (ISBN: 0-13-089213-0)

Prentice Hall Custom Test. Prentice Hall Custom Test is based on the powerful testing technology developed by Engineering Software Associates, Inc. (ESA). Available for Windows, Macintosh, and DOS, Prentice Hall Custom Test allows educators to create and tailor the exam to their own needs. With the Online Testing option, exams can also be administered online and data can then be automatically transferred for evaluation. A comprehensive desk reference guide is included, along with on-line assistance. (Mac) ISBN: 0-13-089214-9; (Win) ISBN: 0-13-089215-7

Science on the Internet: A Student's Guide, by Andrew Stull and Harry Nickla. A guide to general science resources on the Internet. Everything you need to know to get yourself online and browsing the World Wide Web! (ISBN: 0-13-028253-7)

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