Astrophysics of Neutron Stars


Here the reader will find a description of the current state of experimentaland theoretical investigations of neutron stars in all their manifestations:radio pulsars, X-ray pul-
sars, X-ray bursters, transient X-ray sources, andso on.
The approach adopted stresses the idea that the astrophysi-
cal properties of a neutron star are determinated mainly by its interaction withits...
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Here the reader will find a description of the current state of experimentaland theoretical investigations of neutron stars in all their manifestations:radio pulsars, X-ray pul-
sars, X-ray bursters, transient X-ray sources, andso on.
The approach adopted stresses the idea that the astrophysi-
cal properties of a neutron star are determinated mainly by its interaction withits surroundings, that is, the inter-
action of the intense intrinsic magnetic field of the neutron star with an accreting plasma. Thus the book also treats topics in plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics.
Students and professionals in astrophysics and physics alike will find this revised and enlarged version of the original
Russian edition essential reading for its coverage of neutron star classification and evolution.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642763526
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/6/2011
  • Series: Astronomy and Astrophysics Library Series
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 322
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.71 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Theoretical and Observational Principles of the Astrophysics of Neutron Stars.- 1.1 Prediction.- 1.2 Accretion.- 1.3 Rotation and Magnetic Field.- 1.4 Radiopulsars.- 1.5 New Ideas.- 1.6 X-Ray Pulsars.- 1.7 X-Ray Bursters.- 1.8 Bursts and Other Sources of Gamma Rays.- 1.9 General View.- 2. Structure of Neutron Stars.- 2.1 Equilibrium of Stars.- 2.2 Exact Equilibrium Equations for Cold Stars.- 2.3 Physical Conditions Inside Neutron Stars.- 2.4 Parameters of Neutron Stars.- 2.5 Mass of Neutron Stars.- 2.6 Rotational Effects.- 3. Fluid Dynamics of Accretion.- 3.1 Spherically Symmetric Accretion.- 3.2 The Role of Radiation and Ejection.- 3.3 Spherical Accretion to a Neutron Star Without a Magnetic Field.- 3.4 Capture of Matter by a Moving Star.- 3.5 Fluid Dynamics of Cylindrical Accretion.- 3.6 Disk Accretion.- 3.7 Luminosity and Spectrum of Accretion Disks.- 3.8 Supercritical Disk Accretion.- 3.9 Accretion in Binary Systems.- 3.9.1 Overflow Through the Inner Lagrangian Point.- 3.9.2 Accretion from Stellar Wind.- 3.10 Two-Stream Accretion.- 3.11 Accretion of Magnetic Fields.- 4. Classification of Neutron Stars.- 4.1 Magnetic Dipole.- 4.2 Stopping Radius.- 4.3 Stopping Radius in the Supercritical Case.- 4.4 The Effect of a Magnetic Field.- 4.5 Gravimagnetic Parameter.- 4.6 Corotation Radius.- 4.7 Nomenclature.- 4.8 Critical Periods. The p-y and p-L Diagrams.- 5. Boundaries. Magnetospheres of Slowly Rotating Neutron Stars.- 5.1 Physical Conditions in the Alfvén Zone.- 5.2 Formulation of the Problem.- 5.3 Simple Configurations.- 5.4 Magnetosphere in Spherically Symmetric Accretion.- 5.5 Pascal’s Pressure Law.- 5.5.1 Two-Dimensional Solutions.- 5.5.2 Three-Dimensional Solutions.- 5.6 A Dipole Confined by an Ideally Conducting Disk.- 5.6.1 Two-Dimensional Model.- 5.6.2 Three-Dimensional Problem.- 5.6.3 Dipole Rotation.- 5.7 Magnetosphere in a Plane-parallel Plasma Flow.- 5.7.1 Two-Dimensional Solution.- 5.7.2 Three-Dimensional Solution.- 5.8 Two-Stream Accretion.- 6. Accreting Neutron Stars.- 6.1 Boundary Stability.- 6.1.1 Spherically Symmetric Accretion.- 6.1.2 Disk Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star.- 6.1.3 Torsion of an Accretion Disk by Magnetic Forces.- 6.1.4 Magnetosphere Boundary Stability for Two-Stream Accretion.- 6.2 The Polar Column.- 6.3 Spin-up, Spin-down and Induced Precession of Accreting Stars.- 6.3.1 Spin-up Torque.- 6.3.2 Spin-down Torque.- 6.3.3 Analytical Model of Torques Applied to a Magnetized Accreting Star.- 6.3.4 Equilibrium Period.- 6.4 Observed Properties of X-Ray Pulsars.- 6.5 Energy Parameters of Pulsars and Transport of Matter in Binary Systems.- 6.6 Spectrum and Magnetic Fields.- 6.7 Periods of X-Ray Pulsars and Their Variation.- 6.7.1 Equilibrium of X-Ray Pulsars.- 6.7.2 Magnetic Fields of X-Ray Pulsars.- 6.7.3 Reasons Behind the Average Spin-up of X-Ray Pulsars.- 6.7.4 Rapid Fluctuation of Periods and Internal Structure of Neutron Stars.- 6.8 Variability of X-Ray Sources. Transients.- 6.9 Generation of Relativistic Particles.- 6.10 X-Ray Bursters.- 6.10.1 Localization and Spatial Distribution.- 6.10.2 Periodic Variations of X-Ray Flux. X-Ray Eclipses.- 6.10.3 Luminosity and Spectra of Bursters.- 6.11 Nuclear Burning at the Surface of Neutron Stars. Spherically Symmetric Model.- 6.12 Accretion to X-Ray Bursters.- 6.12.1 Accretion for— Stars.- 7. The “Propeller” Regime.- 7.1 Quasistatic Shells.- 7.1.1 Supersonic Propeller.- 7.1.2 Subsonic Propeller.- 7.1.3 Very Rapid Propeller.- 7.1.4 Nongravitating Propeller.- 7.2 Spinning-down in the Boundary Layer.- 7.3 Two-Stream Flow Formation due to the Propeller Effect.- 7.3.1 Stationary Flow from Disks.- 7.3.2 Time-Dependent Solution.- 7.4 Dead Disks and Accumulator Disks.- 7.5 Nonstationary Disk Accretion. Model of Transient X-Ray Sources.- 7.6 Relativistic Propeller.- 7.7 Objects That Can Become Propellers.- 7.7.1 Binary Systems.- 7.7.2 Single Neutron Stars.- 8. Ejecting Stars.- 8.1 Observed Characteristics of Radiopulsars.- 8.1.1 Periods and Their Variation.- 8.1.2 Pulse Structure.- 8.1.3 Spectrum and Luminosity.- 8.1.4 Distribution of Pulsars in Space.- 8.1.5 Spatial Velocity of Radiopulsars.- 8.1.6 Pulsars and Binary Systems.- 8.2 Radiopulsars as Ejecting Neutron Stars.- 8.3 Pulsar Electrodynamics and Generation of Relativistic Particles.- 8.3.1 Vacuum Approximation.- 8.3.2 Magnetosphere in the Presence of Plasma.- 8.4 Mechanisms of Radiation.- 8.5 Caverns Around Neutron Stars.- 8.5.1 Caverns in Binary Systems.- 8.5.2 Caverns Around a Single Neutron Star.- 8.5.3 Effect of Relativistic Wind on Accretion Flow Parameters.- 8.6 Change in Radiopulsar Period.- 8.6.1 Spin-down of Pulsars and Their Magnetic Fields.- 8.6.2 Spin-up Episodes and Internal Structure of Neutron Stars.- 8.7 Evolution of Radiopulsars.- 8.7.1 Origin and Age of Pulsars.- 8.7.2 Evolution of the Radiopulsar Period.- 8.8 Spatial Velocities of Radiopulsars.- 8.9 Ejecting Stars in Binary Systems.- 8.9.1 Radiopulsars Forming Pairs with Degenerate Stars.- 8.9.2 “Reflection” Effect.- 8.9.3 Observational Evidence of the Existence of Ejecting Stars in Binary Systems.- 9. Supercritical Regimes.- 9.1 Superaccretor.- 9.1.1 Accretion Pattern.- 9.1.2 Neutrino Pulsar.- 9.1.3 Spin-up and Spin-down.- 9.2 Superejectors and Superpropellers.- 9.3 Is SS 433 a Superaccretor?.- 9.4 Other Candidates.- 10. Stars with an Anomalously Low Value of Gravimagnetic Parameter.- 10.1 Georotators.- 10.2 Binary Magnetic Systems (Magnetors).- 11. Evolution of Stars.- 11.1 Normal Stars.- 11.1.1 Single Stars.- 11.1.2 Binary Stars.- 11.2 Evolution of Neutron Stars.- 11.2.1 Evolution Equation.- 11.2.2 Statistical Description of the Ensemble of Neutron Stars.- 11.3 Neutron Star Tracks.- 11.4 Numerical Simulation of the Joint Evolution of Normal and Neutron Stars.- 11.4.1 Computational Method.- 11.4.2 Evolutionary Tracks.- 11.4.3 Simulation of X-Ray Pulsars (Stage IIA) and the Choice of Optimal Parameters.- 11.4.4 Abundance of Different Types of Systems in the Galaxy.- 11.4.5 Physical Characteristics of Neutron Stars at Various Stages of Evolution.- 11.4.6 Two Types of Radiopulsars.- 11.5 Possible Candidates.- 11.5.1 “Runaway” Stars.- 11.5.2 The SS 433 Object.- 11.5.3 “Single” Wolf-Rayet Stars.- 11.5.4 Collapse Anisotropy.- 11.5.5 Other Numerical Models.- Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities.- Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Instability.- Commutation Instability.- References.
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