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Preface to Second Revised American Edition
I have undertaken with a glad heart the preparation of this new edition of the incomparable Ellenberger, Baum, and Dittrich ATLAS OF ANIMAL ANATOMY FOR ARTISTS. When Dover Publications first approached me, they told me they intended to enrich the book by the addition of plates by George Stubbs and others, as well as a bibliography to suggest further study. I appreciate the freedom they have given me in my efforts to carry out those wishes.
Our first edition contained all of the plates from the original Ellenberger work, published in 1901 in five volumes. Only a part of the German text was omitted, most of it more technical than is generally warranted by the needs of artists. The real message is contained in the plates themselves. It is a larger message than may be apparent at first, including, as it does, the directive to compare the different forms as well as to study them separately. The choice of the horse, the dog, the cow, and the lioness was not an accident. Although all are of the class Mammalia, each is a member of a different order. The horse is of the order Perissodactyla (perissos—odd, dactylos—toe), an animal having an odd number of toes. It includes the zebra, the tapir, and the rhinoceros as well as the horse. The cow belongs to a larger order, Artiodactyla (artios—even, dactylos—toe). Other animals of this order are the pig, the camel, the antelope, the goat, the deer, the giraffe, and the hippopotamus, to mention a few. The lioness and the dog are of the order Carnivora (carno—flesh, vorare, to eat). The first two orders, you will notice, are based on the development of the legs while the third is based on the teeth.
In selecting material to expand this edition, I have kept in mind this comparative aspect. The quality of the Ellenberger plates is so fine that it has not been easy to find even a few more, strictly anatomical, studies from which could be made selections worthy to stand beside them. The engravings of the horse by George Stubbs are taken from his ANATOMY OF THE HORSE, published in 1776. George Stubbs has taken his place among England's great sporting artists. Although these anatomical studies were made under conditions that would be considered almost impossible today, his results speak for themselves. The ¾ view and the rear view form an excellent supplement to the Ellenberger plates on the horse. In the original work, numbered and lettered tracings accompany the anatomical plates to designate the names of the bones and muscles. The functions of the muscles were not understood in Stubbs' day as they are now, so that much of the anatomical description does not agree with later (and present-day) descriptions as found in Ellenberger. To include them would probably be more confusing than helpful to the student.
The four plates on the anatomy of the cat are selected from the ANATOMIE DESCRIPTIVE ET COMPARATIVE DU CHAT by Hercole Straus - Durckheim, published in 1845. The same objection to the designations of the muscle names exists as in the case of Stubbs. Consequently, no names are given. The Cuvier plates are from ANATOMIE COMPARÉE by George Cuvier and M. Laurrillard, published in 1849. This is a giant volume which contains many more plates of equal merit, but the ones selected allow us to extend our study of comparisons to four more orders of mammals. The hare and the flying squirrel are of the order Rodentia (rodere—to gnaw) ; the rat kangaroo, of the order Marsupialia (marsupium—pouch); the bat, of the order Chiroptera (chiro—hand, pteron—wing). The monkey, like man, belongs to the order Primates (primus—first). Although the seal, because of its teeth, is classed with the carnivores, it is worth including because it is a mammal that has adapted itself to the sea. The flying squirrel is a link between the earth and the air while the bat, as much a mammal as the rest, has made itself entirely independent of the ground.
The amazing thing to me about all this is how much alike these animals are. The parts which they have in common far exceed those which each has alone. All are built around much the same skeletons. It is easy to locate a scapula, an elbow, a wrist on every one although the wrist on a monkey or man, may be called a knee on the horse or the cow. That is merely a confusion of terms, not a difference in structure. If one cared to look carefully enough, he would find that the attachments of the muscles in the different animals are the same. True, the sizes and shapes of the bones and muscles differ, and some of each have been discarded when no longer needed. The bones and muscles in the feet of horses are simpler and are easier to understand than those of most of the rest.
This leads us naturally into the subject of evolution. All the mammals shown in this book, or in any other for that matter, had a common ancestor which we are convinced lived in the closing ages of the huge reptilian dinosaurs. From it have arisen such different forms as the bat, the horse, the whale; a small animal that flies through the air, a large animal that runs across the land, and a huge animal that never leaves the water. Of all the animals included in this book, the rat kangaroo most resembles the common ancestor form.
Ernest Thomson Seton in his book, ANIMAL ANATOMY FOR ARTISTS, instructed his readers to consider the dog as the average mammal and to make it a first study from which to branch out into the study of other forms. This is a sensible suggestion as the dog is not as specialized as, for instance, the horse. However, for a number of reasons, I, myself, did my initial study of animal anatomy on the horse. It is, first of all, one of the simplest animals in structure. It is highly specialized with but a single toe on each foot and a fusion of bones in the legs. It has specialized joints which greatly limit the possible action. Secondly, there is a comparative wealth of easily accessible material on it. In addition, there are several good comparisons of the horse form to the human form which allow the student readily to use what knowledge of human anatomy he may already possess to understand the quadripedal form. For these reasons, I have included more material in the appendix and in the bibliography on the horse than on any other animal.
Lastly, I have inserted a trifle on the sizes of the animals shown. I have added from the original edition those measurements by Ellenberger which pertain to horses of a kind to be found in this country at the present time. All the measurements are given in feet and inches.
A NOTE ON STRUCTURE
All of the plates in this volume, designed primarily for the artist, deal only with the bones and muscles. In the Ellenberger, Baum, and Dittrich plates, a uniformity of part designations exists. For instance, the last muscle shown in the side view of the body of the horse, the dog, the lioness, the cow, the goat, the stag, and the roe is the M. Semitendonosis, and in each case designated by the small letter r. With few exceptions, numbers are used for the bones and letters for the muscles.
The animals shown have in common a skeleton framework comprised of a series of bones joined together and placed at certain definite angles to each other. At the joints, the bones are held together by ligaments. A ligament is a band of white fibrous tissue, pliant and flexible, to allow movement at the joint, but tough, strong, and inelastic. It does not contract as does a muscle. Between the bones at the joints is a padding or cushion of cartilage, a pearly white, gristly substance. It is also found in passages which must be kept open such as the nostrils and the ears.
The muscles are the motors of the body which cause movement. They are formed by bundles of reddish fibers endowed with the property of contractability. The muscles are connected to the bones, cartilage, or ligaments either directly or by tendons or aponeuroses. Tendons are white, glistening, fibrous cords varying in thickness and in length, sometimes round, sometimes long and flattened, of considerable strength and slight elasticity. Aponeuroses are fibrous membranes similar in structure to tendons. Tendons and aponeuroses are connected to the muscles at one end and to the movable bones, cartilage, and ligaments at the other.
Muscles act in pairs. For every muscle pulling in one direction, there must be a corresponding one pulling in the opposite direction. A muscle on the left side of the body is matched by a similar one on the right side.
In Plate 3 of the horse No. 1, the scapula, forms slightly more than a right angle with No. 4, the humerus, which joins it. If these two bones move toward each other, the angle decreases. The muscles causing this action are called flexors. If the scapula and humerus straighten, the muscles causing this would be called extensors. However, the same muscle which helped flex the scapula and humerus might extend the humerus and radius. In one action it would be called a flexor, in the other, an extensor. This dual function of some muscles, with their several attachments, creates a difficulty in naming them and describing their functions. Adduction and abduction refer to the position of the bone or bones in relation to the center line of the body. Adduction means toward the center-line; abduction means away from the center-line.
LEWIS S. BROWN
Excerpted from AN ATLAS OF ANIMAL ANATOMY FOR ARTISTS by W. ELLENBERGER, H. BAUM, H. DITTRICH, LEWIS S. BROWN, Helene Weinbaum. Copyright © 1956 DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
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Posted March 13, 2004
Wether you're an advanced or beginner sculptor you will absolutely LOVE this book, it has helped me like no other book, I sculpt mostly horses and I could NOT go without! it has an illustration from every angle you could possibly imagine. If I could give it more stars, I would! Laura - Studio Naiad
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