ATM: Foundation for Broadband Networks / Edition 2

ATM: Foundation for Broadband Networks / Edition 2

by Uyless Black, Black
     
 

ISBN-10: 0130832189

ISBN-13: 9780130832184

Pub. Date: 12/10/1998

Publisher: Pearson Education

All you need to know about ATM in WANs and LANs!

MPOA, LANE, Frame-Based ATM, Layer 3 Switching, and more

Up-to-the-minute coverage of ATM network management

Real-world implementation examples

If you want to understand how ATM fits into today's state-of-the-art WANs and LANs, look no further. In this book, best-selling author and world-renowned

Overview

All you need to know about ATM in WANs and LANs!

MPOA, LANE, Frame-Based ATM, Layer 3 Switching, and more

Up-to-the-minute coverage of ATM network management

Real-world implementation examples

If you want to understand how ATM fits into today's state-of-the-art WANs and LANs, look no further. In this book, best-selling author and world-renowned communications consultant Uyless Black explains all you need to know: architecture, switching elements, traffic management, and much more. This brand-new second-edition covers many important new ATM enhancements, including MPOA, LAN Emulation, Frame-Based ATM, Layer 3 Switching, even Wireless ATM. Learn all you need to know to get results, including:

  • The fundamental architecture of ATM networks, including the new Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer
  • Using Frame User Network Interface (FUNI) to improve the utilization of access line bandwidth
  • Using MPOA to integrate ATM with TCP/IP, Ethernet, and other key LAN protocols
  • ATM network management - including the ATM Network Management Model and the Anchorage Accord specifications
  • New protection switching techniques for better network backup

This new edition combines extensive, real-world implementation examples, up-to-the-minute coverage, and Uyless Black's unique insight into the issues that matter most to communications professionals. If you want to get up to speed with ATM technology, this is the place to start.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780130832184
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Publication date:
12/10/1998
Series:
ATM Series
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
446
Product dimensions:
7.31(w) x 9.58(h) x 1.53(d)

Table of Contents

PREFACE xvii
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1(22)
The Present Telecommunications Infrastructure
1(4)
Present Technologies for Voice, Video, and Data Networks
2(3)
Present and Future Requirements
5(3)
Downsizing and Outsourcing: Reliance on Telecommunications
5(1)
Present Systems: Too Much or Tool Little
6(2)
Costs of Leased Lines
8(1)
Virtual Companies and Virtual Networks
8(3)
Fast Relay Networks and ATM
11(3)
Applications use of ATM
14(1)
Fast Relay Networks and SONET
15(1)
Broadband ISDN
16(2)
Principal specifications for atm
18(2)
The Anchorage Accord
20(1)
Summary
20(3)
CHAPTER 2 The Nature of Analog: and Digital Systems
23(15)
Analog Systems
23(1)
Cycles, Frequency, and Period
24(1)
Bandwidth
25(2)
Broadband and Baseband Signals
27(1)
Other Definitions of Broadband
28(1)
The Analog-to-Digital Conversion Process
28(4)
Sampling, Quantizing, and Encoding
30(1)
Other Coding Schemes1
31(1)
Timing and Synchronization in Digital Networks
32(1)
Plesiochronous Networks
33(1)
The Synchronous Clock Hierarchy
33(1)
Clarification of Terms
34(1)
Timing Variations
35(2)
Slips--Controlled and Uncontrolled
35(1)
Bit or Clock Slips
36(1)
Summary
37(1)
CHAPTER 3 Layered Protocols the Model for ATM and SONET Networks
38(20)
Protocols and the OSI Model
38(3)
OSI Layer Operations
40(1)
Concept of a Service Provider
41(6)
Encapsulation/Tunneling
45(2)
ATM and the Model
47(1)
Protocol Entities
47(1)
Service Access Points (SAPs)
47(1)
ATM and OSI Layers
48(1)
The Internet Protocols (TCP/IP)
49(7)
The Internet Layers
51(1)
IP Functions
52(3)
TCP Operations
55(1)
The OSI Network and Transport Layer
56(1)
Summary
57(1)
CHAPTER 4 Emerged Technologies
58(29)
Comparison of Switching Systems
58(2)
The T1/E1 Systems
60(4)
Purpose of T1 and E1
60(1)
Typical Topology
61(1)
T1 and E1 Layers
62(1)
T1/E1 PDUs
62(2)
Conclusions on T1/E1
64(1)
X.25
64(6)
Purpose of X.25
64(1)
Typical Topology
65(1)
X.25 Layers
66(1)
X.25 PDUs
66(2)
Other Noteworthy Aspects of X.25
68(1)
Conclusions on X.25
69(1)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
70(9)
Purpose of ISDN
70(1)
Typical Topology
70(3)
ISDN Layers
73(1)
ISDN PDUs
74(4)
Conclusions on ISDN
78(1)
Signaling System Number 7 (SS7)
79(6)
Purpose of SS7
79(1)
Typical Topology
79(2)
SS7 Layers
81(2)
SS7 PDUs
83(2)
Conclusions on SS7
85(1)
ATM and SONET: Reduction or Enhancement of Functions in Networks
85(1)
Summary
85(2)
CHAPTER 5 The Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) Model
87(11)
ISDN and B-ISDN
87(2)
B-ISDN Configurations
88(1)
ATM and the B-ISDN Model
89(4)
Examples of the Operations between Layers in the B-ISDN Planes
91(2)
B-ISDN Functions
93(2)
B-ISDN Service Aspects
95(2)
Summary
97(1)
CHAPTER 6 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Basics
98(36)
A Brief Review
98(1)
Why is ATM called "Asynchronous"?
99(1)
An ATM Topology
99(3)
The ATM Interfaces
102(4)
The VPI and VCI Labels
104(2)
ATM Layers
106(3)
ATM Layers and OSI Layers
107(2)
Relationship of AAL, ATM, and the Network
109(3)
Relationship of Layers to the OSL Layered Architecture
111(1)
Where to Find Service Definitions and Primitives
112(1)
Typical Protocol Stacks
112(2)
ATM PDUS (cells)
114(3)
Use of Two Identifiers
114(2)
Metasignaling Cells and Other Cells
116(1)
Rationale for the Cell Size
117(12)
Network Transparency Operations
119(1)
Errors and Error Rates
119(2)
Error Correction and Detection
121(1)
Probability of Discarding Cells
122(2)
Overhead of the Cell Approach
124(2)
Transmission Delay
126(3)
ATM Labels
129(1)
Multiplexing VCIs and VPIs
130(1)
Cell Relay Bearer Service (CRBS)
130(3)
Point-to-Multipoint and Multipoint-to-Multipoint Services
133(1)
Summary
133(1)
CHAPTER 7 The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
134(47)
Principal Tasks of the AAL
134(2)
The AAL Sublayers
136(2)
Creating and Processing the AAL PDU
136(2)
Classes of Traffic
138(2)
RationalE for AAL Types
140(1)
Dividing CS into further sublayers
140(1)
AAL Naming Conventions
141(1)
ALL Type 1 (AAL1)
141(1)
The AAL1 PDU
142(4)
AAL 1 Modes of Operation
144(1)
Synchronization and Clock Recovery
145(1)
Running AAL 1 Traffic on a T1 Link
145(1)
AAL Type 2 (AAL2)
146(6)
The AAL 2PDU
148(2)
Functional Model for AAL2
150(2)
Voice Packetization
152(9)
Grouping Samples into Blocks
153(3)
The Voice Packet
156(3)
Packet Buildout at the Receiver
159(2)
AAL Types 3, 4, 3/4 and 5 for Data
161(5)
Pre-ATM Approach to Traffic Integrity Management
161(3)
ATM Approach to Traffic Integrity Management
164(2)
The Original AAL Types 3 and Type 4 (AAL3, AAL4)
166(1)
AAL3/4
166(9)
Naming conventions for AAL3/4
167(1)
The AAL3/4 PDU
168(1)
AAL3/4 Headers and Trailers
168(2)
AAL3/4 Sequencing and Identification Operations
170(1)
A Complete SAR-PDU and CPCS-PDU Example
171(1)
Functional Model for AAL3/4
172(3)
AAL Type 5 (AAL5)
175(1)
Structure of AAL 5
175(1)
The AAL5 PDU
176(1)
Another Type--Available Bit Rate (ABR)
176(1)
The ALL/ATM Primitives
177(3)
Summary
180(1)
CHAPTER 8 ATM Switching Operations
181(26)
ATM Switching
181(3)
Routing with the Cell Header
182(2)
Space and Time Switching
184(1)
Digital Cross Connects
185(2)
The Switching Fabric
187(1)
Point-to-Multipoint Operation
187(1)
Multiplexing, Label Switching, and Label Mapping
188(4)
Protection Switching
192(3)
Label Switching versus IP Address Routing
195(1)
Switching Technologies
196(8)
Shared Memory Switch
196(1)
Shared Bus Switch
197(1)
Crossbar Switch
197(1)
Multistage Switching
198(1)
Banyan and Delta Switching Networks
199(5)
VSLI and ASIC-based Switches
204(2)
Summary
206(1)
CHAPTER 9 Traffic Management
207(53)
Traffic Management in an ATM Network
207(5)
Dealing with High Bandwidth Networks
208(1)
Low Delay Requirements for Processing Cells
209(2)
Challenge of Managing a Multiservice Network
211(1)
Control Mechanisms
212(2)
The Natural Bit Rate
212(2)
Potential Congestion Problems
214(1)
Traffic Control and Congestion Control
214(1)
Functions to Achieve Traffic Control and Congestion Control
215(1)
Allocation of Bandwidth
215(4)
Computing the Parameters for Queus Servicing
219(1)
Example of Queue Management Operations
219(1)
Dealing with Variable Delay
220(2)
Connection Admission Control (CAC) Procedures
222(1)
Usage Parameter Control (UPC)
223(1)
Traffic Management at the UNI--Basic Concepts
223(8)
Eckberg Scheme
224(2)
Multiplexing Traffic into the Cells
226(1)
Traffic Shapping Example
226(1)
Token Pools and Leaky Buckets
226(4)
Allocating Resources
230(1)
ATM Bearer Service Attributes at the UNI
231(1)
Traffic Control and Congestion Control
231(1)
Cell Arrival Rate and Cell Interval
232(2)
ATM Cell Transfer Performance Parameters
234(2)
ATM Layer Provisions for Quality of Service (QOS)
236(2)
ATM Forum and ITU-T Traffic Control and Congestion Control
238(6)
Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA)
238(3)
The Peak Cell Rate Reference Model
241(1)
Cell Delay Variation (CDV) Tolerance
242(2)
The ATM Services for LAN and Internet Traffic
244(5)
Examples of Feedback Operations
244(3)
Types of Feedback
247(2)
The ATM Service Architecutre
249(2)
Examples of ABR Operations
251(7)
ABR Service Parameters
254(2)
The ABR Resources Management (RM) Cell
256(2)
Other Thoughts on the ABR Service Category
258(1)
Buildout Delay Procedures at the Receiving Endpoint
258(1)
Work on the Guaranteed Frame Rate (GFR)
259(1)
Summary
259(1)
CHAPTER 10 Call and Connection Control
260(40)
ATM Connections on Demand
260(3)
The ATM Address
263(3)
The Address Registration MIB
265(1)
Address Registration
265(1)
The Connection Control Messages
266(1)
Connection Setups and Clears
267(2)
Q.2931 Timers and States
269(1)
Connection Control Examples
270(9)
Connection Setup
271(2)
Connection Release
273(1)
Restart Procedure
274(1)
Status Inquiry
275(1)
Add Party
275(3)
Drop Party
275(1)
Signaling AAL Reset and Failure
278(1)
Functions of Q.2931 Messages and Information Elements
279(8)
Messages for Call Control
279(1)
Messages for Restart Operations
279(1)
Messages for Adding and Dropping Parties
279(3)
Descriptions of the Information Elements
282(5)
Examples of Q.2931 Messages
287(5)
Coding Conventions
287(1)
AAL Parameters
288(4)
User Traffic Descriptors
292(1)
The PNNI Model
292(3)
UNI Signaling, Version 4.0, and Voice and Telephony over ATM to the Desktop
295(4)
Notification Procedures
295(1)
Notification of Interworking Procedures (Progress)
295(1)
AAL Negotiation
295(1)
Call/Connection Alerting
296(1)
Narrowband Bearer Capability Information Element
297(1)
Narrowband High Layer Compatibility Information Element
297(1)
Narrowband Low Layer Compatibility Information Element
297(1)
UNI Signaling 4.0 Supplementary Services
297(2)
Summary
299(1)
CHAPTER 11 Internetworking with ATM Networks
300(31)
The ATM Network as the Backbone for Other Networks
300(1)
Using Q.2931 to Support Protocol Capability (Tunneling)
301(3)
Broadband Low-Layer Information Element
304(3)
THE NETWORK-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE
307(1)
The ATM B-ISDN InterCarrier Interface (B-ICI)
308(4)
Physical Layer Requirements at the B-ICI
311(1)
Traffic Management at the B-ICI
311(1)
Reference Traffic Loads
311(1)
B-ICI Layer Management Operations
312(1)
Specific Internetworking Services
312(10)
PVC Cell Relay Service (CRS)
313(1)
PVC Circuit Emulation Service (CES)
313(3)
PVC Frame Relay Service (FRS)
316(2)
SMDS Service
318(3)
ATM LAN Emulation
321(1)
RFC 1483 AND RFC 1577
322(5)
The ATM Data Exchange Interface (DXI)
324(1)
DXI Modes
325(1)
DXI Support for Frame Relay
326(1)
The Frame UNI (FUNI)
327(1)
Are DEXI and FUNI Needed?
328(1)
Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA)
328(2)
Companion Protocols to MPOA
329(1)
Summary
330(1)
CHAPTER 12 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
331(32)
Purpose of SONET
331(2)
Present Transport Systems and SONET
333(1)
Foundations for SONET
333(2)
Synchronous Networks
335(1)
Optical Fiber--The Bedrock for SONET
336(1)
Pertinent Standards
337(2)
Typical SONET Topology
339(4)
SONET Configuration
342(1)
SONET Layers
343(1)
Automatic Protection Switching (APS)
344(2)
Payloads and Envelopes
346(4)
Envelopes
346(4)
Mapping ATM Cells into the SONET Envelope
350(1)
Payload Pointers
350(1)
Mapping and Multiplexing Operations
351(5)
The Control Headers and Fields
355(1)
SONET Equipment
356(6)
Progress in SONET Penetration
362(1)
Summary
362(1)
CHAPTER 13 Operations, Administrations, and Maintenance (OAM)
363(43)
THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT MODEL
363(1)
Operations and Maintenance (OAM) Operations
364(3)
ATM Functions at the U-and M-Planes
367(5)
U-Plane Operations
367(2)
M-Plane Operations
369(1)
End-to-End and Segment Flows
370(2)
The SONET OAM Functions
372(3)
Maintenance and Alarm Surveillance
372(1)
Failure States
373(1)
Alarm Indication Signals (AISs), FERF and Yellow Signals
373(2)
Examples of Remedial Actions upon Entering a Failure State
375(1)
The OAM Headers
375(6)
Section Overhead
376(2)
Line Overhead
378(1)
STS Path Overhead (STS POH)
378(1)
ATM Use of the OAM Octets
379(1)
Using Payload Pointers for Troubleshooting Timing Problems
380(1)
OAM at the ATM Layer
381(7)
Fault Management
382(3)
Performance Management
385(2)
Activation/Deactivation
387(1)
The ATM Management Information Bases (MIBs)
388(1)
The Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI)
389(14)
The ILMI MIB Tree Structure
389(4)
ILMI MIBs
393(4)
MIB (RFC 1695)
397(1)
The ATM MIB Groups
398(5)
The ILMI MIB and the ATM MIB
403(1)
The Layer Management/ATM Primitives
403(2)
Other ATM Forum Specifications for Network Management
405(1)
Summary
405(1)
CHAPTER 14 Physical Layer Services for ATM
406(25)
PHYSICAL LAYER OPTIONS FOR ATM
406(1)
The ATM/Physical Layer Primitives
407(1)
ATM Mapping into SONET STS-3c
408(2)
ATM Mapping into DS3
410(2)
Other Aspects of the DS3 Scheme
412(1)
Circuit Emulation Service Interoperability (CES-IS) Specification
412(2)
ATM Mapping into the 100 Mbit/s Multimode Fiber Interface
414(2)
Functions of the U-Plane Physical Layer
414(2)
ATM Mapping into the 155.52 Mbit/s Private UNI
416(2)
Multimode Fiber Interface
416(1)
Shielded Twisted Pair Interface
416(2)
Private UNI for 51.84 Mbit/s and Subrates
418(1)
Mapping DS1, DS3, and CEPT Payloads into SONET Frames
419(4)
The VT/VC Structure
419(3)
Floating and Locked VT Mode
422(1)
Interworking ATM and SONET
423(2)
The 2.4 Gbit/s Physical Layer Specification
425(1)
Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)
425(5)
Rules for IMA Operations
426(3)
The IMA Sublayer in the Layered Model
429(1)
Summary
430(1)
CHAPTER 15 The ATM Market
431
A Soft Market, Initially
431(1)
Recent Successes and Projections
431(1)
ATM and IP
432(1)
ATM in Residential Broadband
433(1)
ATMs Future
433(1)
In Conclusion
434

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