ATM: Foundation for Broadband Networks / Edition 2

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Overview

All you need to know about ATM in WANs and LANs!

MPOA, LANE, Frame-Based ATM, Layer 3 Switching, and more

Up-to-the-minute coverage of ATM network management

Real-world implementation examples

If you want to understand how ATM fits into today's state-of-the-art WANs and LANs, look no further. In this book, best-selling author and world-renowned communications consultant Uyless Black explains all you need to know: architecture, switching elements, traffic management, and much more. This brand-new second-edition covers many important new ATM enhancements, including MPOA, LAN Emulation, Frame-Based ATM, Layer 3 Switching, even Wireless ATM. Learn all you need to know to get results, including:

  • The fundamental architecture of ATM networks, including the new Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer
  • Using Frame User Network Interface (FUNI) to improve the utilization of access line bandwidth
  • Using MPOA to integrate ATM with TCP/IP, Ethernet, and other key LAN protocols
  • ATM network management - including the ATM Network Management Model and the Anchorage Accord specifications
  • New protection switching techniques for better network backup

This new edition combines extensive, real-world implementation examples, up-to-the-minute coverage, and Uyless Black's unique insight into the issues that matter most to communications professionals. If you want to get up to speed with ATM technology, this is the place to start.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Explains how ATM fits into WANs and LANs with chapters on architecture, switching elements, and traffic management. The second edition covers new ATM enhancements, including MPOA, LAN emulation, frame-based ATM, layer 3 switching, and wireless ATM. Intended for systems engineers. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Jack Woehr
ATM

When Gibbons presented the final volume of his masterful Fall of the Roman Empire in the 1780s, a semiliterate nobleman congratulated him on his achievement with the words, "Another damn square, fat book, eh, Mr. Gibbons?"

Black's ATM Volume I is a fat book indeed, but hardly damnable. In fact, I can't put it down.

To bring us by steps to enlightenment on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), that most heavy-duty of wide-area network regimens, the author commences with an exposition on the current telecommunications infrastructure which could have been a book on its own.

Black traces the history of distance electronic communications from the 1950s to the present. He explores with the reader both the strengths and the weaknesses of the approaches to technology taken first by Ma Bell and later by others from the 1970s onward.

Black's careful treatment is highly professional and carefully avoids faddism. He meticulously explains the reasoning that went into the design of what is now legacy architecture, so that the reader can appreciate concepts in the context of the times in which they were implemented. In the process, several mysteries, (well, what were mysteries to me, anyhow), are solved, such as why my home phone won't disconnect in timely fashion when that abominable "The Lie-ine Is Busy" voiceover attempts to extort thirty cents for an automatic redial.

OSI layers, TCP/IP implementation on broadband networks, X.25, T1/E1, DS1/DS3, ISDN, SONET and other WAN models and protocols are explicated with admirable economy, and all this as mere preparation for the ATM discussion that follows.

The ATM discussion itself is so broad, it can hardly be summarized within the bandwidth of this brief book review. Suffice it to say that Black is not satisfied that you know what cell size is unless you understand precisely the statistical rationale behind the choice of size. This "come let us reason together" spirit imbues the entire work and the copious diagrams that accompany the text.

ATM Volume I is a book for propeller heads like you and me, who are really fascinated by this stuff, people to whom data is data, and whose concern is that bits get lovingly wrapped and posted to their ultimate destination.

Genuine propeller-head books seem always to be printed on that heavy absorbent paper. I guess it's because they expect you to have them with you in the field and to spill coffee on them. ATM Volume I shares with other books of the propeller-head genre a few minor defects. The index is a little sparse. There is a table of acronyms in the back, but some acronyms (STP, for example) are overloaded in the text and not all overloads appear in the table.

Who cares? You're going to read this one page by page and absorb it, while the pages absorb your coffee.
— Dr. Dobb's Electronic Review of Computer Books

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130832184
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 12/10/1998
  • Series: ATM Series
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 446
  • Product dimensions: 7.31 (w) x 9.58 (h) x 1.53 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Recently, one of my clients, who is a systems engineer for a large telecommunications firm, told me that one of her major problems is staying abreast of the technologies that are embedded into her companyÕs products. I hear this statement often. Like many others in our industry, this person does not have the time to read the technical specifications published by the standards organizations and the user forums. She must spend her professional time performing the day-to-day tasks of the job, essentially taking care of her clients and her accounts.

The common lament is that many professionals are barely ahead of their customers in their knowledge and ability to field their questions about not just the company products, but how they fit into an overall telecommunications architecture. Increasingly, this systems engineer has been forced to know about many diverse protocols, standards, and architectures. Her clients query her on topics such as the relationship of ATM and Frame Relay, why Novell uses IPX and not IP, why Netbios is not routable, etc.

It is to this person that this series is devoted (indeed, most of my books are so focused). It is my hope that I have provided a series that will meet this engineerÕs needs in the field.

This book is the second book of Prentice HallÕs Advanced Communications Technologies, which serves as a complement to the flagship book, Emerging Communications Technologies.

I have included a chapter on existing technologies, titled "Emerged Technologies." This chapter is a summary of a chapter of the same title from the flagship book for this series. I have added a section in thischapter on why functions and services of several of these technologies (for data networks) have been reduced or eliminated in an ATM network. I suggest the reader review this chapter for two reasons: (a) to make certain the ISDN, X.25, SS7, and T1/E1 systems are understood, and (b) to understand why ATM operations do not include many functions that are an integral part of current data networks. The ATM story is far from complete. As of this writing, ATM systems are now being deployed, but some of the ATM standards are still being written. One cannot wait to write a book on emerging technologies until they have "emerged," else there would be no book to write. So, this book represents the state of ATM as of the date of submittal of my work to my publisher.

Notes for the reader:

  1. In revised specifications, the ATM Forum is now using the phrase "traffic descriptor" for "user cell rate." Where appropriate, this book uses the former phrase.
  2. The ITU-T is in the process of revising its ATM signaling and control procedures Recommendation (switched virtual calls/connections on demand). It is available in draft form as Q.2931. The ATM ForumÕs specification differs slightly from Q.2931, and this book reflects the ATM ForumÕs specification. The reader can refer to Appendix E of the ATM Forum UNI 3.1 specification for a comparison of the two specifications.
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
The Present Telecommunications Infrastructure. Present Technologies for Voice, Video, and Data Networks. Present and Future Requirements. Downsizing and Outsourcing: Reliance on Telecommunications. Present Systems: Too Much or Too Little. Costs of Leased Lines. Virtual Companies and Virtual Networks. Fast Relay Networks and ATM. Applications use of ATM. Fast Relay Networks and SONET. Broadband ISDN. Principal specifications for atm. The Anchorage Accord. Summary.

2. The Nature of Analog: and Digital Systems.
Analog Systems. Cycles, Frequency, and Period. Bandwidth. Broadband and Baseband Signals. Other Definitions of Broadband. The Analog-to-Digital Conversion Process. Sampling, Quantizing, and Encoding. Other Coding Schemes. Timing and Synchronization in Digital Networks. Plesiochronous Networks. The Synchronous Clock Hierarchy. Clarification of Terms. Timing Variations. Slips—Controlled and Uncontrolled. Bit or Clock Slips. Summary.

3. Layered Protocols the Model for ATM and SONET Networks.
Protocols and the OSI Model. OSI Layer Operations. Concept of a Service Provider. Encapsulation/Tunneling. ATM and the Model. Protocol Entities. Service Access Points (SAPs). ATM and OSI Layers. The Internet Protocols (TCP/IP). The Internet Layers. IP Functions. TCP Operations. The OSI Network and Transport Layer. Summary.

4. Emerged Technologies.
Comparison of Switching Systems. The T1/E1 Systems. Purpose of T1 and E. Typical Topology. T1 and E1Layers. T1/E1 PDUs. Conclusions on T1/E. @AHEADS = Purpose of X. Typical Topology. Layers. PDUs. Other Noteworthy Aspects of X. Conclusions on X. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Purpose of ISDN. Typical Topology. ISDN Layers. ISDN PDUs. Conclusions on ISDN. Signaling System Number 7 (SS7). Purpose of SS. Typical Topology. SS7 Layers. SS7 PDUs. Conclusions on SS. ATM and SONET: Reduction or Enhancement of Functions in Networks. Summary.

5. The Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) Model.
ISDN and B-ISDN. B-ISDN Configurations. ATM and the B-ISDN Model. Examples of the Operations between Layers in the B-ISDN Planes. B-ISDN Functions. B-ISDN Service Aspects. Summary.

6. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Basics.
A Brief Review. Why is ATM called "Asynchronous"? An ATM Topology. The ATM Interfaces. The VPI and VCI Labels. ATM Layers. ATM Layers and OSI Layers. Relationship of AAL, ATM, and the Network. Relationship of Layers to the OSI Layered Architecture. Where to Find Service Definitions and Primitives. Typical Protocol Stacks. ATM PDUS (cells). Use of Two Identifiers. Metasignaling Cells and Other Cells. Rationale for the Cell Size. Network Transparency Operations. Errors and Error Rates. Error Correction and Detection. Probability of Discarding Cells. Overhead of the Cell Approach. Transmission Delay. ATM Labels. Multiplexing VCIs and VPIs. Cell Relay Bearer Service (CRBS). Point-to-Multipoint and Multipoint-to-Multipoint Services. Summary.

7. The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL).
Principal Tasks of the AAL. The AAL Sublayers. Creating and Processing the AAL PDU. Classes of Traffic. RationalE for AAL Types. Dividing CS into further sublayers. AAL Naming Conventions. aal Type 1 (aal1). The AAL1 PDU. AAL 1 Modes of Operation. Synchronization and Clock Recovery. Running AAL 1 Traffic on a T1 Link. aal Type 2 (aal2). The AAL 2 PDU. Functional Model for AAL. Voice Packetization. Grouping Samples into Blocks. The Voice Packet. Packet Buildout at the Receiver. AAL Types 3, 4, 3/4, and 5 for Data. Pre-ATM Approach to Traffic Integrity Management. ATM Approach to Traffic Integrity Management. The Original aal Types 3 and Type 4 (aal3, aal4). AAL3/. Naming conventions for AAL3/. The AAL3/4 PDU. AAL3/4 Headers and Trailers. AAL3/4 Sequencing and Identification Operations. A Complete SAR-PDU and CPCS-PDU Example. Functional Model for AAL3/. AAL Type 5 (aal5). Structure of AAL. The AAL5 PDU. Another Type—Available Bit Rate (ABR). The AAL/ATM Primitives. Summary.

8. ATM Switching Operations.
ATM Switching. Routing with the Cell Header. Space and Time Switching. Digital Cross Connects. The Switching Fabric. Point-to-Multipoint Operation. Multiplexing, Label Switching, and Label Mapping. Protection Switching. Label Switching versus IP Address Routing. Switching Technologies. Shared Memory Switch. Shared Bus Switch. Crossbar Switch. Multistage Switching. Banyan and Delta Switching Networks. VSLI and ASIC-based Switches. Summary.

9. Traffic Management.
Traffic Management in an ATM Network. Dealing with High Bandwidth Networks. Low Delay Requirements for Processing Cells. Challenge of Managing a Multiservice Network. Control Mechanisms. The Natural Bit Rate. Potential Congestion Problems. Traffic Control and Congestion Control. Functions to Achieve Traffic Control and Congestion Control. Allocation of Bandwidth. Computing the Parameters for Queue Servicing. Example of Queue Management Operations. Dealing with Variable Delay. Connection Admission Control (CAC) Procedures. Usage Parameter Control (UPC). Traffic Management at the UNI—Basic Concepts. Eckberg Scheme. Multiplexing Traffic into the Cells. Traffic Shaping Example. Token Pools and Leaky Buckets. Allocating Resources. ATM Bearer Service Attributes at the UNI. Traffic Control and Congestion Control. Cell Arrival Rate and Cell Interval. ATM Cell Transfer Performance Parameters. ATM Layer Provisions for Quality of Service (QOS). ATM Forum and ITU-T Traffic Control and Congestion Control. Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA). The Peak Cell Rate Reference Model. Cell Delay Variation (CDV) Tolerance. The ATM Services for LAN and Internet Traffic. Examples of Feedback Operations. Types of Feedback. The ATM Service Architecture. Examples of ABR Operations. ABR Service Parameters. The ABR Resource Management (RM) Cell. Other Thoughts on the ABR Service Category. BuildOut Delay Procedures at the Receiving Endpoint. Work on the Guaranteed Frame Rate (GFR). Summary.

10. Call and Connection Control.
ATM Connections on Demand. The ATM Address. The Address Registration MIB. Address Registration. The Connection Control Messages. Connection Setups and Clears. Timers and States. Connection Control Examples. Connection Setup. Connection Release. Restart Procedure. Status Inquiry. Add Party. Drop Party. Signaling AAL Reset and Failure. Functions of Q.2931 Messages and Information Elements. Messages for Call Control. Messages for Restart Operations. Messages for Adding and Dropping Parties. Descriptions of the Information Elements. Examples of Q.2931 Messages. Coding Conventions. AAL Parameters. User Traffic Descriptors. The PNNI Model. UNI Signaling, Version 4.0, and Voice and Telephony over ATM to the Desktop. Notification Procedures. Notification of Interworking Procedures (Progress). AAL Negotiation. Call/Connection Alerting. Narrowband Bearer Capability Information Element. Narrowband High Layer Compatibility Information Element. Narrowband Low Layer Compatibility Information Element. UNI Signaling 4.0 Supplementary Services. Summary.

11. Internetworking with ATM Networks.
The ATM Network as the Backbone for Other Networks. Using Q.2931 to Support Protocol Capability (Tunneling). Broadband Low-Layer Information Element. THE NETWORK-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE. The ATM B-ISDN InterCarrier Interface (B-ICI). Physical Layer Requirements at the B-ICI. Traffic Management at the B-ICI. Reference Traffic Loads. B-ICI Layer Management Operations. Specific Internetworking Services. PVC Cell Relay Service (CRS). PVC Circuit Emulation Service (CES). PVC Frame Relay Service (FRS). SMDS Service. ATM LAN Emulation. RFC 1483 AND RFC. The ATM Data Exchange Interface (DXI). DXI Modes. DXI Support for Frame Relay. The Frame UNI (FUNI). Are DXI and FUNI Needed? Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA). Companion Protocols to MPOA. Summary.

12. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET).
Purpose of SONET. Present Transport Systems and SONET. Foundations for SONET. Synchronous Networks. Optical Fiber—The Bedrock for SONET. Pertinent Standards. Typical SONET Topology. SONET Configuration. SONET Layers. Automatic Protection Switching (APS). Payloads and Envelopes. Envelopes. Mapping ATM Cells into the SONET Envelope. Payload Pointers. Mapping and Multiplexing Operations. The Control Headers and Fields. SONET Equipment. Progress in SONET Penetration. Summary.

13. Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM).
THE NETWORK MANAGEMENT MODEL. Operation and Maintenance (OAM) Operations. ATM Functions at the U- and M-Planes. U-Plane Operations. M-Plane Operations. End-to-End and Segment Flows. The SONET OAM Functions. Maintenance and Alarm Surveillance. Failure States. Alarm Indication Signals (AISs), FERF, and Yellow Signals. Examples of Remedial Actions upon Entering a Failure State. The OAM Headers. Section Overhead. Line Overhead. STS Path Overhead (STS POH). ATM Use of the OAM Octets. Using Payload Pointers for Troubleshooting Timing Problems. OAM at the ATM Layer. Fault Management. Performance Management. Activation/Deactivation. The ATM Management Information Bases (MIBs). The Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI). The ILMI MIB Tree Structure. ILMI MIBs. MIB (RFC 1695). The ATM MIB Groups. The ILMI MIB and the ATM MIB. The Layer Management/ATM Primitives. Other ATM Forum Specifications for Network Management. Summary.

14. Physical Layer Services for ATM.
PHYSICAL LAYER OPTIONS FOR ATM. The ATM/Physical Layer Primitives. ATM Mapping into SONET STS-3c. ATM Mapping into DS. Other Aspects of the DS3 Scheme. Circuit Emulation Service Interoperability (CES-IS) Specification. ATM Mapping into the 100 Mbit/s Multimode Fiber Interface. Functions of the U-Plane Physical Layer. ATM Mapping into the 155.52 Mbit/s Private UNI. Multimode Fiber Interface. Shielded Twisted Pair Interface. Private UNI for 51.84 Mbit/s and Subrates. Mapping DS1, DS3, and CEPT Payloads into SONET Frames. The VT/VC Structure. Floating and Locked VT Mode. Interworking ATM and SONET. The 2.4 Gbit/s Physical Layer Specification. Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA). Rules for IMA Operations. The IMA Sublayer in the Layered Model. Summary.

15. The ATM Market.
A Soft Market, Initially. Recent Successes and Projections. ATM and IP. ATM in Residential Broadband. ATM's Future. In Conclusion.

Index.
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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Recently, one of my clients, who is a systems engineer for a large telecommunications firm, told me that one of her major problems is staying abreast of the technologies that are embedded into her companyÕs products. I hear this statement often. Like many others in our industry, this person does not have the time to read the technical specifications published by the standards organizations and the user forums. She must spend her professional time performing the day-to-day tasks of the job, essentially taking care of her clients and her accounts.

The common lament is that many professionals are barely ahead of their customers in their knowledge and ability to field their questions about not just the company products, but how they fit into an overall telecommunications architecture. Increasingly, this systems engineer has been forced to know about many diverse protocols, standards, and architectures. Her clients query her on topics such as the relationship of ATM and Frame Relay, why Novell uses IPX and not IP, why Netbios is not routable, etc.

It is to this person that this series is devoted (indeed, most of my books are so focused). It is my hope that I have provided a series that will meet this engineerÕs needs in the field.

This book is the second book of Prentice HallÕs Advanced Communications Technologies, which serves as a complement to the flagship book, Emerging Communications Technologies.

I have included a chapter on existing technologies, titled "Emerged Technologies." This chapter is a summary of a chapter of the same title from the flagship book for this series. I have added a section inthischapter on why functions and services of several of these technologies (for data networks) have been reduced or eliminated in an ATM network. I suggest the reader review this chapter for two reasons: (a) to make certain the ISDN, X.25, SS7, and T1/E1 systems are understood, and (b) to understand why ATM operations do not include many functions that are an integral part of current data networks. The ATM story is far from complete. As of this writing, ATM systems are now being deployed, but some of the ATM standards are still being written. One cannot wait to write a book on emerging technologies until they have "emerged," else there would be no book to write. So, this book represents the state of ATM as of the date of submittal of my work to my publisher.

Notes for the reader:

  1. In revised specifications, the ATM Forum is now using the phrase "traffic descriptor" for "user cell rate." Where appropriate, this book uses the former phrase.
  2. The ITU-T is in the process of revising its ATM signaling and control procedures Recommendation (switched virtual calls/connections on demand). It is available in draft form as Q.2931. The ATM ForumÕs specification differs slightly from Q.2931, and this book reflects the ATM ForumÕs specification. The reader can refer to Appendix E of the ATM Forum UNI 3.1 specification for a comparison of the two specifications.
Read More Show Less

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