Atmospheric Thermodynamics / Edition 1

Atmospheric Thermodynamics / Edition 1

by Craig F. Bohren, Bruce A. Albrecht
     
 

ISBN-10: 0195099044

ISBN-13: 9780195099041

Pub. Date: 02/19/1998

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

This comprehensive text is based on the authors' course notes, refined and updated over 15 years of teaching. The core of the text focuses on water and its transformations. Four chapters lay the foundation, from energy conservation to the ideal gas law, specific heat capacities, adiabatic processes, and entropy. An extensive chapter treats phase transitions of

Overview

This comprehensive text is based on the authors' course notes, refined and updated over 15 years of teaching. The core of the text focuses on water and its transformations. Four chapters lay the foundation, from energy conservation to the ideal gas law, specific heat capacities, adiabatic processes, and entropy. An extensive chapter treats phase transitions of water, and a lengthy discussion of the van der Waals equation sets the stage for phase diagrams. Free energy is applied to determining the effect of dissolved substances, total pressure, and size on vapor pressure. The chapter on moist air and clouds discusses wet-bulb and virtual temperatures, isentropic ascent of saturated air, thermodynamic diagrams, stability, and cloud formation. The final chapter covers energy, momentum, and mass transfer, topics not usually considered part of thermodynamics. Measurements are included and experiments and observations are suggested, all with the aim of breathing life into equations. The authors are careful to recognize and unafraid to criticize the treatments of thermodynamics that have been unchanged for more than a hundred years.
Atmospheric Thermodynamics contains over 200 exercises, mostly applications of basic principles to concrete problems. Often inspired by inquisitive students and colleagues, the exercises cover everything from automobiles and airplanes to baseball, wind turbines, and ground hogs. The authors weave history into the text by drawing on original writings rather than using textbook anecdotes, and molecular interpretations are given wherever possible. Assumptions and approximations are carefully laid out, derivations are detailed, and equations are interpreted physically and applied. No previous knowledge of thermodynamics or kinetic theory is assumed, although students are expected to be well-grounded in calculus, differential equations, vector analysis, and classical mechanics.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195099041
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
02/19/1998
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
416
Product dimensions:
9.10(w) x 6.40(h) x 1.00(d)
Lexile:
1380L (what's this?)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Preface viii(5)
Acknowledgments xiii
1 INTRODUCTION: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
1(33)
1.1 Thermodynamics: A Science of Measurable Quantities
2(4)
1.2 Conservation of Energy in Mechanics
4(2)
1.3 Conservation of Energy: A System of Point Masses
6(4)
1.4 A Few Examples of Energy Conservation
10(1)
1.5 Kinetic Energy Exchanges in Molecular Collisions
10(6)
1.6 Working and Heating
16(5)
A Simple Example of Working
18(3)
1.7 Some Necessary Thermodynamic Concepts and Jargon
21(1)
1.8 Thermodynamic Internal Energy and the First Law
22(7)
Some Irreverent Thoughts About Heat
24(5)
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading
29(1)
Problems
30(4)
2 IDEAL GAS LAW: PRESSURE AND ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE
34(55)
2.1 Gas Pressure and Absolute Temperature: What Are They?
35(19)
Ideal Gas Law
36(4)
A Perspective on Units
40(3)
Pressure Measurement: Barometer and Manometer
43(2)
Temperature Scales and Thermometers
45(2)
Atmospheric Temperature Measurements
47(2)
A Linguistic Sin of Meteorologists: Repent!
49(1)
The Nature of Statistical Laws
49(2)
History of the Gas Law
51(3)
2.2 Pressure Decrease with Height: Continuum Approach
54(4)
Thickness: A Surrogate for Average Temperature
58(1)
2.3 Pressure Decrease with Height: Molecular Approach
59(1)
2.4 The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution of Molecular Speeds
60(6)
Why Don't Air Molecules Escape to Space?
64(2)
2.5 Intermolecular Separation, Mean Free Path, and Collision Rate
66(5)
Mean Free Path
67(2)
Intermolecular Collision Rate
69(1)
Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium
70(1)
2.6 Is the Pressure Gradient a Fundamental Force of Nature?
71(1)
2.7 Surface Pressure and Weight of the Atmosphere
72(2)
Flat Earthers Beware!
73(1)
Why Aren't We Crushed by Airplanes Flying Overhead?
73(1)
2.8 The Atmosphere Is a Mixture of Gases: Dalton's Law
74(5)
Mean Molecular Weight
75(4)
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading
79(2)
Problems
81(8)
3 SPECIFIC HEATS AND ENTHALPY: ADIABATIC PROCESSES
89(46)
3.1 A Critical Discussion of the Mathematics of Thermodynamics
89(10)
Those Accursed Differentials
93(4)
Differentials and Infinitesimals
97(1)
Are Differentials Necessary in Thermodynamics?
97(2)
3.2 Specific Heats and Enthalpy
99(7)
An Incompressibility Paradox: The Perils of Idealization
104(1)
Enthalpy of the (Hydrostatic) Atmosphere
105(1)
3.3 Adiabatic Processes: Poisson's Relations
106(2)
3.4 Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
108(3)
Do Pistons and Cylinders Inhabit the Atmosphere?
109(2)
3.5 Stability and Buoyancy
111(3)
Buoyancy
112(2)
Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate and Stability
114(1)
3.6 Specific Heats of Gas Molecules
114(9)
The Ratio of Working to Heating at Constant Pressure
120(3)
3.7 Heat Capacities of Mixtures of Gases
123(4)
Water Vapor Demystified
123(1)
Isobaric, Adiabatic Mixing of Moist Parcels
124(3)
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading
127(1)
Problems
127(8)
4 ENTROPY
135(46)
4.1 Entropy of an Ideal Gas
136(19)
Entropy Change In a Free Expansion
137(1)
Entropy Changes Upon Heating and Cooling
138(7)
The Second Law and Stability
145(1)
Entropy of Mixtures; Entropy of Mixing and Gibbs's Paradox
146(2)
Entropy Changes Upon Mixing of Two Gases With Different Temperatures and Pressures
148(1)
An Entropic Derivation of Joule's Law
149(1)
Entropy and Disorder: A Persistent Swindle
150(2)
Integrating Factor and Entropy
152(3)
4.2 Entropy Changes of Liquids and Solids
155(2)
4.3 Potential Temperature: Meteorologists' Entropy
157(4)
Parcel Oscillations
159(2)
4.4 Atmospheric Applications of the Second Law
161(16)
Entropy Maximization in the Atmosphere
164(5)
Entropy Maximization in the Atmosphere: General Case
169(2)
Thermodynamic Efficiency: The Carnot Cycle
171(4)
Entropic Derivation of the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
175(2)
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading
177(1)
Problems
178(3)
5 WATER AND ITS TRANSFORMATIONS
181(91)
5.1 Evaporation and Condensation of Water Vapor
182(3)
5.2 Measures of Water Vapor in Air
185(7)
Dew, Frost, Defrosters, Dehumidifiers, and Swamp Coolers
188(4)
5.3 The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
192(12)
Other Enthalpy Differences
195(1)
Entropy and Enthalpy Differences in Phase Changes
196(1)
Temperature Dependence of Enthalpy of Vaporization
197(1)
Temperature Dependence of Saturation Vapor Pressure: A More Accurate Equation
197(3)
Difference Between the Saturation Vapor Pressure Above Ice and Above Subcooled Water at the Same Temperature
200(2)
Dew Points and Human Comfort
202(1)
Lapse Rate of the Boiling Point
203(1)
5.4 van der Waals Equation of State
204(14)
Must a Liquid Boil in Order to Evaporate?
214(1)
Can a Solid Boil Before it Melts?
215(1)
Departures From Ideality According to the van der Waals Equation
215(1)
The Maxwell Construction and Saturation Vapor Pressure
216(2)
An Overview of the Many Successes of the van der Waals Equation
218(1)
5.5 Phase Diagrams: Liquid-Vapor; Liquid-Solid-Vapor; Triple Point
218(5)
5.6 Free Energy
223(3)
5.7 Effect of Air Pressure on Saturation Vapor Pressure
226(3)
5.8 Lowering of Vapor Pressure by Dissolution
229(4)
5.9 Air in Water: Henry's Law
233(5)
Change in Saturation Vapor Pressure with Total Pressure
237(1)
5.10 Size Dependence of Vapor Pressure: Droplets and Bubbles
238(14)
Droplet Vapor Pressure: The Kelvin Equation
239(4)
Bubble Vapor Pressure
243(4)
Mechanical Equilibrium of Bubbles and Droplets: The Laplace Equation
247(3)
Boiling Demystified and More Heresy
250(2)
5.11 Vapor Pressure of Solution Droplets
252(4)
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading
256(4)
Problems
260(12)
6 MOIST AIR AND CLOUDS
272(63)
6.1 Precipitable Water in the Atmosphere
272(2)
6.2 Lapse Rate of the Dew Point: Level of Cloud Formation
274(4)
6.3 Density of Moist Air: Virtual Temperature
278(3)
6.4 Wet-Bulb Temperature
281(6)
Is the Temperature of a Wet Bulb the Wet-Bulb Temperature?
285(1)
Humidity Measurements
286(1)
6.5 Lapse Rate for Isentropic Ascent of a Saturated Parcel
287(12)
Equivalent Potential Temperature and Wet-Bulb Potential Temperature
292(7)
6.6 Thermodynamic Diagrams
299(12)
A Smattering of History
300(1)
Skew T-log p Diagram
301(6)
Tephigram
307(1)
Other Diagrams
308(3)
6.7 Stability and Cloud Formation
311(11)
Entrainment
317(5)
6.8 Mixing Clouds
322(2)
6.9 Cloud Formation on Ascent and Descent
324(3)
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading
327(2)
Problems
329(6)
7 ENERGY, MOMENTUM, AND MASS TRANSFER
335(49)
7.1 Energy Transfer
335(31)
Fourier Conduction Law
337(1)
Thermal Resistance
338(2)
An Application of Thermal Resistance to Consumer Fraud
340(2)
Convective Transfer of Energy
342(1)
Conductivity of a Gas: A Few Myths Exploded
343(3)
The Effective Conductivity of Porous Materials
347(1)
The Skin Diver's Fallacy
348(2)
Newton's Law of Cooling: A Study in Error Propagation
350(4)
The Freezing of Lakes
354(2)
Radiative Energy Transfer
356(1)
Radiation and Convection Combined: Dew and Frost Formation
357(2)
To Insulate or Not to Insulate?
359(1)
Radiation in Porous Media
360(2)
Newton's Law of Cooling According to Newton
362(1)
The Thermometer As a Low-pass Filter
363(1)
Engineer Heal Thyself
365(1)
7.2 Momentum Transfer: Viscosity
366(6)
7.3 Mass Transfer: Diffusion
372(7)
Diffusion Coefficient
374(2)
Growth of Cloud Droplets
376(3)
Selected References and Suggestions for Further Reading
379(1)
Problems
380(4)
Selected Physical Constants 384(2)
Bibliography 386(9)
Index 395

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