Audel Automated Machines and Toolmaking

Overview

Machinists must know how to use tool and die making machines such as grinders and lapping machines, as well as heat and cold-treating automated ovens to produce precision metal parts. They use their knowledge of the working properties of metals and their skill with machine tools to meet precise specifications. Most machinists work in small machining shops or in manufacturing firms that produce durable goods, such as metalworking and industrial machinery, aircraft, or motor vehicles. This book has been updated for...

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Overview

Machinists must know how to use tool and die making machines such as grinders and lapping machines, as well as heat and cold-treating automated ovens to produce precision metal parts. They use their knowledge of the working properties of metals and their skill with machine tools to meet precise specifications. Most machinists work in small machining shops or in manufacturing firms that produce durable goods, such as metalworking and industrial machinery, aircraft, or motor vehicles. This book has been updated for new machines and electronic/digital controls and including many illustrations, and is a must for the machinist, which is a visual as well as mathematical trade.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780764555282
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/20/2004
  • Series: Audel Technical Trades Series , #10
  • Edition description: All New 5th Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 504
  • Product dimensions: 5.30 (w) x 8.30 (h) x 1.03 (d)

Meet the Author

Rex Miller was a Professor of Industrial Technology at TheState University of New York—College at Buffalo for over 35years. He has taught on the technical school, high school, andcollege level for well over 40 years. He is the author or coauthorof over 100 textbooks ranging from electronics through carpentryand sheet metal work. He has contributed more than 50 magazinearticles over the years to technical publications. He is also theauthor of seven Civil War regimental histories.

Mark Richard Miller finished his B.S. degree in New Yorkand moved on to Ball State University where he obtained themaster’s and went to work in San Antonio. He taught in highschool and went to graduate school in College Station, Texas,finishing the doctorate. He took a position at Texas A&MUniversity in Kingsville, Texas, where he now teaches in theIndustrial Technology Department as a Professor and DepartmentChairman. He has coauthored seven books and contributed manyarticles to technical magazines. His hobbies include refinishing a1970 Plymouth Super Bird and a 1971 Roadrunner. He is alsointerested in playing guitar, which he did while in college as leadin The Rude Boys band.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments.

About the Authors.

Introduction.

Chapter 1: Jigs and Fixtures.

Chapter 2: Helix and Spiral Calculations.

Chapter 3: Spur Gear Computations.

Chapter 4: Gears and Gear Cutting.

Chapter 5: Cams and Cam Design.

Chapter 6: Dies and Diemaking.

Chapter 7: Grinding.

Chapter 8: Laps and Lapping.

Chapter 9: Toolmaking Operations.

Chapter 10: Heat-Treating Furnaces.

Chapter 11: Annealing, Hardening, and Tempering.

Chapter 12: Principles of Induction Heating.

Chapter 13: High-Frequency Induction Heating.

Chapter 14: Furnace Brazing.

Chapter 15: Cold-Treating Process.

Chapter 16: Automatic Lathes.

Chapter 17: The Automatic Screw Machine.

Chapter 18: Automated Machine Tools.

Chapter 19: Computerized Machining.

Appendix: Reference Materials.

Index.

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First Chapter

Audel Automated Machines and Toolmaking


By Rex Miller Mark Richard Miller

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7645-5528-6


Chapter One

Jigs and Fixtures

Jigs and fixtures are devices used to facilitate production work, making interchangeable pieces of work possible at a savings in cost of production. Both terms are frequently used incorrectly in shops. A jig is a guiding device and a fixture a holding device.

Jigs and fixtures are used to locate and hold the work that is to be machined. These devices are provided with attachments for guiding, setting, and supporting the tools in such a manner that all the workpieces produced in a given jig or fixture will be exactly alike in every way.

The employment of unskilled labor is possible when jigs and fixtures can be used in production work. The repetitive layout and setup (which are time-consuming activities and require considerable skill) are eliminated. Also, the use of these devices can result in such a degree of accuracy that workpieces can be assembled with a minimum amount of fitting.

A jig or fixture can be designed for a particular job. The form to be used depends on the shape and requirement of the workpiece to be machined.

Jigs

The two types of jigs that are in general use are (1) clamp jig and (2) box jig. A few fundamental forms of jigs will be shown to illustrate the design and application of jigs. Various names are applied to jigs (such as drilling, reaming, and tapping) according to the operation to be performed.

Clamp Jig

This device derives its name from the fact that it usually resembles some form of clamp. It is adapted for use on workpieces on which the axes of all the holes that are to be drilled are parallel.

Clamp jigs are sometimes called open jigs. A simple example of a clamp jig is a design for drilling holes that are all the same size-for example, the stud holes in a cylinder head (Figure 1-1).

As shown in Figure 1-1, the jig consists of a ring with four lugs for clamping and is frequently called a ring jig. It is attached to the cylinder head and held by U-bolt clamps. When used as a guide for the drill in the drilling operation, the jig makes certain that the holes are in the correct locations because the holes in the jig were located originally with precision. Therefore, laying out is not necessary.

A disadvantage of the simple clamp jig is that only holes of a single size can be drilled. Either fixed or removable bushings can be used to overcome this disadvantage. Fixed bushings are sometimes used because they are made of hardened steel, which reduces wear. Removable bushings are used when drills of different sizes are to be used, or when the drilled holes are to be finished by reaming or tapping.

A bushed clamp jig is illustrated in Figure 1-2. In drilling a hole for a stud, it is evident that the drill (tap drill) must be smaller in size than the diameter of the stud. Accordingly, two sizes of twist drills are required in drilling holes for studs. The smaller drill (or tap drill) and a drill slightly larger than the diameter of the stud are required for drilling the holes in the cylinder head. A bushing can be used to guide the tap drill.

The jig is clamped to the work after it has been centered on the cylinder and head so that the axes of the holes register correctly. Various provisions (such as stops) are used to aid in centering the jig correctly. The jig shown in Figure 1-2 is constructed with four lugs as a part of the jig. As the jig is machined, the inner sides of the lugs are turned to a diameter that will permit the lugs to barely slip over the flange when the jig is applied to the work.

A reversible clamp jig is shown in Figure 1-3. The distinguishing feature of this type of jig is the method of centering the jig on the cylinder and head. The position of the jig for drilling the cylinder is shown at the top of Figure 1-3. An annular projection on the jig fits closely into the counterbore of the cylinder to locate the jig concentrically with the cylinder bore.

The jig is reversed for drilling the cylinder head. That is, the opposite side is placed so that the counterbore or circular recessed part of the jig fits over the annular projection of the cylinder head at the bottom of Figure 1-3.

This type of jig is often held in position by inserting an accurately fitted pin through the jig and into the first hole drilled. The pin prevents the jig from turning with respect to the cylinder as other holes are drilled.

A simple jig that has locating screws for positioning the work is shown in Figure 1-4. The locating screws are placed in such a way that the clamping points are opposite the bearing points on the work. Two setscrews are used on the long side of the work, but in this instance, because the work is relatively short and stiff, a single lug and setscrew (B in Figure 1-4) is sufficient.

This is frequently called a plate jig since it usually consists of only a plate that contains the drill bushings and a simple means of clamping the work in the jig, or the jig to the work. Where the jig is clamped to the work, it sometimes is called a clamp-on jig.

Diameter jigs provide a simple means of locating a drilled hole exactly on a diameter of a cylindrical or spherical piece (Figure 1-5).

Another simple clamp jig is called a channel jig and derives its name from the cross-sectional shape of the main member, as shown in Figure 1-6. They can be used only with parts having fairly simple shapes.

Box Jig

Box jigs (sometimes called closed jigs) usually resemble a box-like structure. They can be used where holes are to be drilled in the work at various angles. Figure 1-7 shows a design of box jig that is suitable for drilling the required holes in an engine link. The jig is built in the form of a partly open slot in which the link is moved up against a stop and then clamped with the clamp bolts A, B, and ITLITL.

The bushings D and E guide the drill for drilling the eccentric rod connections, and the bushing F guides the drill for the reach rod connections. The final hole, the hole for lubrication at the top of the link, is drilled by turning the jig 90°, placing the drill in the bushing G.

This type of jig is relatively expensive to make by machining, but the cost can be reduced by welding construction, using plate metal. In production work, the pieces can be set and released quickly.

A box jig with a hinged cover or leaf that may be opened to permit the work to be inserted and then closed to clamp the work into position is usually called a leaf jig (Figure 1-8). Drill bushings are usually located in the leaf. However, bushings may be located in other surfaces to permit the jig to be used for drilling holes on more than one side of the work. Such a jig, which requires turning to permit work on more than one side, is known as a rollover jig.

A box jig for angular drilling (Figure 1-9) is easily designed by providing the jig with legs of unequal length, thus tilting the jig to the desired angle. This type of jig is used where one or more holes are required to be drilled at an angle with the axis of the work.

As can be seen in Figure 1-9, the holes can be drilled in the work with the twist drill in a vertical position. Sometimes the jig is mounted on an angular stand rather than providing legs of unequal length for the jig. Figure 1-10 shows a box jig for drilling a hole in a ball.

In some instances, the work can be used as a jig (Figure 1-11). In the illustration, a bearing and cap are used to show how the work can be arranged and used as a jig. After the cap has been planed and fitted, the bolt holes in the cap are laid out and drilled. The cap is clamped in position, and the same twist drill used for the bolt holes is used to cut a conical spot in the base. This spotting operation provides a starting point for the smaller tap drill (A and B in Figure 1-11).

Also, both parts can be clamped together and drilled with a tap drill (ITLITL in Figure 1-11). Then, the tap drill can be removed and the holes for the bolts enlarged by means of a counterbore (D in Figure 1-11).

Following are some factors of prime importance to keep in mind with jigs:

Proper clamping of the work

Support of the work while machining Provision for chip clearance

When excessive pressure is used in clamping, some distortion can result. If the distortion is measurable, the result is inaccuracy in final dimensions. This is illustrated in an exaggerated way in Figure 1-12. The clamping forces should be applied in such a way that will not produce objectionable distortion.

It is also important to design the clamping force in such a way that the work will remain in the desired position while machining, as shown in Figure 1-13.

Figure 1-14 shows the need for the jig to provide adequate support while the work is being machined. In the example shown in Figure 1-12, the cutting force should always act against a fixed portion and not against a movable section. Figure 1-13 illustrates the need to keep the points of clamping as nearly as possible in line with the cutting forces of the tool. This will reduce the tendency of these forces to pull the work from the clamping jaws. Support beneath the work is necessary to prevent the piece from distorting. Such distortion can result in inaccuracy and possibly a broken tool.

Adequate provision must be made for chip clearance, as illustrated in Figure 1-15. The first problem is to prevent the chips from becoming packed around the tool. This could result in overheating and possible tool breakage. If the clearance is not great enough, the chips cannot flow away. If there is too much clearance, the bushing will not guide the tool properly.

The second factor in chip clearance is to prevent the chips from interfering with the proper seating of the work in the jig, as shown in Figure 1-16.

Fixtures

As mentioned previously, a fixture is primarily a holding device. A fixture anchors the workpiece firmly in place for the machining operation, but it does not form a guide for the tool.

It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between a jig and a fixture, since their basic functions can overlap in the more complicated designs. The best means of differentiating between the two devices is to apply the basic definitions, as follows:

The jig is a guiding device.

The fixture is a holding device.

A typical example of a fixture is the device designed to hold two or more locomotive cylinders in position for planing (Figure 1-17). This fixture is used in planing the saddle surfaces. In the planing operation, two or more cylinders are placed in a single row, the fixture anchoring them firmly to the planer bed.

The fixture consists of heavy brackets or angles, with conical projections that permit the bores of the cylinders to be aligned accurately with each other. The end brackets are made with a single conical flange; the intermediate brackets are made with double conical flanges. A bolt through the center of the flanges aligns the cylinder bores when it is tightened. The legs of the 90°-angle brackets at the ends are bolted firmly to the planer table. The intermediate brackets are also bolted to the planer table and aid in holding the assembly in firm alignment for the machining operation. The use of fixtures can result in a considerable saving in the time required to set the work, and they also ensure production of accurate work.

An indexing fixture can be used for machining operations that are to be performed in more than one plane (Figure 1-18). It facilitates location of the given angle with a degree of precision.

A disc in the indexing fixture is held in angular position by a pin that fits into a finished hole in the angle iron and into one of the holes in the disc. The disc is clamped against the knee by a screw and washer while the cut is being taken. Since the holes are properly spaced in the disc (index plate), the work attached to the disc can be rotated into any desired angular position. Radial drilling operations can be performed when a projecting plate is provided with a jig hole.

The same general principles concerning clamping, support while machining, and chip clearance as covered in jigs apply as well to fixtures.

Summary

Jigs and fixtures are devices used to locate and hold the work that is to be machined. A jig is a guiding device, and a fixture is a holding device. A jig or fixture can be designed for a particular job. The form to be used depends on the shape and requirements of the workpiece that is to be machined.

There are generally two types of jigs used: the clamp jig and the box jig. Various names are applied to jigs (such as drilling, reaming, and tapping) according to the operation to be performed. Clamp jigs are sometimes called open jigs. Frequently, jigs are named for their shape, such as plate, ring, channel, and leaf.

A fixture anchors the workpiece firmly in place for the machining operation, but it does not form a guide for the tool. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between a jig and a fixture, since their basic functions can overlap in the more complicated designs.

A plate jig consists of a plate, which contains the drill bushings, and a simple means of clamping the work in the jig, or the jig to the work. Where the jig is clamped to the work, it sometimes is called a clamp-on jig.

An indexing fixture can be used for machining operations that are to be performed in more than one plane. It facilitates location of the given angle with a degree of precision.

Review Questions

1. What are jigs and fixtures? 2. What does a jig do?

3. What is another name for a clamp jig?

4. What is the purpose of a fixture?

5. What is the disadvantage of a simple clamp jig?

6. What is another name for a box jig?

7. What can excessive jig pressure do?

8. What is an indexing fixture used for?

9. The fixture is primarily a _________ device.

10. The jig is primarily a ___________ device.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from Audel Automated Machines and Toolmaking by Rex Miller Mark Richard Miller Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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