Audel HVAC Fundamentals Volume 1 (Audel HVAC Library Series): Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers

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Overview

A reference you'll warm up to

From the background and basics of heating systems to the newest chip-based technology, this first volume of Audel's HVAC Library gives you comprehensive information you need on the job. Whether you're installing, servicing, repairing, or troubleshooting an old or new heating system, you'll find what you're looking for, from wood and coal furnace maintenance to new calculations and the latest environmental ...

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Overview

A reference you'll warm up to

From the background and basics of heating systems to the newest chip-based technology, this first volume of Audel's HVAC Library gives you comprehensive information you need on the job. Whether you're installing, servicing, repairing, or troubleshooting an old or new heating system, you'll find what you're looking for, from wood and coal furnace maintenance to new calculations and the latest environmental technologies and regulations.
* Review the basics of installation, wiring, and troubleshooting for different HVAC systems
* Choose the correct system for the space, climate, and needs
* Compare the economy and efficiency of various fuel types
* Install, maintain, and troubleshoot conversion units
* Find formula cross references, data tables with conversions, and listings of trade organizations and equipment manufacturers

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780764542060
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/8/2004
  • Series: Audel Technical Trades Series , #17
  • Edition description: All New 4th Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 720
  • Sales rank: 237,146
  • Product dimensions: 5.16 (w) x 8.28 (h) x 1.48 (d)

Meet the Author

James E. Brumbaugh has spent twenty years in the residential and light commercial construction industry. He is an accomplished educator fluent in several languages, and has written more than fifteen books on HVAC, construction, and the building trades.

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Table of Contents

Introduction.

About the Author.

Chapter 1: Introduction.

Heating and Ventilating Systems.

Air Conditioning.

Selecting a Suitable Heating, Ventilating, or Air Conditioning System.

Career Opportunities.

Professional Organizations.

Chapter 2: Heating Fundamentals.

British Thermal Unit.

Relationship Between Heat and Work.

Heat Transfer.

Specific, Sensible, and Latent Heat.

Heat-Conveying Mediums.

Air.

Steam.

Water.

Electricity.

Chapter 3: Insulating and Ventilating Structures.

Insulating Structures.

Principles of Heat Transmission.

Heat Transfer Values.

Thermal Conductivity.

Thermal Conductance.

Thermal Resistance.

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transmission.

Condensation.

Vapor Retarders.

Air Barriers and Air/Vapor Retarders.

Insulating Materials .

Rigid Insulation Board.

Reflective Insulation.

Blanket or Batt Insulation.

Loose-Fill Insulation.

Blown-In Insulation.

Foam Insulation.

Building Construction and Location.

Recommended Insulation Practices.

Frame Walls.

Masonry.

Metal.

Sandwich Construction.

Basement Walls.

Crawl Space Exterior Walls.

Walls Between Separately Heated Dwelling Units.

Wood or Metal Joist Frame Floors.

Concrete Floors.

Slab-on-Grade Floors.

Floors of Sandwich Construction.

Frame Ceilings and Roofs.

Concrete Ceilings.

Sandwich Ceilings.

Windows and Doors.

Insulating Attics, Attic Crawl Spaces, and Flat Roofs.

Ventilating Structures.

Chapter 4: Sizing Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems.

Rule-of-Thumb Methods.

Sizing Systems Using Coefficients of Heat Transmission.

Outside Design Temperature.

Inside Design Temperature.

Design Temperature Difference.

Determining Coefficients of Heat Transmission.

Calculating Net Area.

Heat Transmission Loss Formula.

Computing Total Heat Loss.

Loss in Doors and Windows.

Loss in Basements.

Loss in Slab Construction.

Infiltration Heat Loss.

Ventilation Heat Loss.

The Average Value Method.

Heat Loss Tabulation Forms.

Estimating Fuel Requirements and Heating Costs.

The Heat Loss Formula.

The Corrected Heat Loss Formula.

The Degree-Day Formula.

The NEMA Formula.

Manual J and Related Materials Used for Sizing Heating/Cooling Systems.

Other Heating Costs.

Determining Utility Rates.

Chapter 5: Heating Fuels.

Natural Gas.

Manufactured Gas.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas.

Fuel Oils.

Coal.

Coke.

Briquettes.

Coal Oil.

Wood as Fuel.

Ash, Slag, and Clinker Formation.

Soot.

Comparing Heating Fuel Costs.

Chapter 6: Warm-Air Heating Systems.

Classifying Warm-Air Heating Systems.

Gravity Warm-Air Heating Systems.

Planning a Gravity Warm-Air Heating System.

Forced-Warm-Air Heating Systems.

Planning a Forced-Warm-Air Heating System.

Perimeter-Loop Warm-Air Heating Systems.

Ceiling Panel Systems.

Crawl Space Plenum Systems.

Zoning a Forced-Warm-Air Heating System.

Balancing a Warm-Air Heating System.

Warm-Air Furnaces.

Control Components.

Ducts and Duct Sizing.

Cooling with a Warm-Air Heating System.

Air Cleaning.

Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers.

Advantages of a Warm-Air Heating System.

Disadvantages of a Warm-Air Heating System.

Troubleshooting a Warm-Air Heating System.

Chapter 7: Hydronic Heating Systems.

Classifying Hot-Water Heating Systems.

One-Pipe System.

Series-Loop System.

Two-Pipe, Direct-Return System.

Two-Pipe, Reverse-Return System.

Combination Pipe Systems.

Zoning a Two-Pipe System.

Radiant Panel Heating.

Other Applications.

Gravity Hot-Water Heating Systems.

Forced-Hot-Water Heating Systems.

Hot-Water Boilers.

Hydronic Furnaces.

Combination Water Heaters.

Control Components.

Pipe and Pipe Sizing.

Expansion Tanks.

Circulating Pumps (Circulators).

Drainage.

Heat-Emitting Units.

Air Conditioning.

Moisture Control.

Electrically Heated Systems.

Advantages of Hydronic Heating Systems.

Disadvantages of Hydronic Heating Systems.

Troubleshooting Hydronic Heating Systems.

Chapter 8: Steam Heating Systems.

Classifying Steam Heating Systems.

Gravity Steam Heating Systems.

One-Pipe, Reverse-Flow System.9

Upfeed One-Pipe System.

Upfeed One-Pipe Relief System.

Downfeed One-Pipe System.

One-Pipe Circuit System.

One-Pipe, Divided-Circuit Nonrelief System.

One-Pipe Circuit System with Loop.

Two-Pipe Steam Heating Systems.

Two-Pipe, Divided-Circuit System.

Vapor Steam Heating Systems.

Open (Atmospheric) Vapor Systems.

Closed Vapor Systems.

Vacuum Steam Heating Systems.

Natural Vacuum Systems.

Mechanical Vacuum System.

Combined Atmospheric Pressure and Vacuum Systems.

Exhaust-Steam Heating.

Proprietary Systems.

High-Pressure Steam Heating Systems.

Steam Boilers.

Control Components.

Hartford Return Connection.

Pipes and Piping Details.

Steam Traps.

Pumps.

Heat-Emitting Units.

Air Supply and Venting.

Unit Heaters.

Air Conditioning.

Troubleshooting Steam Heating Systems.

Chapter 9 Electric Heating Systems.

Central Hot-Water Systems.

Central Forced-Warm-Air Heating Systems.

Radiant Heating Systems.

Baseboard Heating Systems.

Electric Unit Ventilators.

Electric Unit Heaters.

Electric Space Heaters.

Heat Pumps.

Electric Heating and

Cooling Controls.

Insulation for Electrically Heated and Cooled Structures.

Further Information.

Advantages of Electric Heating and Cooling.

Disadvantages of Electric Heating and Cooling.

Troubleshooting Electric Heating Systems.

Chapter 10: Furnace Fundamentals.

Classifying Furnaces.

Upflow Highboy Furnace.

Upflow Lowboy Furnace.

Downflow Furnace.

Horizontal Furnace.

Gravity Warm-Air Furnaces.

Selecting a Furnace for a New House.

Selecting a Furnace for an Older House.

Furnace Components and Controls.

Pipeless Floor and Wall Furnaces.

Duct Furnaces.

Geothermal Furnaces.

Furnace Installation.

Furnace Maintenance.

Troubleshooting Furnaces.

Chapter 11: Gas Furnaces.

Types of Gas Furnaces.

Standing-Pilot Gas Furnaces.

Mid-Efficiency Gas Furnaces.

High-Efficiency Gas Furnaces.

Gas Furnace Components.

Furnace Controls.

Heat Exchanger.

Gas Burners.

Gas Pilot Assembly.

Blower and Motor.

Air Filter.

Some Installation Recommendations.

Locations and Clearances.

Wiring.

Duct Connections.

Ventilation and Combustion Air.

Venting.

Flue Pipe.

Chimney.

Chimney Troubleshooting.

Draft Hood.

Pilot Burner Adjustment.

Gas Input Adjustment.

High-Altitude Adjustment.

Changing Burner Orifices.

Manifold Pressure Adjustment.

Combustion Air Adjustment.

Gas Supply Piping.

Sizing Gas Piping.

Installing Gas Piping.

Typical Startup Instructions for a Standing-Pilot Gas Furnace.

Typical Startup Instructions for an Electronic Ignition Furnace.

Blowers and Motors.

Air Delivery and Blower Adjustment.

Direct-Drive Blower Adjustment.

Belt-Drive Blower Adjustment.

Air Filters.

Air Conditioning.

Installation Checklist.

Gas Furnace Inspections, Service, and Maintenance Tips.

Troubleshooting a Gas Furnace.

Troubleshooting Charts.

Chapter 12: Oil Furnaces.

Conventional Oil Furnace.

Mid-Efficiency and High-Efficiency Oil Furnaces.

Mid-Efficiency (Noncondensing) Oil Furnace.

High-Efficiency (Condensing) Oil Furnace.

Basic Components of an Oil Furnace.

Furnace Controls.

Heat Exchanger.

Oil Burner Assembly.

Fuel Pump and Fuel Pump Motor.

Blower and Motor.

Combustion Air Blowers.

Cleanout and Observation Ports.

Vent Opening.

Air Filter.

Installing an Oil Furnace.

Some Installation Recommendations.

Location and Clearance.

Wiring.

Duct Connections.

Ventilation and Combustion Air.

Combustion Draft.

Venting.

Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting.

Installation Checklist.

Fuel Supply Tank and Fuel Line.

Fuel Tank Location.

Filler Pipe.

Tank Vent Pipe.

Oil Filter.

Blowers and Motors.

Waste Oil Furnaces.

Air Conditioning.

Starting the Burner.

Oil Furnace Spillage.

Oil Furnace Inspection, Service, and Maintenance Tips.

Oil Furnace Adjustments.

Troubleshooting Oil Furnaces.

Troubleshooting Charts.

Chapter 13: Coal Furnaces, Wood Furnaces, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces.

Coal Furnaces.

Sizing Requirements.

Location and Clearance.

Installation Recommendations.

Duct Connections.

Electrical Wiring.

Ventilation and Combustion Air.

Venting.

Flue Pipe.

Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting.

Furnace Components.

Automatic Controls.

Furnace Grate.

Coal Stoker.

Hand-Firing Methods.

Blower and Motor Assembly.

Blower Adjustment.

Air Filter.

System Accessory Devices.

Wood Furnaces.

Wood Add-On Furnaces.

Multi-Fuel Furnaces.

Installation, Operating, and Maintenance Instructions for Coal, Wood, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces.

Assembly and Installation Recommendations.

Maintenance Instructions.

Multi-Fuel Furnace Operation.

Troubleshooting Coal, Wood, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces.

Chapter 14: Electric Furnaces.

Electrical Power Supply.

Planning Suggestions.

Location and Clearance.

Installation Recommendations.

Duct Connections.

Basic Components.

Automatic Controls.

Heating Elements.

Timing Sequences.

Safety Controls.

Temperature Limit Controls.

Secondary High-Limit Control.

Furnace Fuses.

Circuit Breakers.

Transformer.

Thermal Overload Protector.

Electrical Wiring.

Blowers and Motors.

Air Delivery and Blower Adjustment.

Air Filter.

Air Conditioning.

Maintenance and Operating Instructions.

Furnace Air Filters, Electronic Air Cleaners, and Humidifers.

Heating Elements and Heating Control Wiring.

Blowers/Fans.

Ducts.

Thermostats.

Furnaces without Air Conditioners.

Troubleshooting an Electric Furnace.

Chapter 15: Steam and Hot-Water Space Heating Boilers.

Boiler Rating Method.

Boiler Heating Surface.

Boiler Efficiency.

Types of Boilers.

Gas-Fired Boilers.

OilFired Boilers.

Coal-Fired Boilers.

Electric Boilers.

High-Efficiency Boilers.

Steam Boiler Valves, Controls, and Accessories.

Steam Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs.

Installing a Low-Water Cutoff.

Fusible Plugs.

Pressure Relief Valves.

Pressure Controllers.

Vacuum Relief Valve.

Steam Boiler Aquastat.

Blowdown Valve.

Try Cocks.

Steam Boiler Injectors.

Water Gauges.

Water Columns.

Steam Gauges.

Steam Gauge Pigtails.

Hartford Return Connection.

Hot-Water Boiler Valves, Controls, and Accessories.

Hot-Water Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs.

Hot-Water Boiler Pressure Relief Valves.

High-Pressure Limit Switch.

Hot-Water Boiler Aquastats.

Pressure-Reducing Valves.

Combination Valves.

Balancing Valve.

Backflow Preventer.

Altitude Gauges.

Circulator (Pump).

Air Separator.

Purging Air from the System.

Expansion Tanks.

Air Supply and Venting.

Induced-Draft Fans.

Controlling Excessive Draft (Gas-FiredBoilers).

Tankless Water Heaters.

Leaking Coils.

Blowing Down a Boiler.

Boiler Operation, Service, and Maintenance.

Steam Boilers.

Hot-Water (Hydronic) Boilers.

Boiler Water.

Cleaning Boilers.

Troubleshooting Boilers.

Boiler Repairs.

Installing Boilers.

Chapter 16: Boiler and Furnace Conversion.

Preparation for Conversion.

Basic Combustion Chamber Requirements.

Combustion Chambers for Conversion Gas Burners.

Combustion Chambers for Conversion Oil Burners.

Construction Materials.

Building a Combustion Chamber.

Ventilation Requirements.

Flue Pipe and Chimney.

Baffling.

Gas Piping and Piping Connections.

Gas Input Setting.

Installing a Conversion Gas Burner.

Starting a Conversion Gas Burner (with Pilot Light).

Starting a Conversion Gas Burner (Pilotless).

Servicing a Conversion Gas Burner.

Oil Tanks and Oil Piping.

Installing a Conversion Oil Burner.

Starting a Conversion Oil Burner.

Servicing a Conversion Oil Burner.

Troubleshooting Oil and Gas Conversion Burners.

Appendix A: Professional and Trade Associations.

Appendix B: Manufacturers.

Appendix C: HVAC/R Education, Training, Certification, and Licensing.

Appendix D: Data Tables.

Appendix E: Conversion Tables.

Index.

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First Chapter

Audel HVAC Fundamentals

Volume 1: Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers
By James E. Brumbaugh

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7645-4206-0


Chapter One

Introduction

This series is an introduction to the basic principles of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Each represents a systematic attempt to control the various aspects of the environment within an enclosure, whether it is a room, a group of rooms, or a building.

Among those aspects of the immediate environment that people first sought to control were heat and ventilation. Attempts at controlling heat date from prehistoric times and probably first developed in colder climates, where it was necessary to produce temperatures sufficient for both comfort and health. Over the years the technology of heating advanced from simple attempts to keep the body warm to very sophisticated systems of maintaining stabilized environments in order to reduce heat loss from the body or the structural surfaces of the room.

Ventilation also dates back to very early periods in history. Certainly the use of slaves to wave large fans or fanlike devices over the heads of rulers was a crude early attempt to solve a ventilating problem. Situating a room or a building so that it took advantage of prevailing breezes and winds was a more sophisticated attempt. Nevertheless, it was not until the nineteenth century that any really significant advances were made in ventilating. During that period,particularly in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, ventilating acquired increased importance. Work efficiency and the health of the workers necessitated the creation of ventilation systems to remove contaminants from the air. Eventually, the interrelationship of heating and ventilating became such that it is now regarded as a single subject.

Air conditioning is a comparatively recent development and encompasses all aspects of environmental control. In addition to the control of temperature, both humidity (i.e., the moisture content of the air) and air cleanliness are also regulated by air conditioning. The earliest attempts at air conditioning involved the placing of wet cloths over air passages (window openings, entrances, etc.) to cool the air. Developments in air conditioning technology did not progress much further than this until the nineteenth century. From about 1840 on, several systems were devised for both cooling and humidifying rooms. These were first developed by textile manufacturers in order to reduce the static electricity in the air. Later, adaptations were made by other industries.

Developments in air conditioning technology increased rapidly in the first four decades of the nineteenth century, but widespread use of air conditioning in buildings is a phenomenon of the post-World War II period (i.e., 1945 to the present). Today, air conditioning is found not only in commercial and industrial buildings but in residential dwellings as well. Unlike early forms of air conditioning, which were designed to cool the air or add moisture to it, modern air conditioning systems can control temperature, air moisture content, air cleanliness, and air movement. That is, modern systems condition the air rather than simply cool it.

Heating and Ventilating Systems

Many different methods have been devised for heating buildings. Each has its own characteristics, and most methods have at least one objectionable aspect (e.g., high cost of fuel, expensive equipment, or inefficient heating characteristics). Most of these heating methods can be classified according to one of the following four criteria:

1. The heat-conveying medium

2. The fuel used

3. The nature of the heat

4. The efficiency and desirability of the method

The term heat-conveying medium means the substance or combination of substances that carries the heat from its point of origin to the area being heated. There are basically four mediums for conveying heat. These four mediums are:

1. Air

2. Water

3. Steam

4. Electricity

Different types of wood, coal, oil, and gas have been used as fuels for producing heat. You may consider electricity as both a fuel and a heat-conveying medium. Each heating fuel has its own characteristics; the advantage of one type over another depends upon such variables as availability, efficiency of the heating equipment (which, in turn, is dependent upon design, maintenance, and other factors), and cost. A detailed analysis of the use and effectiveness of the various heating fuels is found in Chapter 5 ("Heating Fuels").

Heating methods can also be classified with respect to the nature of the heat applied. For example, the heat may be of the exhaust steam variety or it may consist of exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. The nature of the heat applied is inherent to the heat system and can be determined by reading the various chapters that deal with each type of heating system (Chapters 6 through 9) or with heat-producing equipment (e.g., Chapter 11, "Gas Furnaces").

The various heating methods differ considerably in efficiency and desirability. This is due to a number of different but often interrelated factors, such as energy cost, conveying medium employed, and type of heating unit. The integration of these interrelated components into a single operating unit is referred to as a heating system.

Because of the different conditions met within practice, there is a great variety in heating systems, but most of them fall into one of the following broad classifications:

1. Warm-air heating system (Chapter 6)

2. Hydronic heating systems (Chapter 7)

3. Steam heating systems (Chapter 8)

4. Electric heating systems (Chapter 9)

You will note that these classifications of heating systems are based on the heat-conveying method used. This is a convenient method of classification because it includes the vast majority of heating systems used today.

As mentioned, ventilating is so closely related to heating in its various applications that the two are very frequently approached as a single subject. In this series, specific aspects of ventilating are considered in Chapter 6 ("Ventilation Principles") and Chapter 7 ("Ventilation and Exhaust Fans") of Volume 3.

The type and design of ventilating system employed depends on a number of different factors, including:

1. Building use or ventilating purpose

2. Size of building

3. Geographical location

4. Heating system used

A residence will have a different ventilating system from a building used for commercial or industrial purposes. Moreover, the requirements of a ventilating system used to provide fresh air result in fundamental design differences from a ventilating system that must remove noxious gases or other dangerous contaminants from the enclosure.

The size of a building is a factor that also must be considered. For example, a large building presents certain ventilating problems if the internal areas are far from the points where outside air would initially gain access. Giving special attention to the overall design of the ventilating system can usually solve these problems.

Buildings located in the tropics or semitropics present different ventilating problems from those found in temperature zones. The differences are so great that they often result in different architectural forms. At least this was the case before the advent of widespread use of air conditioning. The typical southern house of the nineteenth century was constructed with high ceilings (heat tends to rise); large porches that sheltered sections of the house from the hot, direct rays of the sun; and large window areas to admit the maximum amount of air. They were also usually situated so that halls, major doors, and sleeping areas faced the direction of the prevailing winds. Today, with air conditioning so widely used, these considerations are not as important-at least not until the power fails or the equipment breaks down.

Air Conditioning

Although the major emphasis in this series has been placed on the various aspects of heating and ventilating, some attention has also been given to air conditioning. The reason for this, of course, is the increasing use of year-round air conditioning systems that provide heating, ventilating, and cooling. These systems condition the air by controlling its temperature (warming or cooling it), cleanliness, moisture content, and movement. This is the true meaning of the term air conditioning. Unfortunately, it has become almost synonymous with the idea of cooling, which is becoming less and less representative of the true function of an air conditioning system. Air conditioning, particularly the year-round air conditioning systems, is examined in detail in Chapters 8, 9, and 10 of Volume 3.

Selecting a Suitable Heating, Ventilating, or Air Conditioning System

There are a number of different types of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment and systems available for installation in the home. The problem is choosing the most efficient one in terms of the installation and operating costs. These factors, in turn, are directly related to one's particular heating and cooling requirements. The system must be the correct size for the home. Any reputable building contractor or heating and air conditioning firm should be able to advise you in this matter.

If you are having a heating and ventilating or air conditioning system installed in an older house, be sure to check the construction. Weather stripping is the easiest place to start. All doors and windows should be weather-stripped to prevent heat loss. Adequate weather stripping can cut heating costs by as much as 15 to 20 percent. If the windows provide suitable protection (they should be double- or triple-glazed) from the winter cold, check the caulking around the edge of the glass. If it is cracking or crumbling, replace it with fresh caulking. You may even want to go to the expense of insulating the ceilings and outside walls. This is where a great deal of heat loss and air leakage occurs.

You have several advantages when you are building your own house. For example, you may be able to determine the location of your house on the lot. This should enable you to establish the direction in which the main rooms and largest windows face. If you position your house so that these rooms and windows face south, you will gain maximum sunlight and heat from the sun during the cold winter months. This will reduce the heat requirement and heating costs. The quality of construction depends on how much you wish to spend and the reliability of the contractor. It is advisable to purchase the best insulation you can afford. Your reduced heating costs will eventually pay for the added cost of the insulation. If you suspect that your building contractor cannot be trusted, you can reduce opportunities for cheating and careless work by making frequent and unexpected visits to the construction site.

Career Opportunities

Many career opportunities are available in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning fields, and they extend over several levels of education and training. Accordingly, the career opportunities open to an individual seeking employment in these fields can be divided roughly into four categories, each dependent upon a different type or degree of education and/or training. This relationship is shown in Table 1-1.

Among workers in these fields, engineers receive the highest pay, but they also undergo the longest periods of education and training. Engineers are usually employed by laboratories, universities, and colleges or, frequently, by the manufacturers of materials and equipment used in heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and related industries. Their primary responsibility is designing, developing, and testing the equipment and materials used in these fields. In some cases, particularly when large buildings or district heating to several buildings is employed, they also supervise the installation of the entire system. Moreover, industry codes and standards are usually the results of research conducted by engineers.

Technicians obtain their skills through technical training schools, some college, or both. Many assist engineers in the practical application of what the latter have designed. Technicians are particularly necessary during the developmental stages. Other technicians are found in the field working for contractors in the larger companies. Their pay often approximates that of engineers, depending on the size of the company for which they work.

Skilled workers are involved in the installation, maintenance, and repair of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment. Apprentices and OJT (on-the-job training) workers are in training for the skilled positions and are generally expected to complete at least a 2- to 5-year training program. Local firms that install or repair equipment in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings employ most skilled workers and trainees. Some also work on the assembly lines of factories that manufacture such equipment. Their pay varies, depending on the area, their seniority, and the nature of the work. Most employers require that both skilled workers and trainees have at least a high school diploma or its equivalent (e.g., the GED). The requirement for a high school diploma may be waived if the individual has already acquired the necessary skills on a previous job. The pay for skilled workers and trainees is lower than that earned by engineers and technicians but compares favorably to salaries received by skilled workers or equivalent trainees in other occupations.

Pipe fitters, plumbers, steam fitters, and sheet-metal workers may occasionally do some work with heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment. Both pipe fitters and plumbers (especially the former) are frequently called upon to assemble and install pipes and pipe systems that carry the heating or cooling conveying medium from the source. Both are also involved in repair work, and some pipe fitters can install heating and air conditioning units.

Steam fitters can assemble and install hot-water or steam heating systems. Many steam fitters can also do the installation of boilers, stokers, oil and gas burners, radiators, radiant heating systems, and air conditioning systems.

Sheet-metal workers can also assemble and install heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems. Their skills are particularly necessary in assembling sheet-metal ducts and duct systems.

Some special occupations, such as those performed by air conditioning and refrigeration mechanics or stationary engineers, are limited to certain functions in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning fields.

Continues...


Excerpted from Audel HVAC Fundamentals by James E. Brumbaugh Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 2, 2013

    Good HVAC Book.

    Very good information HVAC book. Made things more clear in HVAC field.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 26, 2005

    Audel HVAC Fundamentals Volume 1 (Audel HVAC Library Series): Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers

    I've just started this book - it seems OK, but glosses over (skips) a lot of explanations. Also, a lot of formulas just contain numbers without units. Can anyone explain to me how the fuel requirements are determined on Table 4-9 (p. 104)? The whole section on 'The Corrected Heat Loss Formula' (p. 102) seems very poorly explained. I'll hold off on final judgement until I've read the whole thing.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 11, 2005

    Audel HVAC Fundamentals Volume 1 (Audel HVAC Library Series): Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers

    Overall, this is a well written and informative book. True, a couple of formulas could have been better defined. For the mostpart, however, this book provided a wealth of knowledge in a clear-cut manner.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 26, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted October 28, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

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