Audel Machine Shop Basics, Fifth Edition / Edition 1

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Overview

Use the right tool the right way

Here, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.

Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, Texas.
* Understand basic machine shop practice and safety measures
* Recognize the variations in similar tools and the purposes they serve
* Learn recommended methods of mounting work in different machines
* Obtain a complete working knowledge of numerically controlled machines and the operations they perform
* Review procedures for safe and efficient use of cutting tools and cutters
* Expand your knowledge with clear, step-by-step illustrations of proper equipment set-up and operation

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780764555268
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/23/2004
  • Series: Audel Technical Trades Series , #8
  • Edition description: All New 5th Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 336
  • Sales rank: 232,758
  • Product dimensions: 5.30 (w) x 8.30 (h) x 0.72 (d)

Meet the Author

Rex Miller was a Professor of Industrial Technology at The State University of New York, College at Buffalo for over 35 years. He has taught on the technical school, high school, and college level for well over 40 years. He is the author or co-author of over 100 textbooks ranging from electronics to carpentry and sheet metal work. He has contributed more than 50 magazine articles over the years to technical publications. He is also the author of seven civil war regimental histories.

Mark Richard Miller finished his BS degree in New York and moved on to Ball State University, where he obtained a master’s degree and went to work in San Antonio. He taught in high school and went to graduate school in College Station, Texas, finishing a doctorate degree. He took a position at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, Texas, where he now teaches in the Industrial Technology Department as a Professor and Department Chairman. He has co-authored seven books and contributed many articles to technical magazines. His hobbies include refinishing a 1970 Plymouth Super Bird and a 1971 Roadrunner. He is also interested in playing guitar, an interest he pursued while in college as the lead guitarist of a band called The Rude Boys.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
About the Authors
Introduction
Ch. 1 Benchwork 1
Ch. 2 Precision Measurement and Gaging 27
Ch. 3 Materials 63
Ch. 4 Abrasives 89
Ch. 5 Grinding 97
Ch. 6 Cutting Fluids 113
Ch. 7 Cutting Tools 119
Ch. 8 Cutter and Tool Grinders 137
Ch. 9 Drills 151
Ch. 10 Reamers 181
Ch. 11 Taps 195
Ch. 12 Threading Dies 215
Ch. 13 Milling-Machine Cutters 225
Ch. 14 Milling-Machine Arbors, Collets, and Adapters 253
Ch. 15 Broaches and Broaching 261
Ch. 16 Electrical Safety in the Machine Shop 273
App.: Reference Materials 293
Index 303
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First Chapter

Audel Machine Shop Basics


By Rex Miller Mark Richard Miller

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7645-5526-X


Chapter One

Benchwork

The term benchwork relates to work performed by the mechanic at the machinist's bench with hand tools rather than machine tools. It should be understood that the terms benchwork and visework mean the same thing; the latter, strictly speaking, is the correct term, as in most cases the work is held by the vise, while the bench simply provides an anchorage for the vise and a place for the tools. However, these terms are used almost equally. Today, work at the bench is not performed as much as formerly; the tendency, with the exception of scraping, is to do more and more benchwork with machines.

Operations that can be performed at the bench may be classed as follows:

Chipping

Sawing

Filing

Scraping

The Bench and Bench Tools

The prime requirements for a machinist's bench are that it should be strong, rigid, and of the proper width and height that the work can be performed conveniently. Correct height is important, and this will depend on the vise type used, that is, how far its jaws project above the bench. The location of the bench is important. It should be placed where there is plenty of light.

A great variety of tools is not necessary for benchwork. They may be divided into a few general classes:

Vises

Hammers

Chisels

Hacksaws

Files

Scrapers

Vises

By definition, a vise is a clamping device, usually consisting of two jaws that close with a screw or a lever, that is commonly attachable to a workbench; it is used for holding a piece of work firmly. There is a great variety of vises on the market, and they may be classed as follows:

Blacksmith

Machinist (plain, self-adjusting, quick-acting, or swivel)

Combination

Pipe

The machinist's vise shown in Figure 1-1 is usually provided on machine shop workbenches. Several types are provided; some of their features are parallelism, swivel action, and quick-acting jaws. These vises will withstand terrific abuse and are well adapted for a heavy and rough class of work.

The combination vise shown in Figure 1-2 is well adapted for round stock and pipe. A regular pipe fitter's vise is shown in Figure 1-3. Vise jaws have faces covered with cross cuts in order to grip the work more firmly. It is evident that a piece of finished work held in such a manner would be seriously marred. This trouble may be avoided by using false jaws of brass or Babbitt metal, or by fastening leather or paper directly to the steel jaws.

Hammers

Hammers find frequent use in benchwork. Machinist's hammers may be classed with respect to the peen as follows:

Ball peen

Straight peen

Cross peen

By definition, peening is the operation of hammering metal to indent or compress it in order to expand or stretch that portion of the metal adjacent to the indentation. These hammers are shown in Figure 1-4. The ball-peen hammer (Figure 1-4A), with its spherical end, is generally used for peening or riveting operations. For certain classes of work, the straight indentations of either the straight- or cross-peen hammers (Figure 1-4B and 1-4C) are preferable. A shaft or bar may be straightened by peening on the concave side.

Chisels

The cold chisel is the simplest form of metal cutting tool. By definition, a chipping chisel is a hand tool made of heat-treated steel, with the cutting end shaped variously, for chipping metal when it is struck by a hammer.

The various types of chipping chisels are as follows:

Flat

Cape

Diamond-point

Round-nose

One of the first operations that a student or apprentice must learn in becoming a machinist is how to chip metal. This involves learning how to hold the chisel and how to use the hammer.

Flat Chisel

The work is placed firmly in the vise with the chisel held in the left hand. The chisel must be held firmly at the proper angle (Figure 1-5) to the work. The lower face of the chisel cutting edge acts as a guide, while the wedging action of the metal being chipped tends to guide the chisel in a straight line. The cutting face is the guide to hold the chisel at the correct angle, as shown in Figure 1-6. The cutting edge of the chisel is ground at an included angle of 60° to 70° (Figure 1-6A).

The flat chisel is used for surfaces having less width than the castings and for all general chipping operations (Figure 1-7). The cutting edge is generally about one-eighth of an inch wider than the stock from which it is forged.

The beginning machinist learns to vary the chipping angle more or less as demanded by the nature of the work. The first exercise in chipping is usually a broad surface on which both the cold chisel and the cape chisel are used. First, grooves are cut in the piece to be chipped with the cape shield (Figure 1-8), and the raised portions are removed with a flat chisel (Figure 1-9).

In chipping, the worker should always chip toward the stationary jaw of the vise because its resistance to the blows of the hammer is greater. Start with a light chip, and watch only the cutting edge of the chisel. Chamfer the front and back edges of the work to avoid risk of breaking off the stock below the chipping line and to facilitate starting the chisel.

Use a 1-to 1 3/4-lb hammer for ordinary chipping work. Grasp the hammer near the end of the handle, with the fingers around the handle and the thumb projecting on top toward the striking end.

The chisel should be held firmly with the second and third fingers, and the little finger should be used to guide the chisel as required. The first finger and the thumb should be left slack; they are then in a state of rest, with the muscles relaxed. The fingers are less liable to become injured if struck with the hammer when relaxed than if struck when they were closed rigidly around the chisel. Reset the chisel to its proper position after each blow.

Cape Chisel

A cape chisel (Figure 1-10) is used to facilitate work in removing considerable metal from a flat surface, or to break up surfaces too wide to chip with a cold chisel alone. It is also used, along with other chisels, to cut keyways and channels.

The cutting edge of the cape chisel is usually an eighth of an inch narrower than the shank. It is thin enough just behind the cutting edge to avoid binding in the slot. It is somewhat thicker in the plane at a right angle to the cutting edge.

Diamond-Point Chisel

Although the word "point" is universally used in place of "end," the term is a misnomer. The diamond end is obtained by drawing out the end of the stock and grinding the end at an angle less than 90° with the axis of the chisel, leaving a diamond-shaped point (Figure 1-11).

The diamond-point chisel (Figure 1-12) is used by diemakers for corner chipping, for correcting errors made while drilling holes, and for cutting holes in steel plates. By cutting a groove with this tool, following the shapes to be cut in the piece is much easier. The edges of holes made this way will be beveled, but they can be chipped square after the piece is removed.

Round-Nose Chisel

The round-nose chisel is sometimes called a round-nose cape chisel (Figure 1-13). The nose itself is cylindrical in section at the cutting end with tangential sides intersecting at the extremity. The tool is ground at an angle of 60° with its axis.

These chisels are called center chisels when they are used to "draw" the starting of drilling holes in order to bring them into concentricity with the drilling circles. They are also used on large round-bottomed channels and for cutting channels such as oil grooves.

The stock generally used for all the aformentioned forms of chisels is octagonal and of a good grade of tool steel, carefully forged, hardened, and tempered.

Hacksaws

The sawing of metal is one of the most common benchwork operations. Hand hacksaws are available with either a fixed frame or an adjustable frame. The adjustable frame hacksaw (Figure 1-14) can be changed to hold 8-inch, 10-inch, and 12-inch blades. Most blades are 1/2-inch wide and 1/4-inch thick.

The workpiece must be held securely in a vise. The workpiece should be sawed near the vise jaws to prevent chattering. To hold nonrectangular-shaped pieces (Figure 1-15), clamp the work to allow as many teeth as possible to be in contact with the surface of the workpiece. Polished work surfaces should be protected from the steel vise jaws by covering them with soft metal jaw caps.

The type of metal to be sawed should determine the blade pitch (number of teeth per inch). Standard pitches are 14, 18, 24, and 32 teeth per linear inch. The number of teeth per inch on a blade is important because at least two teeth should be in contact with the work at all times (Figure 1-16).

To start a hacksaw cut, it is a good practice to guide the blade until the cut is well established. To start an accurate cut, use the thumb (Figure 1-17) as a guide and saw slowly with short strokes. As the cut deepens, grip the front end of the frame firmly and take a full-length stroke.

When sawing, stand facing the work with one foot in front of the other and approximately 12 inches apart, as shown in Figure 1-18. Pressure should be applied on the forward stroke and released on the return stroke because the blade cuts only on the forward stroke. Do not permit the teeth to slip over the metal as this dulls the teeth and may cause blade breakage. Once the kerf (the slot made by the blade) is established, the hacksaw should be moved at about 40 strokes per minute.

Files

Filing is a difficult operation for the beginner because it depends on the motion of the hands, without a means of guiding the tool, to move over the work in the correct direction. Proficiency is obtained by practice only when the proper methods are followed.

How to File

The correct position and method of holding the file are important. The work should be at the proper height-about level with the elbows on light work, and a little lower on heavy work (Figure 1-19). The feet should be about eight inches apart and at right angles to each other, the left foot being parallel with the file. Hold the file handle with the right hand-thumb on top and fingers below the handle.

When filing, pressure should be exerted on the forward stroke only, because the teeth or cutting edges are pointed toward the end of the file. Pressure on the return stroke produces no cutting action, but tends only to dull the teeth. Figure 1-20 shows an incorrect position of the body when filing.

Drawfiling

When the file is grasped by the ends and moved sidewise across the work, the action is known as drawfiling (Figure 1-21). This produces a smooth finish on narrow surfaces and edges and is used on turned work to remove any tool marks. Drawfiling is light filing-used to produce a smooth surface (Figure 1-22). A second-cut or smooth file should be used; a single-cut file is better than a doublecut file because the single-cut is less likely to scratch the surface of the work.

For most filing operations, begin with a coarse file and continue using successively finer grades of file, finishing with a smooth or dead-smooth file, according to the degree of finish desired (Figure 1-23).

Particles of metal, or pins, often remain in the teeth of the file, and they either reduce its cutting qualities or scratch the work. These particles can be removed by using either a stiff brush (Figure 1-24A) or a file card (Figure 1-24B) frequently for cleaning them from the file.

Cast iron should not be allowed to become greasy, as the file tends to slide without cutting into the metal. However, frequent pinning (clogging of the teeth with small slivers of metal) can be prevented by the use of oil when filing steel.

File Characteristics

A file differs from a chisel in that it has a large number of cutting points instead of a single cutting edge, and the file is driven by hand, rather than by a hammer. When a file is applied to a metal surface with a reciprocating motion, the teeth act as small chisels, each removing small chips.

Files have three distinguishing characteristics (Figure 1-25):

Length-Always measured from the heel to the point, the tang not being included

Kind-The shape or style

Cut-Both the character and the relative degrees of coarseness of the teeth

Length

File lengths vary from 3 inches to 20 inches. Most machinist's files are from 4 to 6 inches in length (Figure 1-25A).

Kind

Many kinds of files are manufactured for many different purposes. Shapes of files in common use are mill, flat, hand, square, three-square, half-round, and round files (Figure 1-25B).

Cut

The teeth on a file are shaped to form a cutting edge similar to that of a tool bit, and they have both rake and a clearance angle. Four types of cuts are shown in Figure 1-25C. Single-cut files are made with a single set of teeth cut at an angle of 65° to 85°. They are usually used with light pressure to produce a smooth finish on a surface or to produce a keen edge on a knife or other cutting implement. Double-cut files are made with two sets of teeth that cross each other. One set is cut at approximately 45° and the other set at 70° to 80°. On a rasp-cut file, each tooth is short and is raised out of the surface by means of a punch. A vixen-cut file (or curved-tooth file) has a series of parallel, curved teeth, each extending across the file face. Most files for hand filing are from 10 to 14 inches long and have a pointed tang on one end on which wood or metal handles can be fitted for easy grasping.

Machinist's files (Figure 1-26) are used throughout the industry wherever metal must be removed rapidly and finish is of secondary importance. They include flat, hand, round, half-round, square, pillar, three-square, warding, knife, and several less commonly known kinds of files. Most machinist's files are double-cut (Figure 1-27).

The cut (coarseness) of small files is usually designated by numbers as 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. The coarsest cut is 00, and 8 is the finest cut (Figure 1-28). The cut or coarseness in larger files is designated as rough, coarse, bastard, second-cut, smooth, and dead-smooth. These designations are relative and depend on the length of a file. A 14-inch bastard file is much coarser than a 6-inch bastard file (Figure 1-29.)

Scrapers

Scraping is the operation of correcting the irregularities of machined surfaces by means of scrapers (Figure 1-30) so that the finished surface is a plane surface.

Continues...


Excerpted from Audel Machine Shop Basics by Rex Miller Mark Richard Miller Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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