The Audience, the Message, the Speaker / Edition 8

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This brief, core introduction to public speaking combines a concern with classic rhetoric with a strong focus on ethics, diversity, and the latest technology. The Audience, The Message, The Speaker emphasizes the speaker's responsibility to convey succinct, meaningful information that is well organized, reliable, and clearly expressed for the relevant audience.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073385044
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 1/26/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 568,026
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Meet the Author

John (Jack) Hasling earned the title of Professor Emeritus after teaching for 27 years at Foothill College in Los Altos Hills, California. He received his MA in 1963 from Sacramento State University, where he later taught and coached the debate team. He came to Foothill College in 1966 to teach public speaking and serve as faculty advisor for the college radio station. In the years following, he contributed to the speech curriculum by writing and developing courses in group discussion, interpersonal communication, and broadcast journalism. Teaching was his second career, his first being broadcasting. From 1952 to 1961 he worked as an announcer and engineer for several radio stations in northern California. In 1980 he published a book with McGraw-Hill entitled Fundamentals of Radio Broadcasting.

During his years at Foothill College, Jack was actively involved in faculty affairs at the state and local levels. He served as chair of the Improvement of Instruction committee and later as president of the Academic Senate. He is a former member of the Commission on Instruction for the California Association of Community Colleges and is a charter member of the Bay Area Speech Teachers Association. He has served as parliamentarian at conventions of the California State Academic Senate.

Since his retirement Jack has extended his interest in writing to include adult fiction and children’s literature. He has published two novels, both concerning social issues in recent history, and two children’s books. He reads his works to third- and fourth- grade classes and speaks to adult groups on the importance of reading aloud to children.

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Table of Contents

Prologue: Theory of Oral Communication

The Fundamentals of Communication

Making Ourselves Understood

Communication Models
Part One: The Audience
Chapter 1 - Preparing to Meet the Audience

The Communication Process

The Audience

The Message

The Speaker

Value to the Speaker

Speaker-Audience Relationship

Getting Started
Chapter 2 - Preparing to Meet the Audience

Receiving an Invitation to Speak



Adapting Your Speech to the Audience

Particular Interests

Possible opposition

Political Perspective

Religious Influences

Cultural Differences

The Relevance Factor

Stepping into the Listeners’ Shoes

Speaking So That People Will Listen

Gain the Attention

Have a Clear Purpose

Emphasize key Words and Points

Provide Connecting Phrases

Build Attention Features

Ease the Strain of Listening

Penetrate Stereotyped Notions

Observe the Time Limit

Respect for the Audience / The Audience’s Bill of Rights
Chapter 3 - Finding Common Ground

Connecting with the Audience

Framing the Issue

Avoiding Divisiveness

Basic Agreement

Qualified Meaning of Common Ground

Positive Results

The Audience in a Pluralistic Society

Diverse Perceptions of Communication Skills

Learning About Yourself and Others

Common Characteristics

The Cultural Effects of Diversity

Diversity in the Workplace

Social Implication of Diversity

The Speaker’s Dilemma

Overcoming Cultural Barriers

The Challenge of Pluralism
Chapter 4 - Listening and Reacting

Choosing to Listen

Listening Models

Learning to Listen

Forming Good Listening Habits

Feedback to the Speaker

Listening Passively

Listening Actively

Comprehensive Listening

Obstacles to Listening

Critical Listening

Listening for Faulty Reasoning

Retention and Access

Semantics of Listening and Reacting

Levels of Abstraction

Semantic Reactions

Shaping Perception

Intentional Choice of Words
Part Two: The Message
Chapter 5 - The Topic, Purpose, and Content of the Speech

The Topic





The General Purpose

The Speech to Inform

The Speech to Persuade

The Speech to Motivate

The Speech to Entertain


The Content

Using the Internet

Taking Notes

Forms of Support

Definition of Terms

Specific Instances

Controlled Studies

Statistical Data

Testimonial Evidence

Interest Grabbers

Selecting Your Material
Chapter 6 - Organizing and Outlining

The Need to be Organized

The Value of an Outline

The Basic Structure

The Introduction

Attention Statement

Purpose Statement

Giving Focus to the Subject

Phrasing the Purpose Statement

The Presummary

The Body of the Speech

Main Headings

Supporting Information


The Conclusion


Reinforcing the Thesis


Finished Outline
Chapter 7 - The Speech to Inform

The Qualities of Exposition

The Focus Makes It Your Own

Being Familiar with your Subject

Speaking Opportunities

Topics for the Speech to Inform

Taking a Neutral Position

Priming the Audience’s Interest

Helping to Inform the Voter

Instant Speech

Speaking in the Business World

Training Specialist

Speaking to a Committee

The Informative Presentation
Chapter 8 - Thinking and Reasoning

Critical Thinking

Selective Learning

Examining Beliefs

Testing What You Read and Hear

Learning What You Need to Know

Interpreting Information and Drawing

The Inductive Process

Signs and Causes

The Deductive Process

Discovering What You Believe
Chapter 9 - the Speech to Persuade

The Persuasive Message

The Inherent Qualities of Persuasion

Modes of Proof

Taking a Position

Status Quo

Conflicting Beliefs

Persuasive Information

Constructing and Argumentative Case

Advancing a Claim

Using Evidence to Support a Claim

Providing a Warrant to Reinforce Evidence

Forming a Thesis

Facing Opposition

Emotional Appeals

Shared Values

Personal Integrity / Credibility of the Speaker
Part Three: The Speaker
Chapter 10 - The Speaker's Frame of Mind

Desire to be Heard

Thorough Preparation

Techniques to Relieve Anxiety

Creating a New Self-Image


Message to Ourselves

Changing our Self-perception

Self-regulating Mechanism

Comfort zones

Making Adjustments

Imprinting the New Image

Convincing Yourself

Rewards of Speaking
Chapter 11 - Delivering the Message

The Use of Language

Words and their Meaning

Offensive Language

Modes of Delivery

Impromptu Speaking

The Fully Scripted Speech

Speaking Extemporaneously

The Dimensions of the Message

Primary Message

Auxiliary Messages

Secondary Messages

Nonverbal Communication

Vocal Communication

Emphasizing Key Points


Pointer Phrase

Oratorical Emphasis

Visual Reinforcement

Responding to Questions

Know Your Subject

Anticipate Questions

Direct Answers to the Whole Audience

Be Succinct

Encourage Involvement

Maintain Control

Know When to Stop
Chapter 12 - The Power of Visuals


Do it Right

Practice, Practice, Practice

High Stakes Presentation

Speaking to a Specific Audience

The Tools of the Trade

What Visuals Can Accomplish

Making It Happen with Visual Aids

Projecting Images

Plain and Simple Visuals

Desktop Visuals

Microphones and Cameras

Public Address Systems

Radio Microphones

Television Cameras

Putting it All Together
Chapter 13 - Meeting Ethical Standards

Telling It Like It Is

Values Clarification

Applying Your Own Ethics

Ethical Standards at Risk

Political Ethics

Avoiding Plagiarism


Civil Disobedience

Social Contracts

The Value of Ethical Conduct

The Speaker's Code of Ethics

Moral Questions

Reason is the Ultimate Ethic

Appendix: Speaking Opportunities
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