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Augustus: First Emperor of Rome


Caesar Augustus’ story, one of the most riveting in western history, is filled with drama and contradiction, risky gambles and unexpected success. He began as a teenage warlord, whose only claim to power was as the heir of the murdered Julius Caesar. Mark Antony dubbed him “a boy who owes everything to a name,” but in the years to come the youth outmaneuvered all the older and more experienced politicians and was the last man standing in 30 BC. Over the next half century he reinvented himself as a servant of the...
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Augustus: First Emperor of Rome

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Caesar Augustus’ story, one of the most riveting in western history, is filled with drama and contradiction, risky gambles and unexpected success. He began as a teenage warlord, whose only claim to power was as the heir of the murdered Julius Caesar. Mark Antony dubbed him “a boy who owes everything to a name,” but in the years to come the youth outmaneuvered all the older and more experienced politicians and was the last man standing in 30 BC. Over the next half century he reinvented himself as a servant of the state who gave Rome peace and stability, and created a new system of government—the Principate or rule of an emperor.
In this highly anticipated biography Goldsworthy puts his deep knowledge of ancient sources to full use, recounting the events of Augustus’ long life in greater detail than ever before. Goldsworthy pins down the man behind the myths: a consummate manipulator, propagandist, and showman, both generous and ruthless. Under Augustus’ rule the empire prospered, yet his success was never assured and the events of his life unfolded with exciting unpredictability. Goldsworthy captures the passion and savagery, the public image and private struggles of the real man whose epic life continues to influence western history.
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Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
★ 09/08/2014
Historian and biographer Goldsworthy (Caesar) showcases his deep knowledge of Ancient Rome in this masterful document of a life whose themes still resonate in modern times. Augustus, heir to Julius Caesar and architect of the pax romana, receives a detailed examination of his quasi-mythic public life; one that "speaks of immense and highly focused ambition, and of great political skill, but also of luck." A strong narrative emphasis ties the work together and is enriched by evocative details of Roman life, whether it be bathing practices, voting tendencies, or the contemporary significance of Virgil. Readers may be surprised to find ancient precedents for still-visible cultural phenomena, such as the celebrity status accorded to politicians, public delight in scandal, and leadership "constantly reinforced by... propaganda." Similarly, those attuned to contemporary politics may appreciate Augustus's struggle to initiate a unified Roman order and peace in the fallout of a failing state beset by civil war, political division, and corruption. Despite the work's density, the overall effect that Goldsworthy generates is of meeting a man whose life seems hardly distant from the modern experience. While ancient cultural practices can often feel foreign, the political motivations and machinations, the familial relations and emotions, ring as true today as at the turn of the Common Era. Maps. (Sept.)
Washington Free Beacon - Ted Lawrence

“Augustus is the greatest ancient Roman leader, . . . and yet, [he is] something of an enigma. Adrian Goldsworthy’s wonderful biography will change all that. Augustus is revealing of its subject’s character and the time in which he lived, judicious on his shortcomings, and rich in portraits of secondary figures—everything a biography should be. . . . Augustus is the best sort of biography because it inspires readers to make these comparisons [between ancient times and our own], without making them explicit. It deserves wide readership, and, in the best way, demonstrates the truth of Petrarch’s famous query: ‘What else is all history, but the praise of Rome?’ ”—Ted Lawrence, Washington Free Beacon - Martin Lobel

“Adrian Goldsworthy has done it again. His biography of Augustus, just released by Yale University Press, is the most balanced and nuanced explanation of how Augustus succeeded. . . . The book reads like a novel in part, perhaps, because, having written several novels, Goldsworthy has learned to think about motivation. He is clearly the best Roman historian of our day.” —Martin Lobel,
NS Gill’s Ancient Matters

“An absolutely must read for Roman history fans and students of the Julio-Claudians.”—NS Gill’s Ancient Matters
UNRV - Lindsay Powell

“The 2,000th anniversary of the death of Augustus has renewed interest in the man regarded as the founder of the Roman Empire and its first emperor. With a canny sense for timing, acclaimed military historian Adrian Goldsworthy has published a new biography of this important, and still controversial, historical figure. . . . Goldsworthy presents the known facts of the life of the enigmatic and complex Augustus evenhandedly. He admirably charts the events of his rise to power, revealing him variously as a second-rate military commander, clever manipulator, confident showman and consummate politician.”—Lindsay Powell, UNRV
New Statesman - John Gray

An “authoritative and always interesting new biography.”—John Gray, New Statesman
Washington Post - Steve Donoghue

“[Goldsworthy,] the author of the best-selling Caesar: The Life of a Colossus, . . . relates [Augustus’] military victories, the hairbreadth escapes, the diplomatic successes and the dark family quarrels with a storyteller’s brio, bringing alive the empire’s tense standoffs with Eastern kingdoms such as Parthia and along the way giving us some quite wonderful readings of poets such as Virgil and Horace. . . .

[Goldsworthy’s] insights and inferences are superb throughout. . . . Augustus is a first-rate popular biography by a skilled and knowing hand, a fine companion to Goldsworthy’s Caesar volume.”—Steve Donoghue, Washington Post

Washington Times - Gary Anderson

“Goldsworthy’s prodigious biography of this first and greatest Roman emperor is thorough and well-researched. . . . Goldsworthy is a superb historian and talented writer, . . . [and Augustus] will likely join the pantheon of biographies of a truly great Roman leader. . . . Goldsworthy reminds readers . . . that human nature does not change. Augustus cultivated what passed for the Roman media as assiduously as any American politician today woos Fox News or CNN. One gets the impression that Augustus would have adapted well to 21st-century politics while still ruling wisely.”—Gary Anderson, Washington Times
Karl Galinsky

“Augustus splendidly completes the trilogy that started with Caesar and continued with Antony and Cleopatra. It is the best extended treatment in English of Augustus' career and his many contradictions.”—Karl Galinsky, University of Texas at Austin
Col. Rose Mary Sheldon

“Goldsworthy has produced an elegantly written and well-argued biography of Augustus that pulls no punches. Sifting through the literature of the Augustan Age, he brings together the ancient evidence with the best of modern scholarship, producing a meticulously researched, but highly readable, volume on Rome’s first emperor. The result is a study on the nature of leadership, the wielding of power, and the price to be paid by both.”—Col. Rose Mary Sheldon, Virginia Military Institute
J. E. Lendon

“Goldsworthy peers like a master jeweler into the strange cold diamond at the heart of Roman history—the emperor Augustus—and reveals the whole Roman world reflected in its facets. But the book itself is warm with human sympathy, elegant writing, and the sheer joy and love of history it evokes in its reader.”—J. E. Lendon, author of Soldiers and Ghosts: A History of Battle in Classical Antiquity and Song of Wrath: The Peloponnesian War Begins
Barry Strauss

“For all his importance, Augustus is often an enigma behind a classical façade. Goldsworthy’s Augustus reveals all the drama and detail surrounding Rome’s first emperor. Brimming with energy, scholarship, and wisdom, it is a history book to savor.”—Barry Strauss, author of Masters of Command: Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar and the Genius of Leadership
London Sunday Times - Robert Harris

"Goldsworthy's true expertise is as a military historian, and this is what really gives his biography its strength and bite: his depiction of Augustus's relationship with his legions is masterly."—Robert Harris, London Sunday Times
The Independent - Natalie Haynes

"Like Goldsworthy's biography of Julius Caesar, this is essential reading for anyone interested in Ancient Rome."—Natalie Haynes, The Independent
Daily Express - Jennifer Selway

"A fascinating exploration of the life of one of Rome's most stable and yet still mysterious emperors. . . . This vast accomplished book . . . is a book to read avidly but also dip in to, to enjoy the huge range of characters and events."—Jennifer Selway, Daily Express
National Review Online - Michael Auslin

"In too many of the numerous histories of this period, Augustus as an individual is blurred, if not overlooked, as strange as that may seem. Goldsworthy’s goal is to rescue the life of Augustus from the history, limning the passions, cruelty, and wiliness that made up that often-dismissed character. . . . Adrian Goldsworthy’s fine new biography tells the founder’s story as it deserves to be told."—Michael Auslin, National Review Online
The Wall Street Journal - Brendan Boyle

“Impressive. . . Mr. Goldsworthy. . . moves nimbly around other important evidence about Augustus’ life. . . The resulting life is, in one sense, deeply unified. This is a welcome corrective to traditional presentations.”—Brendan Boyle, The Wall Street Journal
Daily Telegraph - Nicholas Shakespeare

"Goldsworthy capably guides us over the rapids of 'modern scholarship.' He challenges stories that are repeated often but never questioned, . . . [and] is particularly sound on senatorial power struggles and the use of marriage to cement or break political alliances. . . . [Augustus] is the most trustworthy [portrait] we are likely to get."—Nicholas Shakespeare, Daily Telegraph
Christian Science Monitor - Nick Romeo

“The dramatic rise and long rule of Caesar Augustus is the subject of Adrian Goldsworthy’s substantial new biography, Augustus: First Emperor of Rome. The book is a fascinating study of political life in ancient Rome, and the parallels with our own political system are numerous and interesting. But the discontinuities between America and the Roman Empire are just as revealing.”—Nick Romeo, Christian Science Monitor
Kirkus Reviews
Historian Goldsworthy (Caesar: Life of a Colossus, 2008, etc.) obviously has ancient Rome in his bones, and his biography of Augustus is also a solid chronicle of Rome and its development. Born Gaius Octavius, the great-nephew and adopted son and heir of the murdered Julius Caesar, Augustus emerged triumphant from the subsequent brandings, proscriptions and power struggles and was elected as the youngest consul ever. It seems everyone had his own army after Caesar's death, and Caesar was shrewd enough to realize he needed to rely on talented men like Agrippa to defeat his enemies and take his place during his repeated attacks of ill health. It was also Agrippa who built the new infrastructures in Rome and throughout the empire. In fact, during much of Augustus' reign, Agrippa did the work and happily let Augustus take all the credit. The author, who consults on documentaries for the BBC, National Geographic and other outlets, recounts the civilizing of Rome and makes sense of the political structure, as well as the strong reliance on family in politics and society. In Augustus' 40-plus years of power, the empire expanded without the need for war—the reputation of Rome was sufficient to scare off any potential enemies. Augustus and Agrippa instituted new regulations for the army, trimmed the size of the senate, changed taxation, founded the police and fire services, and built roads, aqueducts and bridges. Augustus also made sure to visit each of the provinces. Instituting the beginning of 250 years of peace and stability, he was lauded by Horace, Virgil and countless others. Goldsworthy questions why Augustus has slipped off of many historians' lists of great leaders, which include Julius Caesar, Alexander, Hannibal and Hadrian. He provides plenty of reasons why he should be at the top of those lists.
From the Publisher
"Perkins's narration introduces us to a man who changed his world utterly, ending a generation of civil war and transforming the decaying and corrupt Roman Republic into the greatest empire the world had yet seen." —-AudioFile
Library Journal
★ 09/01/2014
Goldsworthy (Caesar: Life of a Colossus) continues his tradition of chronicling the Roman empire in this monumental work. In detailing the life of Augustus Caesar (63 BCE-14 CE), the eminent classicist succeeds in his aim to present the most complete history of the founder of the principate (27 BCE-284 CE). The narrative covers Augustus's military and political efforts (Romans would see no divergence in these roles), what we can know of his interior life, and the world in which he dominated. Never shy to admit when scholars simply do not have enough evidence and ever willing to be critical of biased ancient sources, the author is a historian at his best. And Augustus is a subject worthy of such treatment, a man of contradictions—brutal and merciful, initiator of opportunistic civil wars, and establisher of lasting civil concord—who claimed to have found Rome in "mud bricks" and "left it in marble." Goldsworthy never lets the reader forget that Augustus's success was not inevitable and that "everything…he achieved in his life was based on his success as a warlord…[but] once established, he ruled well." VERDICT Highly recommended for readers of biography and military or political history, Roman or otherwise.—Evan M. Anderson, Kirkendall P.L., Ankeny, IA
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780300178722
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • Publication date: 8/26/2014
  • Pages: 624
  • Sales rank: 20,778
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Adrian Goldsworthy is a leading historian of the ancient world and author of acclaimed biographies of Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra among many other books. He lectures widely and consults on historical documentaries produced by the History Channel, National Geographic, and the BBC. He lives in the Vale of Glamorgan, UK.
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Read an Excerpt


First Emperor of Rome

By Adrian Goldsworthy


Copyright © 2014 Adrian Goldsworthy
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-300-21007-1



'On the day he was born, the question of the Catilinarian conspiracy was before the Senate, and Octavius was late because of his wife's confinement, when as is often told, Publius Nigidius, finding out why he was late and learning the hour of the birth, stated that the master of all the world had been born.' Suetonius, early second century AD.

In 63 BC Rome was by far the largest city in the known world. Its population numbered at least three-quarters of a million and would rise to more than a million by the end of the century. Most lived in squalid, overcrowded tenement blocks or insulae (literally 'islands'), prone to fire and rife with disease. With so many people in one place, inevitably there were many births and deaths every day. So there was nothing especially remarkable when a woman named Atia went into labour and just before dawn on 23 September presented her husband with a son.

Atia was luckier than most mothers, for she was an aristocrat, and her husband Caius Octavius was a senator able to afford the best available care as well as a comfortable house on the eastern side of the Palatine Hill. When her time came, she was attended by female family members, slaves and freedwomen from her household, and an experienced midwife. Custom excluded men from the room chosen for the delivery, and a male doctor would only be summoned if things went badly wrong, although in truth there was little he could do in such circumstances. Atia knew what to expect, for she had already given her husband a daughter several years earlier.

Neither experience nor comfort and care made Atia safe. Childbirth was dangerous both for mother and child, and quite a few of the babies delivered on that day were stillborn or would perish in the days to come. So would quite a few of the mothers. Nine years later Atia's first cousin Julia would die during labour, followed within a few days by her baby – this in spite of the fact that her husband was then the richest and most powerful man in Rome. The childbearing years were probably the most dangerous of a woman's life.

Things went well for Atia. She was unharmed and her son was born healthy. When the midwife laid him down on the floor for inspection there were no signs of deformities or other problems. The child was then taken to his father. Tradition gave the Roman father, the paterfamilias, power of life and death over the entire household, although such strict authority was rarely imposed with rigour by this era. Even so, it was up to Caius Octavius whether or not to accept the new child into the family. He did so readily, showing the boy to the relatives and friends who had gathered to wait with him or who called to visit as soon as the news of the birth spread. Caius Octavius already had two daughters – the older girl being from an earlier marriage. Girls were useful for an ambitious man, since marriage alliances helped to win and hold political friends. Yet only a son could follow a career in public life, matching or surpassing his father and so adding to the glory of the family name.

Fires were lit on the altars in the house, and offerings made to the gods of the household and hearth, the lares and penates, and to any other deities especially revered by the family. When the guests returned to their own homes they performed the same ritual. One of the visitors was no doubt Atia's thirty-seven-year-old uncle, Caius Julius Caesar, an ambitious senator who was already making a name for himself. Recently he had won a fiercely competitive election to become Rome's most senior and prestigious priest, the pontifex maximus. The post was primarily political, and Julius Caesar gave little indication of deep religious beliefs. Even so, like other Romans, he set great store by the traditional rites. Ritual surrounded all Roman aristocrats throughout their lives, and a successful birth was a happy occasion for a senatorial family and their connections.

Otherwise there was no reason for the wider community to pay much attention, for Caius Octavius was a very minor senator. Only much later, long after the child had grown up to become Augustus, did stories begin to circulate of omens and even open predictions of the child's future greatness. Suetonius supplies a long string of these, many of which are improbable and some patently absurd.

Among the latter is a claim that prophecy predicted the birth of a king of Rome, prompting the Senate to decree that no boy born between set dates should be allowed to live. The law was supposedly blocked on a technicality by a group of senators whose wives were pregnant. Not only was this not how legislation worked under the Republic, but it would be surprising if Cicero did not mention such a grim and controversial measure and it can easily be dismissed as romantic invention. The same is true of stories clearly drawn from the myths surrounding Alexander the Great and other heroes, for whom a human father was felt insufficient. Thus it was claimed that Atia had attended a night-time rite in the Temple of Apollo, and had fallen asleep in her litter. A snake appeared and slithered over her, leaving behind a mark like snakeskin on her thigh. She woke, feeling the need to cleanse herself ritually as if she had just had sex, for only the physically purified were fit to enter the precincts of the gods. Unable to remove the mark on her skin, she ceased to attend public baths. Nine months later she gave birth to her son.

Caius Octavius had no need of such mystical experiences to feel happy. Birthdays were important in Roman culture, and were celebrated throughout an individual's life. September was the seventh of the ten named months in Rome's lunar calendar, for in archaic times the year began in March, the month of the war god Mars, when the legions used to set out on campaign. September 23 was for the Romans the ninth day before the Kalends of October, for they used a system based on days before or after three monthly festivals, the Kalends on the 1st, the Nones on the 7th, and the Ides on either the 13th or the 15th depending on the month. Lacking the number zero, the Kalends itself counted as one, and 23 September itself was included, hence the total of nine days.

For the Romans the year was the six-hundred-and-ninety-first since the foundation of the City (ab urbe condita) by Romulus. More immediately it was the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Caius Antonius. The two consuls were Rome's most senior magistrates, with equal authority and holding office for twelve months.

The Republican system was intended to prevent any one man gaining supreme or permanent power, for no one could seek re-election until a decade had passed. The man who was first in the electoral ballot was listed first when the consuls gave their name to each year. Consuls tended to come overwhelmingly from a small number of well-established families, like the Antonii. Cicero was unusual, for he was the first of his family to enter politics at Rome and no other 'new man' (novus homo) had reached the consulship for more than a generation. Caius Octavius was also a new man, and surely hoped to copy Cicero's success.

The consuls took precedence on alternate months, and so it was Cicero who presided over a meeting of the Senate on 23 September. Suetonius claims that Caius Octavius arrived late because of the birth of his son, although since this provides the setting for another story where the birth of the 'ruler of the globe' is predicted, we need to be cautious. Perhaps the incident is wholly invented, although there is nothing inherently improbable in Caius Octavius' late arrival or in the claim that the senators debated the rumours of conspiracy surrounding one of their members, Lucius Sergius Catiline. Whispers of revolution were rife, and many focused on Catiline, who had failed to win the consulship for the next year in the summer's elections. If the Senate did indeed discuss such matters, then no action was taken for the moment and it would be a while before matters came to a head.

In the meantime normal life continued, and on the night of 30 September Caius Octavius and Atia held a night-time vigil in their house. Rituals were performed, culminating in sacrifices and a formal purification ceremony or lustratio on the next day, the Kalends of October and nine days after their son's birth. The purpose was to rid the baby of any malign spirits or other supernatural influences that might have entered him during the birth process. He was given a charm or bulla, usually of gold and worn around the neck, until he formally became a man. Afterwards, the flight of birds was observed by one of the priestly college known as augurs to gain some sense of the child's future. Probably the parents were told that the signs were good.

Only now was the boy formally named, and in due course registered in the list of citizens. In this case he was named after his father, and so became Caius Octavius, son of Caius. Families tended to use the same names generation after generation, although some of the most powerful aristocratic families were starting to break such conventions during these years, setting themselves even further apart from the rest of the senatorial class. The family name or nomen – in this case Octavius – was automatic, and choice only exercised in the first name or praenomen. Most important men possessed the full three names or tria nomina. Therefore Atia's uncle was Caius Julius Caesar. The Julii were an extensive clan, and the third name or cognomen was held only by that particular branch. The system was not universal, even among the great families, in some cases because they were not especially numerous or simply because they were confident in being recognised. The Octavii had not yet seen any need to distinguish specific branches of their family.

Nor did the Romans feel it necessary to identify women so precisely, since they could neither vote nor stand for office. Atia had just this single name, the feminine form of her father Marcus Atius Balbus' nomen. The identity of her father and association with his family was what mattered. Roman women kept their name throughout their lives, and did not change it on marriage. Atia's daughter was called Octavia, as was her stepdaughter, the child from her husband's earlier marriage. If there had been any other daughters then these would also have been named Octavia. In some cases families numbered their girls for official purposes.

Babies required a great deal of care, but Atia's role in this was most likely one of more or less distant supervision. She had much to do in overseeing the household, and supporting her husband in his career. Some voices advocated that a mother should breastfeed her children, but in practice this was rare and instead a slave wet-nurse was provided. This woman, or another slave, served as the child's nurse more generally. (One of the reasons some philosophers argued that a mother should feed her own offspring was the fear that they would otherwise somehow imbibe slavish characteristics along with the milk.) The amount of time either parent spent with their children was no doubt a matter of personal choice. In some cases it was very little, although there were exceptions. In the second century BC we are told that Cato the Elder, famous for his stern, old-fashioned and loudly proclaimed virtue, only let the most important public business prevent him from being present when his infant son was bathed. Cato's wife was one of those women who did breastfeed her own baby, and even sometimes suckled slave children from the household.

Our sources tell us almost nothing about the early years of the young Octavius, although yet another of Suetonius' stories of signs predicting his rise to greatness is less dramatic than most and may just contain a germ of truth. In this, his nurse put him down for the night in a room on the ground floor. The boy, presumably now old enough to crawl, then went missing, prompting an urgent search. He was found at dawn the next morning, watching the rising sun from the highest room in the house.


If this happened at all it was later, but in the closing months of 63 BC there was plenty to worry the boy's parents, for the mood in Rome was nervous. The Roman Republic had dominated the Mediterranean world since the middle of the second century BC. Carthage was destroyed, and the kingdoms of the east either conquered, or so weak and dependent on Roman goodwill that they presented no threat. Mithridates VI of Pontus in Asia Minor had waged war persistently for a generation, but was now soundly crushed by Rome's most successful and popular general, Pompey the Great. The king, finding that repeated doses of antidotes during the course of his life had rendered him immune to poison, ordered one of his own bodyguards to kill him before the year was out. In October Pompey's legions stormed Jerusalem after a three-month siege, backing one side in a civil war between rival members of the Jewish royal family. It seemed no one could match the military might of the Republic.

Rome was far stronger than any of its neighbours and potential enemies, but the immense profits of conquest and empire threatened delicate balances within politics, society and the economy. Competition among the aristocracy for high office and status had always been intense, but in the past was kept within strict confines of convention and law. Now many of the props of this system came under threat as senators spent ever-increasing sums to win popularity, and significant groups emerged within the population who felt their plight was desperate and readily rallied to anyone who championed their cause. There were opportunities for a few men to rise far higher than had ever been possible in the past and their peers resented and resisted this.

In 133 BC an aristocrat named Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus became one of the ten annually elected tribunes of the plebs and introduced a programme of legislation aimed at helping the rural poor. He won considerable acclaim, but was accused of aspiring to the dominance of a monarch and was bludgeoned to death by a gang of other senators led by his own cousin. In 122 BC Tiberius' younger brother Caius was killed along with hundreds of followers after he embarked on an even more radical set of reforms. This time the fighting was clearly premeditated and between organised forces. Political competition had become violent, and such scenes were repeated in 100 BC. A decade later discontent among the peoples of Italy exploded into rebellion when the tribune who proposed granting them Roman citizenship was murdered. The Romans won the war after a hard struggle, to a great extent because they finally and grudgingly gave the Italian communities what they wanted. The number of citizens was greatly expanded, giving politicians new voters to cultivate, and again shifting the political balance.

Almost immediately another dispute revolving around a tribune of the people became so bitter that in 88 BC for the very first time a Roman general led his army against the City of Rome. His name was Sulla, and rivalry between him and an ageing popular hero named Marius lay behind the conflict. Massacre followed massacre in an ever-worsening spiral of atrocity before Sulla won the Civil War and made himself dictator, turning a rarely used and temporary emergency measure into a position of permanent supreme power for himself. After a few years he retired to private life, only to die of natural causes within a matter of months. The Republic was already troubled by a new civil war, when Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, one of the consuls of 78 BC, raised an army and tried to seize control of the state. He was defeated and he and his partisans executed, but many opponents of Sulla fought on for years from bases in Spain.


Excerpted from Augustus by Adrian Goldsworthy. Copyright © 2014 Adrian Goldsworthy. Excerpted by permission of Yale UNIVERSITY PRESS.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents


Acknowledgements, vii,
List of Maps, ix,
Introduction, 1,
PART ONE: Caius Octavius (Thurinus) 63–44 BC,
1 'Father of His Country', 19,
2 A Man of Wealth and Good Reputation', 32,
3 The Consulship of Julius and Caesar, 47,
4 A Way Out, 63,
PART TWO: Caius Julius Caesar (Octavianus) 44–38 BC,
5 Heir, 83,
6 Praise, 98,
7 Reward and Discard, 115,
8 Vengeance and Discord, 128,
PART THREE – Imperator Caesar, Divi Filius 38–27 BC,
9 Sons of Gods, 151,
10 Rivals, 170,
11 Triumph, 195,
PART FOUR: Imperator Caesar Augustus, Divi Filius 27–2 BC,
12 Renewal and Restoration, 217,
13 To Overcome the Proud in War, 239,
14 The 'Title of Greatest Power', 258,
15 The Eagles, 284,
16 An End and a Beginning, 307,
17 Family and Colleagues, 334,
18 Augustan Peace, 355,
PART FIVE: Imperator Caesar Augustus, Divi Filius, Pater Patriae 2 BC–AD 14,
19 Father, 377,
20 The 'Sentry Post', 402,
21 For the Sake of the Res Publica, 426,
22 Pax Augusta, 446,
Conclusion: Hurry Slowly, 469,
Appendix One: The Senatorial Career or Cursus Honorum, 482,
Appendix Two: Date of the Birth of Jesus, 487,
Glossary, 493,
Key Personalities, 503,
Family Trees, 512,
Bibliography, 522,
Abbreviations, 538,
Notes, 540,
Index, 587,

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