Autism Frontiers: Clinical Issues and Innovations: Spectrum of Developmental Disabilities Conference 2006 / Edition 1

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Clinicians need the very latest research on all the hot-button topics related to autism—both to work effectively with children and answer their families' most pressing questions. Autism Frontiers is the book no clinician should practice without: it brings together the biggest names in autism research to examine today's most important medical and clinical issues.

This much-needed professional reference gives clinicians in-depth, up-to-date, and readily applicable research and guidance on the topics they'll encounter most: early diagnosis and intervention, language and social reciprocity, overlapping syndromes, complementary and alternative medicine, autism and epilepsy, parent advocacy, and more. Readers will also get

  • a NEW Screening Protocol for Autism—Pasquale Accardo's quick, 14-item tool clinicians can use as a starting point in the screening process
  • tables, sample forms, and checklists to help clinicians identify characteristics of autism, elicit information from parents, record clinical impressions of children, and more
  • the latest from the highly respected experts who conduct the most cutting-edge autism research
  • best practice recommendations that help professionals create consistent "medical homes" for children with special needs
A must for every professional who works with children with autism spectrum disorders in a clinical setting—including physicians, psychologists, OTs, PTs, and SLPs—this essential reference will help readers answer their biggest questions about autism so they can give children the best possible care.
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Editorial Reviews

Andrew W. Zimmerman

"Provides profound clinical insights, depth and breadth of expertise in autism spectrum disorders . . . [The] authors are among the very best in their respective fields and they share their knowledge well."
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
"An invaluable reference tool for medical professionals, providing state of the art information at their fingertips."
Easter Seals blog
"Provide[s] an up to date reference guide to the often confusing world related to autism spectrum disorders."
Optometry and Vision Development
"Unbiased and straightforward. . . I would recommend that we use the screening protocols noted in the book, so that our patients can receive early and appropriate care."
Midwest Book Review- California Bookwatch
"Packs in tables, clinical tools, a screening protocol and more in a top pick for any autism health library."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781557669575
  • Publisher: Brookes, Paul H. Publishing Company
  • Publication date: 4/1/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 256
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Pasquale J. Accardo, M.D., is Professor of Pediatrics at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond. He received his medical degree from Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York; completed his pediatric residency at James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, and obtained his developmental pediatrics training at the John F. Kennedy Institute for Handicapped Children (now called the Kennedy Krieger Institute), an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. He is subcertified in neurodevelopmental disabilities in pediatrics by the American Board of Pediatrics. Dr. Accardo is the author and editor of several books including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Clinical Spectrum (York Press, 2001); Austim: Clinical and Research Issues (York Press, 2000), and Developmental Disabilities in Infancy and Childhood, Second Edition, Volumes I and II (Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 1996).

Bruce K. Shapiro, M.D. Professor of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; The Arnold J. Capute, M.D., M.P.H. Chair in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities; Vice President, Training, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 707 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205

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Read an Excerpt

Excerpted from the Preface of Autism Frontiers: Clinical Issues and Innovations, edited by Bruce K. Shapiro, M.D., & Pasquale J. Accardo, M.D.

Copyright © 2008 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.


In 1943, Leo Kanner described 11 children with a unique behavioral disorder that came to be known as autism. In addition to describing the cardinal characteristics of the syndrome—"impairment of social interaction manifesting an inability to relate themselves in the ordinary way to people and situations . . ." (p. 242) and behavior dominated by profound aloneness, impaired language development, and restricted, stereotypic behavior—Kanner noted that these children showed many other dysfunctions. He distinguished this disorder from intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia, disorders with which he was familiar.

In the 1970s, the diagnosis of autism had to be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Children with the diagnosis of autism had to meet the criteria of Kanner and be significantly impaired. Occasionally, a child would receive the diagnosis of mental retardation and "autistic features." The operational diagnosis, however, was mental retardation. It was the best forecaster of outcome and the behavioral dysfunction could be managed in segregated special education settings.

Dr. Arnold Capute was among those who questioned the specificity of the autism diagnosis (Capute, Derivan, Chauvel, & Rodriguez, 1975). He felt that autism was not a unique condition and that the diagnosis did not add to the management of the patient, to our understanding of the mechanism of dysfunction, or to the prognosis. From his work with developmental assessment, he recognized the developmental aspects of symptoms of autism and the need to distinguish them from more typical development. For example, pronomial reversal and echolalia was associated with language development in children younger than 30 months. His extensive clinical experiences caused him to question the validity of an autism diagnosis. He knew that restricted, stereotypic behavior was not uncommon in children with severe ID and that perseveration was seen often in children with cerebral palsy and other brain injury. Finally, the close linkage between language and social interaction caused him to question whether deficient socialization could exist as an independent factor. Subsequent studies have validated this viewpoint.

In the 1980s, the focus on early identification and early intervention extended to autism. As the diagnostic criteria were applied increasingly to younger children, the diagnostic margins blurred. Autism moved from a categorical to a dimensional disorder. During this epoch, there was an increased appreciation of the role of pragmatics in developmental language disorders. Frequent debates centered on whether the child had a developmental language disorder or autism.

The authors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) recognized the dimensional nature of autism and changed the diagnostic criteria from "significant impairment" to "qualitative abnormalities." Unfortunately, they failed to appreciate that all neurodevelopmental disorders are on a spectrum. Every child with a neurodevelopmental disorder has elements of every dysfunction. Children with attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have motor coordination deficits. Those with speech–language impairments have academic difficulties. Children with motor coordination disorders have language deficits. All neurodevelopmental dysfunction is associated with impairments in social interactions.

Since the early 1990s, there has been an explosion of i

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Table of Contents

Editors and Contributors
Foreword Mark L. Batshaw

  1. Clinical Overview of the Autism Spectrum
    Bruce K. Shapiro, Deepa U. Menon, and Pasquale J. Accardo

  2. Autism in the Spectrum of Developmental Disabilities
    Thomas M. Lock

  3. Classification Issues in the Milder Developmental Disorders: Asperger Syndrome, the Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disability, and “Einstein Children”
    Isabelle Rapin

  4. Developmental Regression, Autism, and Epilepsy
    John F. Mantovani

  5. A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Developmental Language Disorders
    Bruce K. Shapiro

  6. Discourse Skills of Individuals with Higher-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome
    Janet E. Turner

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders in the First 3 Years of Life
    Rebecca Landa

  8. Classroom-Based Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Andrew L. Egel

  9. Student, Parent, and Teacher Perspectives on Barriers to and Facilitators of School Success for Children with Asperger Syndrome
    Donald P. Oswald, Martha J. Coutinho, Jesse “Woody” Johnson, Jennifer H. Larson, and Carla A. Mazefsky

  10. Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Challenging Behaviors in Individuals with Autism
    Scott M. Myers

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Autism: Promises Kept?
    Thomas D. Challman

  12. Can Autism Resolve?
    Juhi Pandey, Leandra Wilson, Alyssa Verbalis, and Deborah Fein

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Conceptualization
    Pasquale J. Accardo

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