Auxiliaries: Cognitive Forces and Grammaticalization

Auxiliaries: Cognitive Forces and Grammaticalization

by Bernd Heine
     
 

ISBN-10: 0195083873

ISBN-13: 9780195083873

Pub. Date: 09/28/1993

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

Offering a new perspective on auxiliaries in particular and language structure in general, this study argues that language cannot be explained satisfactorily with reference to linguistic variables alone; what is required in addition are extra-linguistic parameters relating to how we perceive the world around us, and how we utilize the linguistic resources available

Overview

Offering a new perspective on auxiliaries in particular and language structure in general, this study argues that language cannot be explained satisfactorily with reference to linguistic variables alone; what is required in addition are extra-linguistic parameters relating to how we perceive the world around us, and how we utilize the linguistic resources available to us to conceptualize our experiences, and to communicate successfully. Rather than a closed, self-contained system, language is an entity that is constantly shaped by such external factors as cognitive forces, pragmatic manipulation, history, etc. These factors are responsible for the emergence of chain-like linguistic structures, and auxiliaries are typical examples of such structures, which Heine describes as grammaticalization chains. A limited number of concrete event schemas are discussed and these schemas are shown to be responsible for much of the linguistic diversity that auxiliary constructions exhibit in the languages of the world.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195083873
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
09/28/1993
Pages:
176
Product dimensions:
6.31(w) x 9.50(h) x 0.76(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Abbreviationsxi
1.The state of the art3
1.1Problems4
1.2Hypotheses8
1.2.1The autonomy hypothesis8
1.2.2The main-verb hypothesis8
1.2.3Gradience9
1.2.4Auxiliary as a universal category?9
1.2.5Other positions11
1.2.6"Quasi-auxiliaries,"14
1.3Notional domains16
1.4Criteria17
1.5Dependency18
1.6Definitions20
1.7Some properties of auxiliaries22
1.8How to explain auxiliaries?24
1.9Conclusion26
2.Grammaticalization27
2.1Basic event schemas27
2.1.1Conceptual properties30
2.1.2Linguistic properties32
2.1.3Complex schemas37
2.1.4On the significance of event schemas43
2.1.5Conceptual shift45
2.2The Overlap Model48
2.3Grammaticalization chains53
2.4The Verb-to-TAM chain53
2.4.1Parameters54
2.4.2Stages58
2.5The chain of grammatical functions66
2.6On defining auxiliaries69
2.7Discussion70
2.7.1On locating auxiliaries71
2.7.2An alternative chain76
2.7.3Related approaches79
2.8Conclusion86
3.Some basic issues88
3.1Conceptual shift88
3.1.1The content89
3.1.2The process95
3.2Dependency99
3.2.1The problem99
3.2.2The Zwicky-Hudson controversy100
3.2.3Discussion104
3.3Erosion106
3.4On categorization112
3.5Reanalysis116
3.6On explanation119
4.Conclusions130
Notes133
References137
Name Index151
Language Index155
Subject Index157

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