Bailout: An Inside Account of How Washington Abandoned Main Street While Rescuing Wall Streetby Neil Barofsky
In this bracing, page-turning account of his stranger-than-fiction baptism into the corrupted ways of Washington, Neil Barofsky offers an irrefutable/b>
In this riveting account of the mishandling of the TARP bailout fund, a former federal prosecutor offers behind-the-scenes proof of the corrupt ways Washington officials serve the interests of Wall Street.
In this bracing, page-turning account of his stranger-than-fiction baptism into the corrupted ways of Washington, Neil Barofsky offers an irrefutable insider indictment of the mishandling of the $700 billion TARP bailout fund. During the height of the financial crisis in 2008, Barofsky gave up his job in the esteemed US Attorney’s Office in New York City to become the special inspector general overseeing the spending of the bailout money. But from day one his efforts to protect against fraud and to hold the big banks accountable were met with outright hostility from Treasury officials. Bailout is a riveting account of Barofsky’s plunge into the political meat grinder of Washington, and a vital revelation of just how captured by Wall Street our political system is and why the banks have only become bigger and more dangerous in the wake of the crisis.
“[Bailout] is an interesting behind-the-scenes account of how Washington tried to save the economy… [and] an enjoyable tale of how a prosecutor of Colombian drug gangs got drafted for the thankless task of policing a $700 billion bailout from a dank basement office of the Treasury.”
“[An] everyman account of the pervasive cynicism and insider-dealing of the D.C. establishment.”
“[One] of our favorite business books so far this year…The former special inspector general policing the $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program lifts the lid on the U.S. Treasury and settles scores… [an] illuminating memoir.”
“A damning indictment of the Obama administration's execution of the TARP program.”
“A quick, intense, read.”
“[Barofsky] set out to account for the TARP spending in a transparent, nonpartisan manner. However, as he demonstrates in his energetically written first-person account, he and his staff met resistance every time they tried to share the truth with Congress, the White House and the American public… a courageous, insightful book that offers no cause for optimism.”
“Blistering in its assessment of the Treasury Department's handling of the bailouts.”
“In his scathing new book, Barofsky says taxpayers got shafted while the rich got richer… a true expose…. Taxpayers who feel helpless in the midst of the extended economic recession are likely to feel energized to metaphorically blow up the system after reading Barofsky’s account.”
“[An] explosive account of the mishandling of the Troubled Asset Relief Program funds.”
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Read an Excerpt
ALTHOUGH it was only April, we were in the midst of a mini heat wave in Washington that foreshadowed what would turn out to be a scorching summer. I’d been in the city for almost a year and a half, but I just couldn’t get used to the otherworldly heat, the swamplike humidity, and the complete absence of anything that might resemble a breeze. Even so, I decided to walk the ten minutes from our offices in Dupont Circle to Potenza restaurant, located on the first floor of a luxury rental building inhabited by the former banking executives and lawyers from New York who frequent the revolving door between Wall Street and Washington.
I was meeting that night with Herb Allison, who lived in the building and fit its profile perfectly. Allison was the former president of Merrill Lynch and chief executive officer of the financial services organization TIAA-CREF. He’d enjoyed an illustrious and highly profitable Wall Street career before retiring to his sprawling mansion in Connecticut. In late 2008, then Secretary of the Treasury Henry Paulson called the sixty-five-year-old while he was enjoying a vacation in the Caribbean and asked him to come to Washington immediately to run the recently failed and now government-owned mortgage behemoth Fannie Mae. Allison accepted and after a short stint was tapped by incoming Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner to run the Troubled Asset Relief Program, or TARP, as the Treasury assistant secretary for financial stability. He became, in other words, the “TARP czar,” and I quickly became one of his least favorite people on the planet.
I had initiated this meeting. As the special inspector general assigned to oversee the spending of the TARP money—my office was known as SIGTARP—it was my job to scrutinize just about every aspect of Allison’s professional life in Washington. By April 2010, that had meant issuing a series of highly critical reports that generated a stream of negative headlines for the Treasury Department and a seemingly unending series of congressional hearings in which Allison, Geithner, and other Treasury officials were subject to bipartisan roastings, occasionally punctuated by one member of Congress or another calling for Geithner’s resignation. I offered to meet with Allison “offline” after yet another one of my weekly meetings with him had devolved into a screaming match. I wanted to get together away from the office, just the two of us, over a drink—or “over shots,” as Allison had joked when I’d invited him—to clear the air.
Never knowing how much longer I was going to be welcome in Washington, I hadn’t invested in a new Washington-appropriate wardrobe and was wearing the unseasonal dark gray wool suit that had become my uniform. I could feel the sweat pooling at the small of my back as I walked into the restaurant. Because I’d told the hostess we were only having drinks, she wanted to seat us up front, where it would have been difficult for us to have a private conversation. After first asking politely to be seated in the back and refused, Allison adopted a formidable “Do you know who I am?” tone that he’d obviously perfected over his decades as a top executive on Wall Street. The hostess was no match, and we were quickly ushered to a quiet table in the back. We chatted cordially for a few minutes about our families and nonwork lives, as people tend to do at these Washington rendezvous. Allison said how tough his weekly commute from Connecticut was, while I told him that my wife’s regular commute from New York had just ended because she had entered the final month of pregnancy with our first child. I said I was excited about the imminent arrival of our daughter, and he said how thrilled he’d been about the birth of his first son decades before. He then got to the heart of things.
“Neil, you’re obviously very talented, with a bright future,” he started. He talked about how clear the reports my office had submitted to Congress were and noted that the press was generally effusive in its praise of me and my team. Always circumspect about being complimented in Washington, I waited for the kicker.
“But you’re really hurting yourself.”
“In what way?” I asked, genuinely curious about where this might be going.
“Well, you’re a young man, just starting out with a family, and obviously this job isn’t going to last forever. Have you thought at all about what you’ll be doing next?”
It was not the first time I’d been asked that question in Washington. It’s the question that everyone asks, always to themselves and sometimes to others. What’s next? What’s your angle? What’s going to be the payout? How are you going to leverage your current position to get a better one with more power and a bigger payout? I gave Allison my standard answer, whether to a reporter, congressional staffer, senator, family member, friend, my wife, Karen, or myself.
“Herb, in my first Senate hearing, Shelby”—Richard Shelby, the top Republican on the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee and whose southern drawl I couldn’t help affecting as I told this story—“told me, ‘Mister Inspector General, you have a wonderful opportunity here. An opportunity not too many people get. The opportunity to make a real difference. An opportunity to serve the American people in a true and meaningful way. And if you do this job the right way, you’ll never be able to get a job again. No one will hire you. And that would be a good thing.’ ”
I explained to Allison how meaningful that exchange had been to me.
“Shelby was trying to be funny,” I said, “but there was an important point there too—that the only way to do this job was not to think about what I would be doing next. If I ever start thinking about a law firm job, or a job on Wall Street, or even another government job, those concerns will inevitably start creeping into my decision making.”
Allison was unimpressed with my speech. Not that I can blame him—I’m sure it sounded like a sound bite devised for a press interview. He continued, “You have to think about it. And I’m telling you, you’re doing yourself real harm. Out there in the market, there are consequences for some of the things that you’re saying and the way that you’re saying them.”
I was impressed with Allison’s approach. By that point I’d been in Washington long enough to know when I was being played, and Allison was essentially threatening me with lifelong unemployment. But, to his credit, his tone dripped with sincerity.
“Herb, I know that. I understand that. But like I just said, I really can’t think that way. I wouldn’t be doing my job if I started thinking that way.”
Having failed to achieve the desired response by holding up the specter of homelessness for my wife, my soon-to-be-born daughter, and me, Allison shifted course.
“Well, it’s not just that. On the Hill, I’m hearing a lot of things about you. Sure, during a hearing they may say some nice things, but there are a lot of members of Congress, particularly in the Senate, who think that you’ve gone too far, and you’re losing credibility fast.”
A much better play, Herb, I thought. Allison had struck a nerve. The relevance of my oversight depended on strong credibility with members of Congress. At SIGTARP we had limited authority, and without strong backers in Congress, our work would quickly recede into irrelevancy.
“I can’t control that, Herb,” I responded. “It’s not as if we sit there and craft each word in our reports based on how we think some senator or congressman might react. We just tell the truth in the way that we see it.”
Allison persisted, “It’s not so much the content as it is the tone. Your tone is the problem.”
My tone was part of my job, I explained. “Herb, when I first got here, a senior congressman took me aside and said, ‘Neil, let me tell you how this town works. You can write the best and most important reports in the world, and Treasury will ignore you. The only way that you’re going to be able to have an impact is to get us, Congress, involved. And the only way that we’ll pay attention is if your reports are covered in the press. Then we’ll embrace you. And then Treasury will pay attention.’” I explained to Allison that I had stuck with that advice and it had proven exactly right, and that my tone was necessary to penetrate all of the noise in Washington and get the attention of the press, Congress, and ultimately Treasury itself.
Allison changed gears. “Well, is it an appointment you might be looking for? Something else in government? A judgeship?”
I laughed. “Herb, obviously that would be amazing, but there is no way that this White House, after the things we’ve said, is going to nominate me for anything.”
Allison paused. “Well, Neil, it doesn’t have to be that way. It’s not necessarily off the table. All you really have to do is change your tone, just a bit, and things can really change for you. Including with the White House.”
It was my turn to pause, as I took a good sip of my wine. “Well, Herb, I certainly appreciate your advice,” I said, not quite believing what I thought he was saying, and then tried desperately to turn our conversation back to more trivial matters.
But Allison wouldn’t give up that easily. He stuck to his script for a good ten minutes more before I managed to steer the conversation back to beltway gossip and other banal niceties before wrapping up.
I was all of thirty seconds back out into the heat when I called my deputy and friend for nearly a decade, Kevin Puvalowski. Kevin and I had met as prosecutors in the United States Attorney’s Office in Manhattan in 2001, and we worked closely together on cases against the world’s biggest drug cartels as members of the international narcotics trafficking unit.
“How’d it go?” he asked. We had both been curious about how this encounter would play out.
I burst out laughing. “You are not going to believe it,” I responded, and then recounted the conversation.
Kevin laughed. “It was the gold or the lead.”
“Yeah, the bullet or the bribe, I think he totally Escobarred me.” We were referring to the practice that, as former narcotics prosecutors, we both well knew. The most notorious method of persuasion used by the legendary Colombian cocaine kingpin Pablo Escobar to bend elected officials, police officers, or local judges to his will was to offer them one of two choices: a giant pile of pesos to do his bidding or a bullet in the head. I’d just received the Washington equivalent. Either I started playing ball and would then get either a plum appointment or a lucrative job on Wall Street, or I’d end up discredited and unemployed.
Kevin responded, “Unbelievable. Every trick in the book. He flattered you, insulted you, tried to scare you, and then effectively tried to bribe you. Welcome to Washington.”
“Yeah, but what about what he said about the Hill?” I asked. “Do you think we have a problem there?” Allison’s assertion that some members of Congress had become unhappy with me was a little unnerving.
But Kevin wasn’t worried. “Don’t give it a second thought,” he said. “He’s probably full of shit.”
Looking back, I don’t now think that Allison was in fact really threatening me, nor do I think that he was actually offering me a plum appointment if I played ball. I think he was, in a very Washington way, sincerely trying to be helpful, to educate me on how to survive and thrive, both in Washington and on Wall Street. They are both worlds where if you play by the rules of those in power, great things can follow, whether in the form of multimillion-dollar paydays in the private sector or escalating power and prestige in the government. The allure of those payoffs is a powerful and pernicious force in government service, especially, as I saw up close in my dealings with Treasury, in agencies that deal with Wall Street.
As an elder statesman now of both worlds, Allison was, I think, probably just trying to explain to me how the system worked. Although he was undoubtedly right, I hadn’t left a job I had loved in New York to go down to Washington and play by its rules. I was still a prosecutor at heart, and for as long as I managed to hang on at SIGTARP, I was going to keep doing exactly what I’d been given the job to do: hold Treasury and the banks it had bailed out accountable for their management and use of hundreds of billions of taxpayer dollars.
Meet the Author
Neil Barofsky served as the Special Inspector General in charge of overseeing TARP from December 2008 until March 2011. For eight years prior, he was a federal prosecutor in the US Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York, during which time he headed the Mortgage Fraud Group. Currently, Neil Barofsky is a senior fellow at New York University School of Law. An alum of the University of Pennsylvania and the New York University School of Law, this is his first book.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
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This is a 5 Star read for ANYONE with a bank account, or a mortgage! If you don't read anything else in 2013 read it, even though your head will spin at the acronyms, Which are important only because they reveal the lengths Wall Street bankers go to get inside your bank account!! Written by the outstanding Inspector General who followed the money trail o $700 Billion in your tax dollars. Painstakingly documented. Thank you New York University School of Law. We need a second Special Inspector General to document what's happening in health care!
this read can get a little technical but after reading this book. I am more upset about how the bailouts were done anlso the craziness of washington itself. I thought he did a good job of getting past most politics and just give the unvarnished truth
Finished reading and it summed up what my imagination had told me. Now one does not have to be a genius to know what Is going on in our country. Thank you, Neil, for having the Nerve and guts to write what you saw and heard. Beware, Fellow Americans, fasten your seat belts. Its going to be a bumpy ride!
Enlightening on how the bailouts were suppose to work. Scary that egos seem to get in the way of doing the right thing to protect the taxpayers. Is there one honest, altruist person left in Washington - or on Wall Street? A sad commentary on this nation's pols.
Adam im sorry
Pulls up in a souped up Dodge Viper
I really enjoyed Mr. Barofsky insight into TARP and the culture of Washington. For as technical a read it was, I found myself laughing at points so hard my side hurt. I highly recommend this book.
I thought this was a very interesting account of what happened behind the scenes as the government was trying to get the economy back in the game. One has to wonder if it was the American people that the government was trying to protect or the status of America's banks...and bankers. With logic like "...we must pay the big bonuses to bankers because they are the only ones smart enough to get us out of this mess", it is little wonder we appear to be a country of charlatans.
Neil has the guts to tell his story, and gives his Readers, an All Access Pass!!
Barofsky's book describes his challenges as Special Inspector General for the TARP program during the Bush and Obama administrations.