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Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 11th Edition [NOOK Book]

Overview

The most trusted and up-to-date pharmacology text in medicine -- completely redesigned to make the learning process even more interesting and efficient



5 Star Doody's Review!

"This is the most widely used textbook for teaching pharmacology to health professionals. This 11th edition is far superior to any previous editions....The authors' ...

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Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 11th Edition

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Overview

The most trusted and up-to-date pharmacology text in medicine -- completely redesigned to make the learning process even more interesting and efficient



5 Star Doody's Review!

"This is the most widely used textbook for teaching pharmacology to health professionals. This 11th edition is far superior to any previous editions....The authors' goals are to provide a complete, authoritative, current, and readable textbook of pharmacology for students in health sciences. Testimony to their success is the widespread use of this work as required textbook for pharmacology courses around the world. This book is used extensively by thousands of medical, pharmacy, podiatry, nursing, and other health professions students to study pharmacology. Likewise, it remains a valuable resource for residents and practicing physicians....I continue to use this book as a required resource for all courses that I teach to medical, nursing, and allied health students. It is authoritative, readable, and supported by numerous learning tools."--Doody's Review Service



Organized to reflect the syllabi in Pharmacology courses, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology covers all the important concepts students need to know about the science of pharmacology and its application to clinical practice. It is acknowledged worldwide as the field’s most current, authoritative, and comprehensive textbook. To be as clinically relevant as possible, the book features a strong focus on the choice and use of drugs in patients and the monitoring of their effects.



Coverage that spans every important aspect of medical pharmacology:



  • Basic Principles

  • Autonomic Drugs

  • Cardiovascular-Renal Drugs

  • Drugs with Important Actions on Smooth Muscle

  • Drugs that Act in the Central Nervous System

  • Drugs Used to Treat Diseases of the Blood, Inflammation, and Gout

  • Endocrine Drugs

  • Chemotherapeutic Drugs

  • Toxicology



NEW to this edition:



  • Full-color presentation, including 300+ illustrations

  • Case studies introduce clinical problems in many chapters

  • Drug summary tables for key information in comparative context

  • Descriptions of important newly released drugs, including new immunopharmacologic agents

  • Expanded coverage of general concepts relating to newly discovered receptors, receptor mechanisms, and drug transporters

The book contains predominantly black-and-white illustrations, with some color illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

Eric M. Scholar
This is the eighth edition of this editor's long-standing pharmacology textbook. It is designed to be a complete, authoritative, current, and readable pharmacology textbook. This book is written for medical, pharmacy, and health science students as well as house officers and clinicians. The information is presented in a sequence similar to many pharmacology books, starting with basic principles. Within each chapter, emphasis is placed on drug groups and prototypes. Clinical pharmacology has been made an integral part of this text. At the end of each chapter are lists of commercial preparations available, including trade and generic names as well as the dosage formulations available. In addition to a description of new drugs added since the last edition (1998), this edition contains a new chapter on botanicals and food supplements. Several of the chapters have been revised since the last edition and several new figures have been added. As found in the last edition, the book contains two appendixes, one on biologic products and one on important drug interactions. The editor is well qualified to write this text as are the authors of the different chapters. This is a very good textbook, as were the previous editions. It is a pharmacology book that is complete but that does not contain all the details that some pharmacology books do. The editor achieves a midpoint between books that provide extensive detail and some of the newer ones that are oversimplified. Fortunately, the editor avoids that latter trend in this book. The new chapter on botanicals is an excellent addition considering the widespread use of these drugs in recent years. I thought the editor exaggerated theadditions made in this new edition in his preface. He stated that several chapters underwent major revision but upon detailed examination it appeared that the changes were, in most cases, small. Overall, though, it is a very good book.
From The Critics
Reviewer: Eric M. Scholar, PhD (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Description: This is the eighth edition of this editor's long-standing pharmacology textbook.
Purpose: It is designed to be a complete, authoritative, current, and readable pharmacology textbook.
Audience: This book is written for medical, pharmacy, and health science students as well as house officers and clinicians.
Features: The information is presented in a sequence similar to many pharmacology books, starting with basic principles. Within each chapter, emphasis is placed on drug groups and prototypes. Clinical pharmacology has been made an integral part of this text. At the end of each chapter are lists of commercial preparations available, including trade and generic names as well as the dosage formulations available. In addition to a description of new drugs added since the last edition (1998), this edition contains a new chapter on botanicals and food supplements. Several of the chapters have been revised since the last edition and several new figures have been added. As found in the last edition, the book contains two appendixes, one on biologic products and one on important drug interactions. The editor is well qualified to write this text as are the authors of the different chapters.
Assessment: This is a very good textbook, as were the previous editions. It is a pharmacology book that is complete but that does not contain all the details that some pharmacology books do. The editor achieves a midpoint between books that provide extensive detail and some of the newer ones that are oversimplified. Fortunately, the editor avoidsthat latter trend in this book. The new chapter on botanicals is an excellent addition considering the widespread use of these drugs in recent years. I thought the editor exaggerated the additions made in this new edition in his preface. He stated that several chapters underwent major revision but upon detailed examination it appeared that the changes were, in most cases, small. Overall, though, it is a very good book.
From Barnes & Noble
This bestselling pharmacology text emphasizes drug groups and prototypes rather than individual drugs though general and trade preparations are provided at the end of each chapter. Two-color and black-and-white charts, figures, and diagrams throughout highlight examples and special information. Expanded coverage of molecular biology; new receptors; neurotransmitters; drug interactions; the clinical management of asthma, congestive heart failure, Alzheimer's, and other diseases; more.

3 Stars from Doody
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780071604062
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
  • Publication date: 8/12/2009
  • Series: LANGE Basic Science
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 1232
  • File size: 203 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Editor:



Bertram G. Katzung, MD, PhD, is Professor Emeritus, Department of Cellular & Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco.



Associate Editors:



Susan Masters, PhD, is Professor of Pharmacology & Academy Chair of Phramacology Education, Department of Cellular & Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco.



Anthony J. Trevor, PhD, is Professor Emeritus, Department of Cellular & Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Introduction

Pharmacology can be defined as the study of substances that interact with living systems through chemical processes, especially by binding to regulatory molecules and activating or inhibiting normal body processes. These substances may be chemicals administered to achieve a beneficial therapeutic effect on some process within the patient or for their toxic effects on regulatory processes in parasites infecting the patient. Such deliberate therapeutic applications may be considered the proper role of medical pharmacology, which is often defined as the science of substances used to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. Toxicology is that branch of pharmacology that deals with the undesirable effects of chemicals on living systems, from individual cells to complex ecosystems.

History

Prehistoric people undoubtedly recognized the beneficial or toxic effects of many plant and animal materials. The earliest written records from China and from Egypt list remedies of many types, including a few still recognized today as useful drugs. Most, however, were worthless or actually harmful. In the 2500 years or so preceding the modern era there were sporadic attempts to introduce rational methods into medicine, but none were successful owing to the dominance of systems of thought that purported to explain all of biology and disease without the need for experimentation and observation. These schools promulgated bizarre notions such as the idea that disease was caused by excesses of bile or blood in the body, that wounds could be healed by applying a salve to the weapon that caused the wound, and so on.

Around the end of the 17th century, reliance onobservation and experimentation began to replace theorizing in medicine, following the example of the physical sciences. As the value of these methods in the study of disease became clear, physicians in Great Britain and elsewhere in Europe began to apply them to the effects of traditional drugs used in their own practices. Thus, materia medica, the science of drug preparation and the medical use of drugs, began to develop as the precursor to pharmacology. However, any understanding of the mechanisms of action of drugs was prevented by the absence of methods for purifying active agents from the crude materials that were available and-even more-by the lack of methods for testing hypotheses about the nature of drug actions. However, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Francois Magendie and later his student Claude Bernard began to develop the methods of experimental animal physiology and pharmacology. Advances in chemistry and the further development of physiology in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries laid the foundation needed for understanding how drugs work at the organ and tissue levels. Paradoxically, real advances in basic pharmacology during the 19th century were accompanied by an outburst of unscientific promotion by manufacturers and marketers of worthless "patent medicines." It was not until the concepts of rational therapeutics, especially that of the controlled clinical trial, were reintroduced into medicine-about 50 years ago-that it became possible to accurately evaluate therapeutic claims.

About 50 years ago, there also began a major expansion of research efforts in all areas of biology. As new concepts and new techniques were introduced, information accumulated about drug action and the biologic substrate of that action, the receptor. During this half-century, many fundamentally new drug groups and new members of old groups have been introduced. The last 3 decades have seen an even more rapid growth of information and understanding of the molecular basis for drug action. The molecular mechanisms of action of many drugs have now been identified, and numerous receptors have been isolated, structurally characterized, and cloned. Much of that progress is summarized in this book.

The extension of scientific principles into everyday therapeutics is still going on, though the medicationconsuming public, unfortunately, is still exposed to vast amounts of inaccurate, incomplete, or unscientific information regarding the pharmacologic effects of chemicals. This has resulted in the faddish use of innumerable expensive, ineffective, and sometimes harmful remedies and the growth of a huge "alternative health care" industry. Conversely, lack of understanding of basic scientific principles in biology and statistics and the absence of critical thinking about public health issues has led to rejection of medical science by a segment of the public and a tendency to assume that all adverse drug effects are the result of malpractice.

The Nature of Drugs

In the most general sense, a drug may be defined as any substance that brings about a change in biologic function through its chemical actions. In the great majority of cases, the drug molecule interacts with a specific molecule in the biologic system that plays a regulatory role, ie, a receptor molecule. The nature of receptors is discussed more fully in Chapter 2. In a very small number of cases, drugs known as chemical antagonists may interact directly with other drugs, while a few drugs (eg, osmotic agents) interact almost exclusively with water molecules. Drugs may be synthesized within the body (eg, hormones) or may be chemicals not synthesized in the body, ie, xenobiotics (from Gr xenos "stranger"). Poisons are drugs. Toxins are usually defined as poisons of biologic origin, ie, synthesized by plants or animals, in contrast to inorganic poisons such as lead and arsenic.

In order to interact chemically with its receptor, a drug molecule must have the appropriate size, electrical charge, shape, and atomic composition. Furthermore, a drug is often administered at a location distant from its intended site of action, eg, a pill given orally to relieve a headache. Therefore, a useful drug must have the necessary properties to be transported from its site of administration to its site of action. Finally, a practical drug should be inactivated or excreted from the body at a reasonable rate so that its actions will be of appropriate duration.

A. The Physical Nature of Drugs: Drugs may be solid at room temperature (eg, aspirin, atropine), liquid (eg, nicotine, ethanol), or gaseous (eg, nitrous oxide). These factors often determine the best route of administration. For example, some liquid drugs are easily vaporized and can be inhaled in that form, eg, halothane, amylnitrite. The common routes of administration are listed in Table 3-3. The various classes of organic compounds-carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and their constituents-are all represented in pharmacology. Many drugs are weak acids or bases. This fact has important implications for the way they are handled by the body, because pH differences in the various compartments of the body may alter the degree of ionization of such drugs (see below).

B. Drug Size: The molecular size of drugs varies from very small (lithium ion, MW 7) to very large (eg, alteplase [t-PA], a protein of MW 59,050). However, the vast majority of drugs have molecular weights between 100 and 1000. The lower limit of this narrow range is probably set by the requirements for specificity of action. In order to have a good "fit" to only one type of receptor, a drug molecule must be sufficiently unique in shape, charge, etc, to prevent its binding to other receptors. To achieve such selective binding, it appears that a molecule should in most cases be at least 100 MW units in size. The upper limit in molecular weight is determined primarily by the requirement that drugs be able to move within the body (eg, from site of administration to site of action). Drugs much larger than MW 1000 will not diffuse readily between compartments of the body (see Permeation, below). Therefore, very large drugs (usually proteins) must be administered directly into the compartment where they have their effect. In the case of alteplase, a clot-dissolving enzyme, the drug is administered directly into the vascular compartment by intravenous infusion.

C. Drug Reactivity and Drug-Receptor Bonds: Drugs interact with receptors by means of chemical forces or bonds. These are of three major types: covalent, electrostatic, and hydrophobic. Covalent bonds are very strong and in many cases not reversible under biologic conditions. Thus, the covalent bond formed between the activated form of phenoxybenzamine and the a receptor for norepinephrine (which results in blockade of the receptor) is not readily broken. The blocking effect of phenoxybenzamine lasts long after the free drug has disappeared from the bloodstream and is reversed only by the synthesis of new a receptors, a process that takes about 48 hours. Other examples of highly reactive, covalent bond-forming drugs are the DNA-alkylating agents used in cancer chemotherapy to disrupt cell division in the neoplastic tissue.

Electrostatic bonding is much more common than covalent bonding in drug-receptor interactions. Electrostatic bonds vary from relatively strong linkages between permanently charged ionic molecules to weaker hydrogen bonds and very weak induced dipole interactions such as van der Waals forces and similar phenomena. Electrostatic bonds are weaker than covalent bonds.

Hydrophobic bonds are usually quite weak and are probably important in the interactions of highly lipidsoluble drugs with the lipids of cell membranes and...

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Table of Contents

Section I. Basic Principles

1. Introduction, Bertram G. Katzung

2. Drug Receptors & Pharmacodynamics, Mark von Zastrow and Henry R. Bourne

3. Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics: Rational Dosing & the Time Course of Drug Action, Nicholas H.G. Holford

4. Drug Biotransformation, Maria Almira Correia

5. Development and Regulation of Drugs, Barry A. Berkowitz

Section II. Autonomic Drugs

6. Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology, Bertram G. Katzung

7. Cholinoceptor-Activating & Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Drugs, Achilles J. Pappano

8. Cholinoceptor-Blocking Drugs, Achilles J. Pappano

9. Adrenoceptor Agonists & Sympathomimetic Drugs, Italo Biaggioni and David Robertson

10. Adrenoceptor Antagonist Drugs, David Robertson and Italo Biaggioni

Section III. Cardiovascular-Renal Drugs 11. Antihypertensive Agents, Neal L. Benowitz

12. Vasodilators & the Treatment of Angina Pectoris, Bertram G. Katzung and Kanu Chatterjee

13. Drugs Used in Heart Failure, Bertram Katzung and William W. Parmley

14. Agents Used in Cardiac Arrhythmias, Joseph R. Hume and Augustus O. Grant

15. Diuretic Agents, Harlan E. Ives

Section IV. Drugs With Important Actions on Smooth Muscle

16. Histamine, Serotonin, & the Ergot Alkaloids, Bertram G. Katzung

17. Vasoactive Peptides, Ian A. Reid

18. The Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrienes, & Related Compounds, Emer M. Smyth and Garret A. FitzGerald

19. Nitric Oxide, Samie R. Jaffrey

20. Drugs Used in Asthma, Homer A. Boushey

Section V. Drugs That Act In The Central Nervous System

21. Introduction to the Pharmacology of CNS Drugs, Roger A. Nicoll

22. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs, Anthony J. Trevor and Walter L. Way

23. The Alcohols, Susan B. Masters

24. Antiseizure Drugs, Roger J. Porter and Brian S. Meldrum

25. General Anesthetics, Paul F. White and Anthony J. Trevor

26. Local Anesthetics, Bertram G. Katzung and Paul F. White

27. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Paul F. White and Bertram G. Katzung

28. Pharmacologic Management of Parkinsonism & Other Movement Disorders, Michael J. Aminoff

29. Antipsychotic Agents & Lithium, Herbert Meltzer

30. Antidepressant Agents, Charles DeBattista

31. Opioid Analgesics & Antagonists, Mark A. Schumacher, Allan I. Basbaum, and Walter L. Way

32. Drugs of Abuse, Christian Luscher

Section VI. Drugs Used to Treat Diseases of the Blood, Inflammation, & Gout

33. Agents Used in Anemias; Hematopoietic Growth Factors, Susan B. Masters

34. Drugs Used in Disorders of Coagulation, James L. Zehnder

35. Agents Used in Dyslipidemia, Mary J. Malloy and John P. Kane

36. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs, Nonopioid Analgesics, and Drugs Used in Gout, Daniel E. Furst, Robert W. Ulrich, and Cissy Varkey-Altamirano

Section VII. Endocrine Drugs

37. Hypothalamic & Pituitary Hormones, Susan B. Masters

38. Thyroid & Antithyroid Drugs, Betty J. Dong and Francis S. Greenspan

39. Adrenocorticosteroids & Adrenocortical Antagonists, George P. Chrousos

40. The Gonadal Hormones & Inhibitors, George P. Chrousos

41. Pancreatic Hormones & Antidiabetic Druigs, Martha S. Nolte

42. Agents That Affect Bone Mineral Homeostasis, Daniel D. Bikle

Section VIII. Chemotherapeutic Drugs

43. Beta-Lactam & Other Cell Wall- & Membrane Active Antibiotics, Henry F. Chambers and Daniel H. Deck

44. Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol, Streptogramins, & Oxazolidinones, Henry F. Chambers and Daniel H. Deck

45. Aminoglycosides & Spectinomycin, Henry F. Chambers and Daniel H. Deck

46. Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim, & Quinolones, Henry F. Chambers and Daniel H. Deck

47. Antimycobacterial Drugs, Henry F. Chambers and Daniel H. Deck

48. Antifungal Agents, Don Sheppard and Harry W. Lampiris

49. Antiviral Agents, Sharon Safrin

50. Miscellaneous Antimicrobial Agents; Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants, Henry F. Chambers and Daniel H. Deck

51. Clinical Use of Antimicrobial Agents, Harry W. Lampiris and Daniel S. Maddix

52. Antiprotozoal Drugs, Philip J. Rosenthal

53. Clinical Pharmacology of the Antihelminthic Drugs, Philip J. Rosenthal

54. Cancer Chemotherapy, Edward Chu and Alan C. Sartorelli

55. Immunopharmacology, Douglas F. Lake, Adrienne D. Briggs, and Emmanuel T. Akporiaye

Section IX. Toxicology

56. Introduction to Toxicology: Occupational & Environmental, Daniel T. Teitelbaum

57. Heavy Metal Intoxication & Chelators, Michael J. Kosnett58. Management of the Poisoned Patient, Kent R. Olson

Section X. Special Topics

59. Special Aspects of Perinatal & Pediatric Pharmacology, Gideon Koren

60. Special Aspects of Geriatric Pharmacology, Bertram G. Katzung

61. Dermatologic Pharmacology, Dirk B. Robertson and Howard I. Maibach

62. Drugs Used in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases, Kenneth R. McQuaid

63. Therapeutic & Toxic Potential of Over-the-Counter Agents, Robin L. Corelli

64. Dietary Supplements & Herbal Medications, Cathi E. Dennehy and Candy Tsourounis

65. Rational Prescribing & Prescription Writing, Paul W. Lofholm and Bertram G. Katzung

66. Important Drug Interactions & Their Mechanisms, John R. Horn

Appendix: Vaccines, Immune Globulins, & Other Complex Biologic Products, Harry W. Palpiris and Daniel S. Maddix

Index
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Preface

This book is designed to provide a complete, authoritative, current, and readable pharmacology textbook for medical, pharmacy, and other health science students. It also offers special features that make it useful to house officers and practicing clinicians.

Information is organized according to the sequence used in many pharmacology courses: basic principles; autonomic drugs; cardiovascular-renal drugs; drugs with important actions on smooth muscle; central nervous system drugs; drugs used to treat inflammation, gout, and diseases of the blood; endocrine drugs; chemotherapeutic drugs; toxicology; and special topics. This sequence builds new information on a foundation of information already assimilated. For example, early presentation of autonomic pharmacology allows students to integrate the physiology and neuroscience they know with the pharmacology they are learning and prepares them to understand the autonomic effects of other drugs. This is especially important for the cardiovascular and central nervous system drug groups. However, chapters can be used equally well in courses that present these topics in a different sequence.

Within each chapter, emphasis is placed on discussion of drug groups and prototypes rather than offering repetitive detail about individual drugs. Selection of the subject matter and the order of its presentation are based on the accumulated experience of teaching this material to thousands of medical, pharmacy, dental, podiatry, nursing, and other health science students.

Major features that make this book especially useful to professional students include sections that specifically address the clinical choice and use of drugs in patients and themonitoring of their effects-in other words, clinical pharmacology is an integral part of this text. Lists of the commercial preparations available, including trade and generic names and dosage formulations, are provided at the end of each chapter for easy reference by the house officer or practitioner writing a chart order or prescription.

The nomenclature of recognized receptors is still somewhat unstable at present. In order to minimize discrepancies, we have in most cases chosen to use the receptor names given in the 1999 and 2000 issues of Receptor Nomenclature Supplement (special annual issue of Trends in Pharmacological Sciences). Enzymes are named according to the contributor's judgment of the best current usage, usually that of 1992 Enzyme Nomenclature, Academic Press, 1992.

Significant revisions in this edition include the following:

  • A new chapter on botanicals (herbal medications) and food supplements-an area of increasing importance for health practitioners
  • Major revision of the chapter on anti-inflammatory drugs, including important new disease-modifying agents
  • Major revision of the chapter on anemia and colony-stimulating factors
  • Major revision of the chapter on the treatment of clotting disorders
  • Major revision of the chapters on steroid drugs
  • Major revision of the chapter on antiprotozoal drugs
  • New figures, most in color, that help to clarify important concepts in pharmacology
  • New special-interest text boxes that provide working examples of the text material or serve to point out items of particular interest
  • Continuing expansion of the coverage of general concepts relating to receptors and listings of newly discovered receptors
  • Recent changes in the clinical management of antibiotic-resistant infections, AIDS, asthma, and congestive heart failure
  • Descriptions of important new drugs released through March 2000
  • Revised bibliographies with many new references through March 2000

An important related source of information is Pharmacology: Examination & Board Review, 5th ed. (Katzung BG, Trevor AJ: Appleton & Lange/McGraw-Hill, 1998). This book provides a succinct review of pharmacology with one of the largest available collections of sample examination questions and answers. It is especially helpful to students preparing for board-type examinations.

The widespread acceptance of the first seven editions of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology over more than 15 years suggests that this book fills an important need. We believe that the eighth edition will satisfy this need even more successfully. Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Indonesian translations are available. Translations into other languages are under way; the publisher may be contacted for further information.

I wish to acknowledge the ongoing efforts of my contributing authors and the major contributions of the staff at Appleton & Lange and more recently at McGraw-Hill, and of our editor, James Ransom. I also wish to thank my wife, Alice, for her expert proofreading contributions since the first edition.

Suggestions and comments about Basic & Clinical Pharmacology are always welcome. They may be sent to me at the Department of Cellular & Molecular Pharmacology, Box 0450, S-1210, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0450.

San Francisco
September 2000

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