Basic Biostatistics

Basic Biostatistics

by B. Burt Gerstman
     
 

ISBN-10: 0763781339

ISBN-13: 9780763781330

Pub. Date: 01/28/2008

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Basic Biostatistics is a concise, introductory text that covers biostatistical principles and focuses on the common types of data encountered in public health and biomedical fields. The text puts equal emphasis on exploratory and confirmatory statistical methods. Sampling, exploratory data analysis, estimation, hypothesis testing, and power and precision are covered…  See more details below

Overview

Basic Biostatistics is a concise, introductory text that covers biostatistical principles and focuses on the common types of data encountered in public health and biomedical fields. The text puts equal emphasis on exploratory and confirmatory statistical methods. Sampling, exploratory data analysis, estimation, hypothesis testing, and power and precision are covered through detailed, illustrative examples.

The book is organized into three parts: Part I addresses basic concepts and techniques; Part II covers analytic techniques for quantitative response variables; and Part III covers techniques for categorical responses.

The Second Edition offers many new exercises as well as an all new chapter on "Poisson Random Variables and the Analysis of Rates."

With language, examples, and exercises that are accessible to students with modest mathematical backgrounds, this is the perfect introductory biostatistics text for undergraduates and graduates in various fields of public health.

Features:

Illustrative, relevant examples and exercises incorporated throughout the book.
Answers to odd-numbered exercises provided in the back of the book. (Instructors may requests answers to even-numbered exercises from the publisher.
Chapters are intentionally brief and limited in scope to allow for flexibility in the order of coverage.
Equal attention is given to manual calculations as well as the use of statistical software such as StaTable, SPSS, and WinPepi.
Comprehensive Companion Website with Student and Instructor's Resources.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780763781330
Publisher:
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date:
01/28/2008
Edition description:
1E
Pages:
557
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.40(d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Author xv

Part I General Concept and Techniques 1

Chapter 1 Measurement 3

1.1 What Is Biostatistics ? 3

1.2 Organization of Data 3

1.3 Types of Measurement Scales 7

1.4 Data Quality 9

Chapter 2 Types of Studies 21

2.1 Surveys 21

2.2 Comparative Studies 28

Chapter 3 Frequency Distributions 43

3.1 Stemplots 43

3.2 Frequency Tables 59

3.3 Additional Frequency Charts 63

Chapter 4 Summary Statistics 77

4.1 Central Location: Mean 77

4.2 Central Location: Median 82

4.3 Central Location: Mode 83

4.4 Comparison of the Mean, Median, and Mode 83

4.5 Spread: Quartiles 84

4.6 Boxplots 88

4.7 Spread: Variance and Standard Deviation 91

4.8 Selecting Summary Statistics 96

Chapter 5 Probability Concepts 105

5.1 What Is Probability? 105

5.2 Types of Random Variables 108

5.3 Discrete Random Variables 109

5.4 Continuous Random Variables 115

5.5 More Rules and Properties of Probability 120

Chapter 6 Binomial Probability Distributions 133

6.1 Binomial Random Variables 133

6.2 Calculating Binomial Probabilities 134

6.3 Cumulative Probabilities 137

6.4 Probability Calculators 138

6.5 Expected Value and Variance of a Binomial Random Variable 140

6.6 Using the Binomial Distribution to Help Make Judgments About the Role of Chance 141

Chapter 7 Normal Probability Distributions 147

7.1 Normal Distributions 147

7.2 Determining Normal Probabilities 156

7.3 Finding Values that Correspond to Normal Probabilities 162

7.4 Assessing Departures from Normality 164

Chapter 8 Introduction to Statistical Inference 175

8.1 Concepts 175

8.2 Sampling Behavior of a Mean 178

8.3 Sampling Behavior of a Count and Proportion 186

Chapter 9 Basics of Hypothesis Testing 197

9.1 The Null and Alternative Hypotheses 198

9.2 Test Statistic 199

9.3 P-Value 202

9.4 Significance Level and Conclusion 204

9.5 One-Sample Test 205

9.6 Power and Sample Size 209

Chapter 10 Basics of Confidence Intervals 219

10.1 Introduction to Estimation 219

10.2 Confidence Intervals for μ When σ Known 221

10.3 Sample Size Requirements 225

10.4 Relationship Between Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals 227

Part II Quantitative Response Variable 235

Chapter 11 Inference About a Mean 237

11.1 Estimated Standard Error of the Mean 237

11.2 Student's t-Distributions 238

11.3 One-Sample t-Test 242

11.4 Confidence Interval for μ 245

11.5 Paired Samples 246

11.6 Conditions for Inference 252

11.7 Sample Size and Power 253

Chapter 12 Comparing Independent Means 267

12.1 Paired and Independent Samples 267

12.2 Exploratory and Descriptive Statistics 271

12.3 Inference About the Mean Difference 275

12.4 Equal Variance t Procedure (Optional) 279

12.5 Conditions for Inference 280

12.6 Sample Size and Power 282

Chapter 13 Comparing Several Means {One-Way Analysis of Variance) 295

13.1 Descriptive Statistics 297

13.2 The Problem of Multiple Comparisons 300

13.3 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 302

13.4 Post Hoc Comparisons 311

13.5 The Equal Variance Assumption 316

13.6 Introduction to Rank-Based Tests 321

Chapter 14 Correlation and Regression 333

14.1 Data 333

14.2 Scatterplot 334|3 14.3 Correlation 337

14.4 Regression 349

Chapter 15 Multiple Linear Regression 377

15.1 The General Idea 377

15.2 The Multiple Linear Regression Model 378

15.3 Categorical Explanatory Variables in Regression Models 380

15.4 Regression Coefficients 383

15.5 ANOVA for Multiple Linear Regression 385

15.6 Examining Multiple Regression Conditions 389

Part III Categorical Response Variable 393

Chapter 16 Inference About a Proportion 395

16.1 Proportions 395

16.2 The Sampling Distribution of a Proportion 398

16.3 Hypothesis Test, Normal Approximation Method 400

16.4 Hypothesis Test, Exact Binomial Method 403

16.5 Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 409

16.6 Sample Size and Power 412

Chapter 17 Comparing Two Proportions 423

17.1 Data 423

17.2 Proportion Difference (Risk Difference) 424

17.3 Hypothesis Test 429

17.4 Proportion Ratio (Relative Risk) 439

17.5 Systematic Sources of Error 442

17.6 Power and Sample Size 445

Chapter 18 Cross-Tabulated Counts 459

18.1 Types of Samples 459

18.2 Describing Naturalistic and Cohort Samples 461

18.3 Chi-Square Test of Association 473

18.4 Test for Trend 483

18.5 Case-Control Samples 488

18.6 Matched Pairs 497

Chapter 19 Stratified Two-by-Two Tables 517

19.1 Preventing Confounding 517

19.2 Simpson's Paradox 518

19.3 Mantel-Haenszel Methods 520

19.4 Interaction 526

Appendix A 539

Appendix B 541

Appendix C 545

Appendix D 549

Appendix E 555

Appendix F 557

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 561

Index 633

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