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Overview

Engineers who need to have a better understanding of chemistry will benefit from this accessible book. It places a stronger emphasis on outcomes assessment, which is the driving force for many of the new features. Each section focuses on the development and assessment of one or two specific objectives. Within each section, a specific objective is included, an anticipatory set to orient the reader, content discussion from established authors, and guided practice problems for relevant objectives. These features are followed by a set of independent practice problems. The expanded Making it Real feature showcases topics of current interest relating to the subject at hand such as chemical forensics and more medical related topics. Numerous worked examples in the text now include Analysis and Synthesis sections, which allow engineers to explore concepts in greater depth, and discuss outside relevance.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A text for preparatory chemistry courses as well as one-semester general purpose courses. Chapters begin with references to current topics<-->such as early results from the Galileo probe to Jupiter, global warming, or the nature of lightning. Appendixes designed to alleviate math-anxiety provide discussions of mathematical concepts, as well as examples and sample problems in the areas of basic arithmetic, algebra, and scientific notation. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Booknews
Third edition of a standard elementary textbook for majors. Designed with flexibility; written in a conversational style. No bibliography. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471741541
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/3/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 8
  • Pages: 656
  • Sales rank: 1,254,501
  • Product dimensions: 8.80 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

PROLOGUE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF CHEMISTRY A.  The Creation of Matter B.  The Mystery of Fire C.  The Scientific Method D.  The Study of Chemistry and Using This Textbook

CHAPTER 1 MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY

Part A  The Numbers Used in Chemistry
1-1   The Numerical Value of a Measurement
1-1.1 The Qualities of a Number
1-1.2 Zero as a Significant Figure
1-2   Significant Figures and Mathematical Operations
1-2.1 Rules for Addition and Subtraction and Rounding Off
1-2.2 Rules for Multiplication and Division
1-3   Expressing Large and Small Numbers: Scientific Notation
1-3.1 Changing Numbers into Scientific Notation
1-3.2 Mathematical Manipulation of Scientific Notation Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  The Measurements Used in Chemistry
1-4   Measurement of Mass, Length, and Volume
1-4.1 The English System of Measurements
1-4.2 The Metric System of Measurements
1-4.3 The Prefixes Used in the Metric System
1-4.4 Relationships Between the Metric and English Systems
1-5   Conversion of Units by the Factor-Label Method
1-5.1 Relationships as Conversion Factors
1-5.2 One Step Conversions and Unit Maps
1-5.3 Multistep Conversions
1-6   Measurement of Temperature
1-6.1 Thermometer Scales
1-6.2 Relationships Between Scales Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review

CHAPTER 2   ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

Part A  The Elements and Their Composition
2-1   The Elements
2-1.1 Free Elements in Nature
2-1.2 The Names of Elements
2.1.3 The Distribution of the Elements
2-1.4 The Symbols of the Elements  
2-2   The Composition of Elements:  Atomic Theory
2-2.1 The Atomic Theory
2-2.2 The Size of an Atom

2-3   Composition of the Atom  
2-3.1 The Electron and Electrostatic Forces
2-3.2 The Nuclear Model of the Atom
2-3.3 The Particles in the Nucleus 
2-4   Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Atomic Mass
2-4.1 Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes
2-4.2 Isotopic Mass and Atomic Mass   
Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A 

Part B  Compounds and Their Composition
2-5   Molecular Compounds
2-5.1 Recognizing the Names of Compounds
2.5.2 Molecules, Molecular Compounds, and Covalent Bonds
2-5.3 The Formulas of Molecular Compounds
2.5.4 Molecular Elements

2-6   Ionic Compounds
2-6.1 Cations and Anions
2-6.2 The Origin of the Charge on Ions
2-6.3 The Formulas of Ionic Compounds Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review

CHAPTER 3   THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND ENERGY

Part A  The Properties of Matter
3-1 The Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter
3-1.1 The Physical States of Matter
3-1.2 Changes in Physical State
3-1.3 Types of Physical Properties
3-1.4 Chemical Changes and Chemical Properties
3-1.5 Chemical Change and Conservation of Mass
3-2  Density – A Physical Property
3-2.1 Density as a Physical Property
3-2.2 Density as a Conversion Factor
3-2.3 Specific Gravity

3-3  The Properties of Mixtures
3-3.1 Heterogeneous Mixtures
3-3.2 Homogeneous Mixtures and Solutions
3-3.3 Alloys - Homogeneous Mixtures of Metals Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  Energy and Its Interaction With Matter
3-4  The Forms and Types of Energy
3-4.1 Forms of Energy
3-4.2 Exothermic and Endothermic Changes
3-4.3 Kinetic and Potential Energy
3-5  Energy Measurement and Specific Heat
3-5.1 Units of Heat Energy
3-5.2 The Nutritional Calorie and Heat Exchange Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B

CHAPTER 4  THE PERIODIC TABLE AND CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE

Part A  Relationships Among the Elements and the Periodic Table
4-1   The Origin of the Periodic Table
4-1.1  Metals and Nonmetals
4-1.2 Two Kinds of Metals
4-1.3 The Origin of the Periodic Table
4-2   Using the Periodic Table
4-2.1 Locating the Metals and Nonmtals
4-2.2 Periods
4-2.3 Groups
4-2.4  Physical States and the Periodic Table Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B Formulas and Names of Compounds
4-3   Naming and Writing Formulas of Metal–Nonmetal Binary Compounds
4-3.1 Metals with Ions of Only One Charge
4-3.2 Metals with Ions of More Than One Charge
4-4  Naming and Writing Formulas of Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
4-4.1  Oxyanions
4-4.2 Naming and Writing the Formulas of Salts with Polyatomic Ions
4-5   Naming Nonmetal-Nonmetal Binary Compounds
4-5.1 Writing the Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds
4-5.2 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
4-6   Naming Acids
4-6.1  Binary Acids
4-6.2  Oxyacids Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review CHAPTER 5  CHEMICAL REACTIONSC

Part A  The Representation of Chemical Changes and Some Types of Changes
5-1 Chemical Equations
5-1.1 Constructing an Equation

5-1.2 Rules for Balancing Equations
5-2 Combustion, Combination, and Decomposition Reactions
5-2.1 Combustion Reactions
5-2.2 Combination Reactions
5-2.3 Decomposition Reactions Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B Ions in Water and How They  React
5-3 The Formation of Ions in Water 
5-3.1 Salts in Aqueous Solution
5-3.2 Strong Acids in Aqueous Solution
5-4 Single-Replacement Reactions
5-4.1  Types of Equations
5-4.2 The Activity Series
5-5 Double-Replacement Reactions-Precipitation
5-5.1 Soluble and Insoluble Ionic Compounds
5-5.2  Formation of a Precipitate
5-5.3  Rules for Writing Precipitation Reactions
5-6 Double-Replacement Reactions-Neutralization
5-6.1 Strong Acids and Strong Bases
5-6.2  Neutralization Reactions Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A Chapter Review

CHAPTER 6  QUANTATIES  IN CHEMISTRY

Part A  The Measurement of Mass of Elements and Compounds
6-1   Relative Masses of Elements
6-1.1 The Mass of an Atom
6-1.2 Counting by Weighing
6-2  The Mole and the Molar Mass of Elements
6-2.1 The Definition of the Mole
6-2.2 The Meaning of a Mole
6-2.3 Relationships Among Dozens (the unit), Number, and Mass
6-2.4 Relationships Among Moles (the unit), Number, and Mass
6-3   The Molar Mass of Compounds
6-3.1 The Formula Weight of a Compound
6-3.3  The Molar Mass of a Compound Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  The Mass of Compounds and Their Component Elements
6-4   The Composition of Compounds
6-4.1 The Mole Composition of a Compound
6-4.2 The Mass Composition of a Compound
6-4.3 The Percent Composition of a Compound
6-6   Empirical and Molecular Formulas
6-5.1 Empirical Formulas
6-5.2 Calculating Empirical Formulas
6-5.3 The Molecular Formula of a Compound Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A Chapter Review

CHAPTER 7 Quantitative Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Part A  The Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions
7-1   Stoichiometry
7-1.1 Overview of Stoichiometry
7-1.2 The Mole Ratio
7-1.3 Stoichiometry  Problems
7-2   Limiting Reactant
7-2.1 The Definition of Limiting Reactant
7-2.2 Solving Limiting Reactant Problems
7-3  Percent Yield Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions
7-4   Heat Energy in Chemical Reactions
7-4.1 Thermochemical Equations
7-4.2 Calculation of Heat Energy in a Reaction Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review CHAPTER 8  MODERN ATOMIC THEORY

Part A  The Energy of the Electron in the Atom
8-1 The Emission Spectra of the Elements and Bohr’s Model
8-1.1 Electromagnetic Radiation and Wavelength
8-1.2 The Continuous Spectrum 
8-1.3 The Discrete Spectrum 
8-1.4 Bohr’s Model
8-1.5 Quantized Energy Levels
8-1.6 The Ground State and Excited States 
8-2   Modern Atomic Theory - A Closer Look at Energy Levels
8-2.1 The Wave Mechanical Model
8-2.2 The First Shell and s Orbitals
8-2.3 The Second Shell and p Orbitals
8-2.4 Outer Shells with  d and f Orbitals Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B The Periodic Table and Electron Configuration
8-3   Electron Configuration of the Elements
8-3.1 The Aufbau Principle and Electron Configuration
8-3.2 Assignment of Electrons into Shells and Subshells
8-3.3  Exceptions to the Normal Order of Filling
8-3.4 Using the Periodic Table to Determine Electron Configuration
8-3.5  Electron  Configurations of Specific Groups
8-4   Orbital Diagrams of the Elements
8-4.1  The Pauli Exclusion Principle and Orbital Diagrams
8-4.2  Hund’s Rule Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B
8-5   Periodic Trends
8-5.1 Atomic Radius
8-5.2  Ionization Energy
8-5.3 Ionic Radii Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review

CHAPTER 9    THE CHEMICAL BOND

Part A  Chemical Bonds and the Nature of Ionic Compounds
9.-1  Bond Formation and Representative Elements
9-1.1 The Octet Rule
9-1.2 Valence Electrons and Dot Symbols
9-2  Formation of Ions and Ionic Compounds
9-2.1 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds
9-2.2 Other Representative Element Ions
9-2.3 The Physical State of Ionic Compounds Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  Chemical Bonds and the Nature of Molecular Compounds
9-3   The Covalent Bond
9-3.1 Lewis Structures
9-3.2 Hydrogen Compounds with Other Nonmetals
9-3.3 The Electrons in Polyatomic Ions
9-3.4 Double and Triple Bonds
9-4   Writing Lewis Structures
9-4.1 Rules for Writing Lewis Structures
9-4.2  Exceptions to the Octet Rule
9-5  Resonance Structures Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B

Part C The Distribution of Charge in Chemical Bonds
9-6   Electronegativity and Polarity of Bonds
9-6.1  Electronegativity
9-6.2 Representing Polar bonds
9-6.3  Predicting the Polarity of Bonds
9-7   Geometry of Simple Molecules
9-7.1  VSEPR Theory
9-7.2  Molecular Geometry
9-8     Polarity of Molecules
9-8.1 Nonpolar Molecules
9-8.2 Polar Molecules
9-9  Formal Charge (optional)
9-9.1 Resonance Structures That Violate the Octet Rule
9-9.2 Other Applications of Formal Charge Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part C Chapter Review

CHAPTER 10  THE GASEOUS STATE

Part A  The Nature of the Gaseous State and the Effects of  Conditions
10-1   The Nature of Gaseous State and the Kinetic Molecular Theory
10-1.1 The Properties of Gases
10-1.2  The Kinetic Molecular Theory
10-1.3  Graham’s Law
10-2   The Pressure of a Gas and Boyle’s Law
10-2.1 The Barometer and Pressure
10-2.2  Boyle’s Law   
10-3   Charles’s, Gay-Lussac’s, and Avogadro’s Laws 
10-3.1 Charles’s Law
10-3.2  Gay-Lussac’s Law
10-3.3  The Combined Gas Law
10-3.4 Avogadro’s Law  
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A    

Part B  Relationships Among Quantities of Gases, Conditions, and Chemical Reactions
10-4   The Ideal Gas Law
10-4.1  Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law
10-4.2 The Meaning of an Ideal Gas
10-5   Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
10-6  The Molar Volume and Density of a Gas
10-6.1  The Molar Volume
10-6.2 Density of a Gas at STP
10-7   Stoichiometry Involving Gases
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B
 Chapter Review

CHAPTER 11  THE SOLID AND THE LIQUID STATES

Part A  The Properties of Condensed States and the Forces Involved
11-1 Properties of the Solid and Liquid States
11-1.1 Properties of the Condensed States
11-1.2 The Condensed States and Kinetic Theory

11-2 Intermolecular Forces and Physical State
11-2.1 London Forces
11-2.2  Dipole-Dipole Forces
11-2.3  Hydrogen Bonding
11-3 The Solid State: Melting Point
11-3.1 Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
11-3.2 Ionic Solids
11-3.3 Molecular Solids
11-3.4 Network Solids
11-3.5 Metallic Solids
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  The Liquid State and Changes in State
11-4 The Liquid State: Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Boiling Point
11-4.1 Surface Tension
11-4.2 Viscosity
11-4.3 Vapor Pressure
11-4.4 Boiling Point
11-5 Energy and Changes in State
11-5.1 Melting and Freezing
11-5.2 Boiling and Condensation
11-6 The Heating Curve of Water
11-6.1  Heating Ice
11-6.2 Melting Ice
11-6.3 Heating Water
11-6.4 Vaporizing Water
11-6.5 Heating Vapor Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review 

CHAPTER 12  AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

Part A  Solutions and the Quantities Involved
12-1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions
12-1.1  Mixtures of Two Liquids
12-1.2  The Formation of Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Compounds
12-1.3  Formation of Aqueous Solutions of Molecular Compounds
12-2 The Effects of  Temperature and Pressure on Solubility
12-2.1 Saturation of a Solution
12-2.2  The Effect of Temperature on the Solubility of Solids in Water
12-2.3  The Effect of Temperature on the Solubility of Gases in Water
12-2.4 The Effect of Pressure on Solubility
12-3  Concentration: Percent by Weight
12-2.1  Parts per Million and Parts per Billion
12-2.2  Other Concentration Units Using Percent
12-4 Molarity  and Dilution of Concentrated Solutions
12-1.1  Calculations Involving Molarity
12-4.2  Dilution of Concentrated Solutions
12-5  Stoichiometry Involving Solutions
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  The Effects of the Presence of Solutes in Water
12-6  Electrical Properties of Solutions
12-6.1 Conduction of Electricity
12-6.2  Nonelectrolytes and Electrolytes
12-6  Physical Properties of Solutions
12-7.1  Vapor Pressure
12-7.2  Boiling Point
12-7.3  Melting Point
12-7.4  Osmotic Pressure
12-7.5  Electrolytes and Colligative Properties Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review 

CHAPTER 13  ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS

Part A  Acids, Bases, and the Formation of Salts
13-1 Properties of Acids and Bases
13-1.1  Arrhenius Acids and Bases
13-1.2 Strong Acids in Water
13-1.3  Strong Bases in Water
13-2  Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
13-2.1  Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
13-2.2  Amphiprotic Ions
13-3 Strengths of Acids and Bases
13-3.1  The Strength of Acids
13-3.2 The Strength of Bases
13-4 Neutralization and Salts
13-4.1 Neutralization of a Strong Acid with a Strong Base
13-4.2  Neutralization of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base
13-4.3  Neutralization  of a Polyprotic Acid with a Strong Base Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  The Measurement of Acid Strength
13-5 Equilibrium of Water

13-5.1  Autoionization
13-5.2  The Ion Product of Water
13-6 pH Scale
13-6.1  The Definition of pH
13-6.2  pH and the Acidity of Solutions Summary of Major Concepts in Part B

Part C  Salts and Oxides as Acids and Bases
13-7 The Effect of Salts on pH – Hydorlysis
13-7.1  Anion Hydrolysis

13-7.2  Cation Hydrolysis
13-7.3  Aqueous Solutions of Salts
13-8  Control of pH - Buffer Solutions
13-8.1  The Function of a Buffer
13-8.2  The Composition of a Buffer
13-9  Oxides as Acids and Bases
13-9.1  Acid Anhydrides
13-9.2  Base Anhydrides Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part C Chapter Review

CHAPTER 14  OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS

Part A  Redox Reactions – The Exchange of Electrons
14-1  The Nature of Oxidation and Reduction and Oxidation States
14-1.1  Half-Reactions
14-1.2  Redox Reactions
14-1.3 Oxidation States
14-1.4  Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions
14-2  Balancing Redox Equations:  Oxidation State Method
14-3  Balancing Redox Equations:  Ion-Electron Method
14-3.1 Balancing Reactions in Acidic Solution
14-3.2 Balancing Reactions in Basic Solution Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Redox Reactions
14-4  Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
14-5  Voltaic Cells
14-5.1 The Daniell Cell
14-5.2 Common Batteries
14-5.3 The Fuel Cell
14-6  Electrolytic Cells Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review

CHAPTER 15 REACTION RATES AND EQUILIBRIUM

Part A   Collisions of Molecules and Reactions at Equilibrium
15-1  How Reactions Take Place
15-1.1 Collision Theory
15-1.2 Activation Energy
15-1.3 The Heat of Reaction
15-2  The Rates of Chemical Reactions
15-2.1 The Magnitude of the Activation Energy
15-2.2 The Temperature
15-2.3 The Concentrations of Reactants
15-2.4 The Effect of Particle Size
15-2.5 The Presence of a Catalyst
15-3  Reactions at Equilbrium
15-3.1 Reversible Reactions
15-3.2 Systems at Equilibrium
15-4  Equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s Principle
15-4.1 Le Châtelier’s principle
15-4.2 Changing Concentrations
15-4.3 Changing Pressure
15-4.4 Changing Temperature
15-4.5 Adding a Catalyst Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  The Quantitative Aspects of Reactions at Equilibrium
15-5  The Equilibrium Constant
15-5.1  The Equilibrium Constant Expression
15-5.2  The Value of the Equilibrium Constant
15-6  Equilibria of Weak Acids and Bases in Water
15-6.1  Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Weak Acids and Weak Bases
15-6.2  Determining the Value of Ka or Kb
15-6.3  pKa and pKb
15-6.4 Using Ka or Kb to Determine pH
15-6.5  The pH of Buffer Solutions
15-7  Solubility Equilibria
15-7.1  The Solubility Product
15-7.2 The Value of Ksp
15-7.3 Ksp and the Formation of Precipitates Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review

CHAPTER 16  NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Part A  Naturally Occurring Radioactivity
16-1  Radioactivity
16-1.1 Alpha (a) Particles
16-1.2 Beta (b) Particles
16-1.3 Gamma (g) Rays
16-1.4 Positron Particles and Electron Capture
16-1.5 Modes of Decay
16-2  Rates of Decay of Radioactive Isotopes
16-2.1 Half-life
16-2.2 Radioactive Decay Series
16-3 Effects of Radiation
16-3.1 Generation of Heat
16-3.2 Formation of Ions and Free Radicals
16-4 Detecting and Measuring Radiation
16-4.1 Film Badges and Radon Detectors
16-4.2 Geiger and Scintillation Counters
16-4.3 Radiation and the Human Body
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  Induced Nuclear Changes and Their Uses
16-5  Nuclear Reactions
16-5.1 Transmutation
16-5.2 Particle Accelerators
16-5.3 Synthetic Heavy Elements
16-6  Applications of Radioactivity
16-6.1 Carbon Dating
16-6.2 Neutron Activation Analysis
16-6.3 Food Preservation
16-6.4 Medical Therapy and Diagnosis
16-7  Nuclear Fission and Fission
16-7.1 The Atomic Bomb
16-7.2 Nuclear Power
16-7.3 Nuclear Fusion Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B Chapter Review

CHAPTER 17   ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Part A  Hydrocarbons
17-1 Bonding in Organic compounds
17-1.1 Organic and Inorganic Compounds
17-1.2 Bonding in Organic Compounds
17-1.3 Representation of Isomers
17-1.4 Condensed Formulas
17-2 Alkanes
17-2.1 Homologous  Series
17-2.2 IUPAC Names
17-2.3 Sources of  Alkanes
17-3 Alkenes and Alkynes
17-3.1 Alkenes
17-3.2 Polymers
17-3.3 Alkynes
17-4 Aromatics
17-4.1 The Structure of Benzene
17-4.2 Derivatives of Benzene Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  Other Classes of Organic Compounds
17-5 Alcohols and Ethers
17-5.1 Alcohols
17-5.2  Ethers
17-6 Aldehydes and Ketones
17-7 Amines
17-8 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides
17-8.1 Carboxylic Acids
17-8.2 Esters
17-8.3 Amides
17-8.4 Uses in Painkillers and Polymers
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B
 Chapter Review

CHAPTER 18   BIOCHEMISTRY

Part A  Three Basic Types of Biochemical Compounds
18-1  Lipids
18-1.1 Soaponifiable Lipids
18-1.2 Complex Lipids
18-1.3 Sterioids
18-2  Carbohydrates
18-2.1 Monosaccarides
18-2.2 Ribose and Deoxyribose
18-2.3 Dissacarides
18-2.4 Polysaccharides
18-3  Amino Acids and Proteins
18-3.1 Amino Acids
18-3.2 Dipeptides
18-3.3 Proteins
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part A

Part B  Biochemical Compounds and Life Functions
18-4  Enzymes
18-4.1 The Effects of Conditions on Enzymes
18-4.2 The Mechanism of Enzyme  Activity
18-5  Nucleic Acids and Genetics
18-5.1 The Structure of DNA and RNA
18-5.2 Replication of DNA
18-5.3 Transcription and Translation
 Key Terms and Summary Charts in Part B
 Chapter Review

FOREWORD TO THE APPENDIXES

APPENDIX A  BASIC MATHEMATICS APPENDIX B  BASIC ALGEBRA APPENDIX C  SCIENTIFIC NOTATION APPENDIX D  GRAPHS APPENDIX E  CALCULATORS APPENDIX F  GLOSSARY APPENDIX G  ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS

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