Basic Statistics: A Primer for the Biomedical Sciences / Edition 4

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There have been significant changes in the way statistics are applied in the biomedical fields over the last decade. Emphasizing biomedical research methodology, this fully updated Fourth Edition of Basic Statistics clearly explains the use of exploratory data analysis, multiple regression, data collection, and nonparametric tests in contemporary studies. Through short, concise, nontechnical presentations, upper undergraduate and graduate students and practicing biostatisticians learn how to interpret and examine data from biomedical studies and apply such tools as sampling, random assignment, and biostatistical analyses in their own research.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The book is ideal for courses on biostatistics, medicine, and public health at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also appropriate as a reference for researchers and practitioners who would like to refresh their fundamental understanding of statistical techniques."  (Zentralblatt MATH, 1 August 2013)

"This fourth edition has retained all the appeal of its predecessors." (Journal of Tropical pediatrics, 1 March 2011)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470248799
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/27/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 272
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

The late OLIVE JEAN DUNN, PhD, was Professor Emerita of Biostatistics and Biomathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Dunn's academic career spanned over forty years and included significant contributions to statistical research. She was a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Public Health Association, as well as coauthor of Applied Statistics: Analysis of Variance and Regression, Third Edition (Wiley). VIRGINIA A. CLARK, PhD, is Professor Emerita of Biostatistics and Biomathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles. A Fellow of the American Statistical Association, Dr. Clark has coauthored over ninety journal articles and is coauthor of Applied Statistics: Analysis of Variance and Regression, Third Edition (Wiley).

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition.

1 Initial Steps.

1.1 Reasons for Studying Biostatistics.

1.2 Initial Steps in Designing a Biomedical Study.

1.3 Common Types of Biomedical Studies.



2 Populations and Samples.

2.1 Basic Concepts.

2.2 Definitions of Types of Samples.

2.3 Methods of Selecting Simple Random Samples.

2.4 Application of Sampling Methods in Biomedical Studies.



3 Collecting and Entering Data.

3.1 Initial Steps.

3.2 Data Entry.

3.3 Screening the Data.

3.4 Code Book.



4 Frequency Tables and Their Graphs.

4.1 Numerical Methods of Organizing Data.

4.2 Graphs.



5 Measures of Location and Variability.

5.1 Measures of Location.

5.2 Measures of Variability.

5.3 Sampling Properties of the Mean and Variance.

5.4 Considerations in Selecting Appropriate Statistics.

5.5 A Common Graphical Method for Displaying Statistics.



6 The Normal Distribution.

6.1 Properties of the Normal Distribution.

6.2 Areas Under the Normal Curve.

6.3 Importance of the Normal Distribution.

6.4 Examining Data for Normality.

6.5 Transformations.



7 Estimation of Population Means: Confidence Intervals.

7.1 Confidence Intervals.

7.2 Sample Size Needed for a Desired Confidence Interval.

7.3 The t Distribution.

7.4 Confidence Interval for the Mean, Using the t Distribution.

7.5 Estimating the Difference Between Two Means: Unpaired Data.

7.6 Estimating the Difference Between Two Means: Paired Comparison.



8 Tests of Hypotheses on Population Means.

8.1 Tests of Hypotheses for a Single Mean.

8.2 Tests for Equality of two Means: Unpaired Data.

8.3 Testing for Equality of Means: Paired Data.

8.4 Concepts Used in Statistical Testing.

8.5 Sample Size.

8.6 Confidence Intervals Versus Tests.

8.7 Correcting for Multiple Testing.

8.8 Reporting the Results.



9 Variances: Estimation and Tests.

9.1 Point Estimates for Variances and Standard Deviations.

9.2 Testing Whether Two Variances Are Equal: F Test.

9.3 Approximate t Test.

9.4 Other Tests.



10 Categorical Data: Proportions.

10.1 Single Population Proportion.

10.2 Samples from Categorical Data.

10.3 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial.

10.4 Confidence Intervals for a Single Population Proportion.

10.5 Confidence Intervals for the Difference in Two Proportions.

10.6 Tests of Hypothesis for Population Proportions.

10.7 Sample Size for Testing Two Proportions.

10.8 Data Entry and Analysis Using Statistical Programs.



11 Categorical Data: Analysis of Two-Way Frequency Tables.

11.1 Different Types of Tables.

11.2 Relative Risk and Odds Ratio.

11.3 Chi-Square Tests for Frequency Tables: two-by-two Tables.

11.4 Chi-Square Tests for Larger Tables.

11.5 Remarks.



12 Regression and Correlation.

12.1 The Scatter Diagram: Single Sample.

12.2 Linear Regression: Single Sample.

12.3 The Correlation Coefficient for two Variables from a Single Sample.

12.4 Linear Regression Assuming the Fixed-X Model.

12.5 Other Topics in Linear Regression.



13 Nonparametric Statistics.

13.1 The Sign Test.

13.2 The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

13.3 The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test.

13.4 Spearman’s Rank Correlation.



14 Introduction to Survival Analysis.

14.1 Survival Analysis Data.

14.2 Survival Functions.

14.3 Computing Estimates of f(t), S(t), and h(t).

14.4 Comparison of Clinical Life Tables and the Kaplan-Meier Method.

14.5 Additional Analyses Using Survival Data.



Appendix A: Statistical Tables.

Appendix B: Answers to Selected Problems.

Appendix C: Computer Statistical Program Resources.

C.1 Computer Systems for Biomedical Education and Research.

C.2 A Brief Indication of Statistics Computer Program Advances and Some Relevant Publications Since 2000.

C.3 Choices of Computer Statistical Software.



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