Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria / Edition 1

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Overview

Covering the major points in analytical chemistry and chemical equilibria, Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria provides an accessible introduction to key concepts that students and professionals can use in the workplace. The text's three-part structure (quantitative analysis using reactions that go to completion; reactions that do not go to completion; and instrumental methods and analytical separations) provides a cohesive framework for the user to see the build-up in sophistication of the topics. The extensive revisiting of prerequisite general chemistry topics enhances retention of the concepts.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470592083
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/22/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 426
  • Sales rank: 1,525,506
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

BRIAN M. TISSUE, PhD, is Associate Professor of Chemistry at Virginia Tech, where he teaches analytical chemistry at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. In addition to curriculum development, Dr. Tissue oversees a research program in nanomaterials and analytical spectroscopy, preparing and testing nanocomposites for catalytic activity. Among his honors, Dr. Tissue has received an NSF Career Award and a Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE ix

I QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS USING REACTIONS THAT GO TO ‘‘COMPLETION’’ 1

1 MAKING MEASUREMENTS 3

1.1 Introduction / 3

1.2 GLP and a Few Other Important Acronyms / 10

1.3 Precision and Random Error / 15

1.4 Discarding a Suspected Outlier / 25

1.5 Calibration / 28

1.6 Maintaining Accurate Results / 43

Practice Exercises / 48

2 SAMPLE PREPARATION, EXTRACTIONS, AND CHROMATOGRAPHY 53

2.1 Sampling and Control Samples / 53

2.2 Sample Preparation / 58

2.3 Solvents and Solutions / 64

2.4 Introduction to Solubility / 69

2.5 Extraction / 71

2.6 Stationary Phases / 82

2.7 Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) / 88

2.8 Introduction to Chromatography / 91

2.9 Immunoassays / 96

Practice Exercises / 97

3 CLASSICAL METHODS 103

3.1 Introduction / 103

3.2 Review of Chemical Reactions / 105

3.3 Reactions in Aqueous Solution / 111

3.4 Gravimetry / 120

3.5 Titration / 124

3.6 Titration Curves / 132

3.7 Coulometry / 134

Practice Exercises / 137

4 MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY 141

4.1 Introduction / 141

4.2 Properties of EM Radiation / 142

4.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum / 146

4.4 Spectroscopic Transitions / 147

4.5 UV/Vis Absorption Spectroscopy / 154

4.6 UV/Vis Instrumentation / 156

4.7 Beer–Lambert Law / 159

4.8 Molecular Fluorescence / 167

Practice Exercises / 171

II REACTIONS THAT DO NOT GO TO ‘‘COMPLETION.’’ EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS 177

5 ACID–BASE EQUILIBRIA AND ACTIVITY 179

5.1 Acids and Bases / 179

5.2 Weak Acids and Weak Bases / 186

5.3 Water and Kw / 190

5.4 Acid Strength / 196

5.5 The Concept of Activity / 199

5.6 Acid–Base Equilibrium Calculations / 212

Practice Exercises / 218

6 BUFFER SOLUTIONS AND POLYPROTIC ACIDS 221

6.1 Buffer Solutions / 221

6.2 Alpha Fraction Plots / 226

6.3 Weak Acid Titration Curve / 230

6.4 Polyprotic Acids / 233

Practice Exercises / 242

7 COMPLEXATION AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA 245

7.1 Complex Terminology / 246

7.2 Complex Equilibria / 249

7.3 Competing Equilibria / 256

7.4 Stepwise Complexation / 263

7.5 Precipitate Equilibrium / 267

7.6 Molar Solubility / 275

7.7 Precipitation and Competing Equilibria / 282

Practice Exercises / 287

III INSTRUMENTAL METHODS AND ANALYTICAL SEPARATIONS 293

8 ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 295

8.1 Introduction / 295

8.2 Standard Reduction Potentials / 298

8.3 Using Half Reactions / 302

8.4 Background on Spontaneous Reactions and Equilibrium / 308

8.5 Reaction Energies, Voltages, and the Nernst Equation / 311

8.6 Electrochemical Cells / 314

8.7 Potentiometry / 319

8.8 Ion-Selective Electrodes (ISE) / 322

8.9 Voltammetry / 328

Practice Exercises / 336

9 ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY 340

9.1 Atomization / 342

9.2 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) / 346

9.3 Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES) / 354

9.4 Introduction to Mass Spectrometry (MS) / 357

9.5 ICP-MS Measurements / 361

9.6 Summary / 362

Practice Exercises / 364

10 ANALYTICAL SEPARATIONS 367

10.1 Thin-Layer Chromatography / 368

10.2 Chromatogram Terminology / 372

10.3 Column Selection / 375

10.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography / 380

10.5 Gas Chromatography / 388

10.6 Molecular Mass Spectrometry / 390

10.7 Electrophoresis / 398

Practice Exercises / 402

INDEX 407

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